lawsonia bacteria

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria causing a proliferative enteritis in animals, especially pigs, deer, horses, and rabbits.

Top Publications

  1. Guedes R, Winkelman N, Gebhart C. Relationship between the severity of porcine proliferative enteropathy and the infectious dose of Lawsonia intracellularis. Vet Rec. 2003;153:432-3 pubmed
  2. Boesen H, Jensen T, Møller K, Nielsen L, Jungersen G. Evaluation of a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy. Vet Microbiol. 2005;109:105-12 pubmed
    ..intracellularis. It may be usable for diagnosis of proliferative enteropathy and for determination of a herd's epidemiologic status...
  3. Pusterla N, Wattanaphansak S, Mapes S, Collier J, Hill J, DiFrancesco M, et al. Oral infection of weanling foals with an equine isolate of Lawsonia intracellularis, agent of equine proliferative enteropathy. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:622-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) is an emerging disease of weanling foals...
  4. Jacobson M, Fellström C, Jensen Waern M. Porcine proliferative enteropathy: an important disease with questions remaining to be solved. Vet J. 2010;184:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the development of effective measures to prevent the spread of the infection, increased knowledge of the transmission and persistence of the microorganism are crucial...
  5. Kroll J, Roof M, McOrist S. Evaluation of protective immunity in pigs following oral administration of an avirulent live vaccine of Lawsonia intracellularis. Am J Vet Res. 2004;65:559-65 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered avirulent live vaccine to protect pigs against challenge exposure with virulent Lawsonia intracellularis...
  6. McCluskey J, Hannigan J, Harris J, Wren B, Smith D. LsaA, an antigen involved in cell attachment and invasion, is expressed by Lawsonia intracellularis during infection in vitro and in vivo. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2899-907 pubmed
    ..intracellularis attachment to and entry into intestinal epithelial cells ..
  7. Vannucci F, Pusterla N, Mapes S, Gebhart C. Evidence of host adaptation in Lawsonia intracellularis infections. Vet Res. 2012;43:53 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the susceptibilities of pigs and horses to L. intracellularis infection using either a porcine or an equine isolate...
  8. Smith D, Lawson G. Lawsonia intracellularis: getting inside the pathogenesis of proliferative enteropathy. Vet Microbiol. 2001;82:331-45 pubmed
  9. Wattanaphansak S, Asawakarn T, Gebhart C, Deen J. Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20:170-7 pubmed
    ..intracellularis. Based on the validation results, So-ELISA could be used as an alternative serology for proliferative enteropathy diagnosis...

More Information

Publications68

  1. Collins A, Love R. Re-challenge of pigs following recovery from proliferative enteropathy. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:381-6 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that pigs previously challenged with L. intracellularis were protected from re-colonization and clinical disease on subsequent exposure 10 weeks later, regardless of the initial dose of L. intracellularis...
  2. La T, Collins A, Phillips N, Oksa A, Hampson D. Development of a multiplex-PCR for rapid detection of the enteric pathogens Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli in porcine faeces. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;42:284-8 pubmed
    ..To develop an assay to simultaneously detect Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli in pig faeces...
  3. Oh Y, Lee J, McOrist S. Microarray analysis of differential expression of cell cycle and cell differentiation genes in cells infected with Lawsonia intracellularis. Vet J. 2010;184:340-5 pubmed publisher
  4. Alberdi M, Watson E, McAllister G, Harris J, Paxton E, Thomson J, et al. Expression by Lawsonia intracellularis of type III secretion system components during infection. Vet Microbiol. 2009;139:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..By analogy to other bacteria, this T3SS may be crucial for intracellular development and is likely to play a significant role in the virulence of this unusual pathogen...
  5. Lafortune M, Wellehan J, Jacobson E, Troutman J, Gebhart C, Thompson M. Proliferative enteritis associated with Lawsonia intracellularis in a Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2004;35:549-52 pubmed
    ..Given the fact that very specific tests are required for identifying this organism, L. intracellularis may be underdiagnosed in nonhuman primates...
  6. Stege H, Jensen T, Møller K, Vestergaard K, Baekbo P, Jorsal S. Infection dynamics of Lawsonia intracellularis in pig herds. Vet Microbiol. 2004;104:197-206 pubmed
    ..Once sero-converted, 92% of the pigs remained sero-positive over the entire survey period...
  7. Lindecrona R, Jensen T, Andersen P, Møller K. Application of a 5' nuclease assay for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in fecal samples from pigs. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:984-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the 5' nuclease assay that has been developed represents an applicable fast method for detection of L. intracellularis in fecal samples, with a sensitivity and specificity comparable to those of IM...
  8. Guedes R, Gebhart C. Preparation and characterization of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:438-46 pubmed
    ..Both the 2001 MAb and 1999 PAb reacted with a pure culture of L. intracellularis but not with any other common enteric pathogens. These two new antibodies will be useful for immunodiagnosis of L. intracellularis...
  9. MacIntyre N, Smith D, Shaw D, Thomson J, Rhind S. Immunopathogenesis of experimentally induced proliferative enteropathy in pigs. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:421-32 pubmed
  10. Vannucci F, Borges E, de Oliveira J, Guedes R. Intestinal absorption and histomorphometry of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis. Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellularis. Therefore, malabsorption should be considered as the main mechanism involved in the physiopathology of the diarrhea in L. intracellularis infected animals...
  11. Jensen T, Vigre H, Svensmark B, Bille Hansen V. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. J Comp Pathol. 2006;135:176-82 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrated that PCV2 enteritis should be borne in mind in the differential diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection in pigs aged 2-4 months with a clinical history of diarrhoea...
  12. McOrist S, Gebhart C, Bosworth B. Evaluation of porcine ileum models of enterocyte infection by Lawsonia intracellularis. Can J Vet Res. 2006;70:155-9 pubmed
    ..A proliferative response may require active division of crypt cells and differentiation in conjunction with L. intracellularis growth...
  13. Wattanaphansak S, Gebhart C, Olin M, Deen J. Measurement of the viability of Lawsonia intracellularis. Can J Vet Res. 2005;69:265-71 pubmed
    ..The CCC showed almost perfect agreement (r = 0.9898). With a specific fluorescent probe, the FCM is useful and as good as the DCM for determining LI viability...
  14. Vannucci F, Foster D, Gebhart C. Comparative transcriptional analysis of homologous pathogenic and non-pathogenic Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in infected porcine cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46708 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support our hypothesis and provide the basis for prospective mechanistic studies regarding specific roles of target genes involved in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and control of proliferative enteropathy...
  15. Pusterla N, Jackson R, Wilson R, Collier J, Mapes S, Gebhart C. Temporal detection of Lawsonia intracellularis using serology and real-time PCR in Thoroughbred horses residing on a farm endemic for equine proliferative enteropathy. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:173-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The serological results showed that mares residing on a farm known to be endemic for EPE are routinely exposed to L. intracellularis and that antibodies against L. intracellularis are passively transferred to foals...
  16. Guedes R, Gebhart C, Deen J, Winkelman N. Validation of an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay as a serologic test for porcine proliferative enteropathy. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002;14:528-30 pubmed
    ..The IPMA serologic test with the cutoff point of 1:30 showed specificity of 100% and sensitivity close to 90% and, therefore, is an appropriate diagnostic test for herd screening but not for diagnosing PPE on the individual level...
  17. McOrist S. Defining the full costs of endemic porcine proliferative enteropathy. Vet J. 2005;170:8-9 pubmed
  18. Jacobson M, Andersson M, Lindberg R, Fossum C, Jensen Waern M. Microarray and cytokine analyses of field cases of pigs with diarrhoea. Vet Microbiol. 2011;153:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellularis. However, the gene encoding for insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) was up-regulated in two pigs with prominent mucosal proliferation...
  19. Boutrup T, Boesen H, Boye M, Agerholm J, Jensen T. Early pathogenesis in porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. J Comp Pathol. 2010;143:101-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Collins A, Fell S, Pearson H, Toribio J. Colonisation and shedding of Lawsonia intracellularis in experimentally inoculated rodents and in wild rodents on pig farms. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:384-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that rodents may be an important reservoir of L. intracellularis on piggeries, and hence rodent control is important in disease eradication programs on pig farms...
  21. Drozd M, Kassem I, Gebreyes W, Rajashekara G. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:265-9 pubmed
  22. Suh D, Lym S, Bae Y, Lee K, Choi W, Song J. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in diagnostic specimens by one-step PCR. J Vet Sci. 2000;1:33-7 pubmed
    ..Of 17 mucosal scraping specimens, 16 (94%) were identified as positive to PPE and 15 (88%) of 17 feces specimens. These results suggest that the one step PCR can be used as a rapid diagnostic method for L. intracellularis infection...
  23. Stahl M, Kokotovic B, Hjulsager C, Breum S, Angen Ø. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Vet Microbiol. 2011;151:307-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The parallel simultaneous analysis for several bacteria in multi-qPCR and the determination of the quantities of the infectious agents increases the information obtained from the samples and the chance for obtaining a relevant diagnosis...
  24. Wattanaphansak S, Singer R, Gebhart C. In vitro antimicrobial activity against 10 North American and European Lawsonia intracellularis isolates. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:305-10 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellularis isolate had a different antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and these data can be utilized as an in vitro guideline for the further antimicrobial evaluation of field L. intracellularis isolates...
  25. Riber U, Boesen H, Jakobsen J, Nguyen L, Jungersen G. Co-incubation with IL-18 potentiates antigen-specific IFN-? response in a whole-blood stimulation assay for measurement of cell-mediated immune responses in pigs experimentally infected with Lawsonia intracellularis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;139:257-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The highest IFN-? production was by CD4(+)CD8(+) cells while a more numerous population of CD4(-)CD8(+) cells produced lower amounts of IFN-? in response to rIL-18 and L. intracellularis Ag...
  26. McGurrin M, Vengust M, Arroyo L, Baird J. An outbreak of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a standardbred herd in Ontario. Can Vet J. 2007;48:927-30 pubmed
    ..Wildlife exposure may have been involved in the perpetuation of disease in this outbreak. The clinical presentation, treatment, outcomes, and pathological findings are described...
  27. Smith D, Mitchell S, Nash T, Rhind S. Gamma interferon influences intestinal epithelial hyperplasia caused by Lawsonia intracellularis infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6737-43 pubmed
  28. Jacobson M, Aspan A, Königsson M, Segerstad C, Wallgren P, Fellström C, et al. Routine diagnostics of Lawsonia intracellularis performed by PCR, serological and post mortem examination, with special emphasis on sample preparation methods for PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:189-201 pubmed
    ..To determine the presence of the bacteria in a herd, serology or repeated faecal sampling for PCR from target animals, or both, should be used...
  29. Guedes R, Gebhart C. Onset and duration of fecal shedding, cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in pigs after challenge with a pathogenic isolate or attenuated vaccine strain of Lawsonia intracellularis. Vet Microbiol. 2003;91:135-45 pubmed
    ..In summary, both pathogenic isolate challenged and vaccine exposed pigs demonstrated long-term shedding of and immune responses to L. intracellularis...
  30. Guedes R, Gebhart C. Comparison of intestinal mucosa homogenate and pure culture of the homologous Lawsonia intracellularis isolate in reproducing proliferative enteropathy in swine. Vet Microbiol. 2003;93:159-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the L. intracellularis isolate PHE/MN1-00 reproduces typical clinical signs and lesions of PE similar to the homologous infection with an intestinal mucosa homogenate...
  31. Mølbak L, Johnsen K, Boye M, Jensen T, Johansen M, Møller K, et al. The microbiota of pigs influenced by diet texture and severity of Lawsonia intracellularis infection. Vet Microbiol. 2008;128:96-107 pubmed
    ..The five pigs with highest L. intracellularis content showed T-RFs that were not present in profiles from less or non-infected pigs, which may indicate that some bacterial species were associated with L. intracellularis infection...
  32. Jacobson M, Aspan A, Nordengrahn A, Lindberg M, Wallgren P. Monitoring of Lawsonia intracellularis in breeding herd gilts. Vet Microbiol. 2010;142:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the health status of the recipient herds should be known...
  33. Wattanaphansak S, Gebhart C, Anderson J, Singer R. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay for quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:598-602 pubmed
    ..intracellularis. The new qPCR assay might prove to be a sensitive, specific, precise, and accurate method for the detection and quantification of L. intracellularis in field samples...
  34. Corzo C, Friendship R, Dewey C, Blackwell T. Comparison of 2 serologic tests for the diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy. Can Vet J. 2005;46:433-5 pubmed
    ..Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) was used to measure agreement. The tests tend to show better agreement when used at the herd level...
  35. Pusterla N, Mapes S, Rejmanek D, Gebhart C. Detection of Lawsonia intracellularis by real-time PCR in the feces of free-living animals from equine farms with documented occurrence of equine proliferative enteropathy. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:992-8 pubmed
    ..Because the fecal samples were collected at equine farms with confirmed cases of EPE, striped skunks, Virginian opossums, jackrabbits, and coyotes may act as potential sources of infection to susceptible weanlings...
  36. Frazer M. Lawsonia intracellularis infection in horses: 2005-2007. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Lawsonia intracellularis is an emerging equine pathogen that is a cause of equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE)...
  37. Vannucci F, Wattanaphansak S, Gebhart C. An alternative method for cultivation of Lawsonia intracellularis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1070-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The flexibility of this protocol allows the testing of various environmental conditions for static cultivation of this bacterium and the development of diagnostic techniques...
  38. Guedes R, Gebhart C, Winkelman N, Mackie Nuss R. A comparative study of an indirect fluorescent antibody test and an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay for the diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002;14:420-3 pubmed
    ..The serology results with each method agreed in all samples, except on days 0 and 7 in 1 control animal, which was positive by IPMA, but negative by IFAT. The percentage of agreement between IFAT and IPMA was 98.6%...
  39. Dittmar M, Hoelzle L, Hoelzle K, Sydler T, Corboz L, Miserez R, et al. Diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy: detection of Lawsonia intracellularis by pathological examinations, polymerase chain reaction and cell culture inoculation. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2003;50:332-8 pubmed
    ..Except for occasional specific PCR amplifications from cell cultures up to the second passage, any indications for growth of L. intracellularis in IEC-18 cells were not found...
  40. Brandt D, Kaim U, Baumgartner W, Wendt M. Evaluation of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a group of pigs in a subclinically affected herd from weaning to slaughter. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although intestinal alterations disappeared after 3-4 weeks, L. intracellularis was detected by IHC for a longer time, especially in intestinal lymph nodes...
  41. Watarai M, Yamato Y, Horiuchi N, Kim S, Omata Y, Shirahata T, et al. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Lawsonia intracellularis in rabbits with proliferative enteropathy. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:735-7 pubmed
    ..intracellularis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These results suggest that ELISA used synthetic peptides in LsaA and anti-LsaA serum might be useful to diagnose for proliferative enteropathy...
  42. Boesen H, Jensen T, Schmidt A, Jensen B, Jensen S, Møller K. The influence of diet on Lawsonia intracellularis colonization in pigs upon experimental challenge. Vet Microbiol. 2004;103:35-45 pubmed
    ..The growth performance was reduced in pigs experimentally challenged with L. intracellularis, however the prevalence and severity of diarrhea was limited...
  43. Jensen T, Vigre H, Sørensen V, Møller K. Naturally acquired Lawsonia intracellularis infection in pigs studied from weaning to slaughter by indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and polymerase chain reaction on faeces. Res Vet Sci. 2005;79:93-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, applied at the time of slaughter the antibody test appeared to be a highly sensitive ante-mortem diagnostic tool for identifying L. intracellularis exposed pigs with or without current proliferative enteropathy...
  44. McOrist S, Smits R. Field evaluation of an oral attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis vaccine for porcine proliferative enteropathy (ileitis). Vet Rec. 2007;161:26-8 pubmed
  45. Guimarães Ladeira C, Palhares M, Oliveira J, Ramirez M, Guedes R. Faecal shedding and serological cross-sectional study of Lawsonia intracellularis in horses in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Equine Vet J. 2009;41:593-6 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of the disease in horses worldwide is unknown...
  46. Guedes R, Gebhart C. Evidence of cell-mediated immune response and specific local mucosal immunoglobulin (Ig) A production against Lawsonia intracellularis in experimentally infected swine. Can J Vet Res. 2010;74:97-101 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, specific local intestinal humoral and weak cell-mediated immune responses can be detected in pigs experimentally infected with L. intracellularis...
  47. Nathues H, Holthaus K, Grosse Beilage E. Quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine faeces by real-time PCR. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;107:2009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..To develop and to validate a method for the quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis in porcine faeces by real-time PCR...
  48. Vannucci F, Beckler D, Pusterla N, Mapes S, Gebhart C. Attenuation of virulence of Lawsonia intracellularis after in vitro passages and its effects on the experimental reproduction of porcine proliferative enteropathy. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellularis between 20 and 40 cell passages in vitro. This information will be valuable for design of future experimental models and for studying the mechanisms involved in the attenuation of L. intracellularis virulence...
  49. Boesen H, Jensen T, Jungersen G, Riber U, Boye M, Møller K. Development, characterization and diagnostic application of a monoclonal antibody specific for a proteinase K resistant Lawsonia intracellularis antigen. Vet Microbiol. 2005;105:199-206 pubmed
    ..The new mAb was tested highly specific for L. intracellularis by applying in situ hybridization with a L. intracellularis specific probe targeting 16S ribosomal RNA simultaneously with the IFAT...
  50. Kroll J, Roof M, Hoffman L, Dickson J, Harris D. Proliferative enteropathy: a global enteric disease of pigs caused by Lawsonia intracellularis. Anim Health Res Rev. 2005;6:173-97 pubmed
    ..The determinations of immunological responsiveness in pigs to virulent and attenuated isolates of L. intracellularis and identification of various immunogens have led to progress in vaccine development...
  51. Pedersen K, Pedersen K, Hjulsager C, Larsen L, Stahl M, Stege H, et al. Within-day repeatability for absolute quantification of Lawsonia intracellularis bacteria in feces from growing pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:968-70 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellularis by qPCR has acceptable repeatability within 1 day. However, a population-specific proportion of pigs alternating between positive and negative test results must be expected...
  52. Guedes R, Gebhart C, Armbruster G, Roggow B. Serologic follow-up of a repopulated swine herd after an outbreak of proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy. Can J Vet Res. 2002;66:258-63 pubmed
    ..Some nursery pigs started shedding L. intracellularis around 7 wk of age; peak shedding was observed between 13 and 16 wk. Antibody was not detected until 16 wk of age and was more often detected between 19 and 22 wk...
  53. Go Y, Lee J, Ye J, Lee J, Park S, Song C, et al. Experimental reproduction of proliferative enteropathy and the role of IFN-gamma in protective immunity against Lawsonia intracellularis in mice. J Vet Sci. 2005;6:357-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicated that the IFN-gamma produced in the infected mice should have been utilized by it's receptor to elicit protective immune responses against L. intracellularis infections...
  54. Vannucci F, Foster D, Gebhart C. Laser microdissection coupled with RNA-seq analysis of porcine enterocytes infected with an obligate intracellular pathogen (Lawsonia intracellularis). BMC Genomics. 2013;14:421 pubmed publisher
    ..We used laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA-seq technology to characterize the transcriptional responses of infected enterocytes and the host-pathogen interaction...
  55. Murakata K, Sato A, Yoshiya M, Kim S, Watarai M, Omata Y, et al. Infection of different strains of mice with Lawsonia intracellularis derived from rabbit or porcine proliferative enteropathy. J Comp Pathol. 2008;139:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..intracellularis infection. Moreover, the susceptibility of BALB/cA mice to RLI but not to PLI suggests that there are significant biological differences between L. intracellularis isolates from rabbit PE and porcine PE...
  56. Schmitz Esser S, Haferkamp I, Knab S, Penz T, Ast M, Kohl C, et al. Lawsonia intracellularis contains a gene encoding a functional rickettsia-like ATP/ADP translocase for host exploitation. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:5746-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of an ATP/ADP translocase in L. intracellularis is explained by a relatively recent horizontal gene transfer event with rickettsiae as donors...
  57. Riber U, Cordes H, Boutrup T, Jensen T, Heegaard P, Jungersen G. Primary infection protects pigs against re-infection with Lawsonia intracellularis in experimental challenge studies. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The acute phase protein responses reflected both the observed protection against L. intracellularis infection upon secondary challenge and that increased resistance to the infection develops with age...
  58. Kroll J, Eichmeyer M, Schaeffer M, McOrist S, Harris D, Roof M. Lipopolysaccharide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for experimental use in detection of antibodies to Lawsonia intracellularis in pigs. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:693-9 pubmed
    ..The LPS ELISA may be used as a tool to support future research trials on vaccine efficacy and to further understand the immune response induced by L. intracellularis...
  59. Richter B, Ladinig A, Nedorost N, Weissenbock H. A TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in fecal and tissue samples from pigs. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:70-3 pubmed
    ..A decreased signal from this internal control plasmid revealed inhibition of the PCR reaction in 21% of native mucosal samples and 1.6% of fecal samples. With a 10-fold dilution of template, the inhibition could be overcome...