streptococcus intermedius

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.

Top Publications

  1. Vajramani G, Akrawi H, Jones G, Sparrow O. Primary ventriculitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Br J Neurosurg. 2007;21:293-6 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus intermedius is increasingly being recognised as an aetiological agent in central nervous system infections. Primary ventriculitis caused by this organism has not been reported so far...
  2. Tran M, Caldwell McMillan M, Khalife W, Young V. Streptococcus intermedius causing infective endocarditis and abscesses: a report of three cases and review of the literature. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:154 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group. Clinical disease with S. intermedius is characterized by abscess formation and rarely endocarditis...
  3. Haruta I, Kikuchi K, Hashimoto E, Kato H, Hirota K, Kobayashi M, et al. A possible role of histone-like DNA-binding protein of Streptococcus intermedius in the pathogenesis of bile duct damage in primary biliary cirrhosis. Clin Immunol. 2008;127:245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The IgM class Streptococcus intermedius titers were significantly higher in PBC than chronic hepatitis due to hepatitis C virus (CH-C) and ..
  4. Nur A, Hirota K, Yumoto H, Hirao K, Liu D, Takahashi K, et al. Effects of extracellular DNA and DNA-binding protein on the development of a Streptococcus intermedius biofilm. J Appl Microbiol. 2013;115:260-70 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of homologous and heterologous extracellular DNAs (eDNAs) and histone-like DNA-binding protein (HLP) on Streptococcus intermedius biofilm development and rigidity.
  5. Takao A, Nagamune H, Maeda N. Identification of the anginosus group within the genus Streptococcus using polymerase chain reaction. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:83-9 pubmed
    ..primers for the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of Streptococcus anginosus, the hyaluronate lyase genes both of Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. constellatus, and the intermedilysin (ily) gene of S. intermedius...
  6. Ahmed N, Petersen F, Scheie A. AI-2/LuxS is involved in increased biofilm formation by Streptococcus intermedius in the presence of antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4258-63 pubmed publisher
    ..involve persistent biofilms resilient to antibiotic treatment, we explored the role of AI-2/LuxS in Streptococcus intermedius biofilm formation and cell viability when the organism was exposed to sub-MICs of ampicillin, ..
  7. Takao A, Nagamune H, Maeda N. Sialidase of Streptococcus intermedius: a putative virulence factor modifying sugar chains. Microbiol Immunol. 2010;54:584-95 pubmed publisher
    A sialidase gene of Streptococcus intermedius was cloned. It was most similar to nanA, a major sialidase gene in Streptococcus pneumoniae, and was expressed in Escherichia coli. Since the gene-knockout S...
  8. Yamaguchi T, Matsumoto M, Sugimoto Y, Soutome S, Oho T. Gene cloning and characterization of Streptococcus intermedius fimbriae involved in saliva-mediated aggregation. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:809-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius, an oral commensal and a cause of systemic pyogenic disease, expresses fimbriae...
  9. Wagner K, Schön R, Schumacher M, Schmelzeisen R, Schulze D. Case report: brain and liver abscesses caused by oral infection with Streptococcus intermedius. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;102:e21-3 pubmed
    ..An oral examination comprised an oral focus of infection. Streptococcus intermedius was isolated from oral smear, liver and ventricular drainage, and blood sample...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Pecharki D, Petersen F, Scheie A. LuxS and expression of virulence factors in Streptococcus intermedius. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:79-83 pubmed publisher
    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is used by several bacteria in quorum-sensing signaling and is a product of LuxS. The aim was to investigate the effect of LuxS mutation on expression of Streptococcus intermedius virulence factors.
  2. Busscher H, van de Belt Gritter B, Dijkstra R, Norde W, van der Mei H. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius adhesion to fibronectin films are oppositely influenced by ionic strength. Langmuir. 2008;24:10968-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Streptococcus mutans LT11 and Streptococcus intermedius NCTC11324 both possess antigen I/II with the ability to bind fibronectin from solution, but S...
  3. Ahmed N, Petersen F, Scheie A. Biofilm formation and autoinducer-2 signaling in Streptococcus intermedius: role of thermal and pH factors. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2008;23:492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The AI-2 signal is thought to mediate communication among and within bacterial species. Streptococcus intermedius is a commensal organism frequently associated with periodontitis and purulent infections...
  4. Pecharki D, Petersen F, Assev S, Scheie A. Involvement of antigen I/II surface proteins in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius biofilm formation. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005;20:366-71 pubmed
    Dental diseases are caused by microorganisms organized in biofilms. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus intermedius are commensals of the human oral cavity. S. mutans is associated with caries, whereas S...
  5. Sukeno A, Nagamune H, Whiley R, Jafar S, Aduse Opoku J, Ohkura K, et al. Intermedilysin is essential for the invasion of hepatoma HepG2 cells by Streptococcus intermedius. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49:681-94 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus intermedius causes endogenous infections leading to abscesses. This species produces intermedilysin (ILY), a human-specific cytolysin. Because of the significant correlation between higher ILY production levels by S...
  6. Cunha B, D Elia A, Pawar N, Schoch P. Viridans streptococcal (Streptococcus intermedius) mitral valve subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) in a patient with mitral valve prolapse after a dental procedure: the importance of antibiotic prophylaxis. Heart Lung. 2010;39:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the S. anginosus group. S...
  7. Saito N, Hida A, Koide Y, Ooka T, Ichikawa Y, Shimizu J, et al. Culture-negative brain abscess with Streptococcus intermedius infection with diagnosis established by direct nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16s ribosomal RNA gene. Intern Med. 2012;51:211-6 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene from the specimens identified Streptococcus intermedius. Given this result, S...
  8. Bhatia N, Farrell J, Sampath R, Ranken R, Rounds M, Ecker D, et al. Identification of Streptococcus intermedius central nervous system infection by use of PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:4160-2 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR/ESI-MS detected Streptococcus intermedius, a common cause of brain abscesses, in both CSF samples as well as in the fixed tissue from the biopsy...
  9. Pecharki D, Petersen F, Scheie A. Role of hyaluronidase in Streptococcus intermedius biofilm. Microbiology. 2008;154:932-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius is found in biofilms on teeth and as a commensal member of the gastrointestinal and urinary floras, but may also be associated with deep-seated purulent infections and infective endocarditis. S...
  10. Petersen F, Pecharki D, Scheie A. Biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius favored by a competence-stimulating signaling peptide. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6327-31 pubmed
    ..We show here that a synthetic CSP favored the biofilm mode of growth of Streptococcus intermedius without affecting the rate of culture growth.
  11. Nagata E, de Toledo A, Oho T. Invasion of human aortic endothelial cells by oral viridans group streptococci and induction of inflammatory cytokine production. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2011;26:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that oral streptococci may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
  12. Sakkas N, Schoen R, Schmelzeisen R. Orbital abscess after extraction of a maxillary wisdom tooth. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2007;45:245-6 pubmed
    ..A 21-year-old patient with orbital abscess and vision loss left after wisdom-tooth extraction is presented. ..
  13. Adriaens L, Alessandri R, Sporri S, Lang N, Persson G. Does pregnancy have an impact on the subgingival microbiota?. J Periodontol. 2009;80:72-81 pubmed
    ..We investigated clinical and subgingival microbiologic changes during pregnancy in 20 consecutive pregnant women > or =18 years not receiving dental care...
  14. Calderaro D, Gualandro D, Yu P, Marques A, Puig L, Caramelli B. Spondylodiscitis and infectious endocarditis: a round-trip to be considered. Braz J Infect Dis. 2008;12:544-5 pubmed
    ..A 70-year-old man, with an established diagnosis of mitral valve endocarditis caused by Streptococcus intermedius, early submitted to surgical treatment because of heart failure, who had an uneventful recovery up to ..
  15. Weaver E, Nguyen X, Brooks M. Descending necrotising mediastinitis: two case reports and review of the literature. Eur Respir Rev. 2010;19:141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may play an auxiliary role. We present two recent cases with characteristic imaging findings, and review the relevant literature...
  16. Juárez Escalona I, Díaz Carandell A, Aboul Hons Centenero S, Monner Diéguez A, Marí Roig A, Arranz Obispo C, et al. Lemierre Syndrome associated with dental infections. Report of one case and review of the literature. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E394-6 pubmed
    ..We present a case report of Lemierre Syndrome associated to an odonthogenic infection caused by the 4.8 molar...
  17. Bannon P, McCormack R. Pott's puffy tumor and epidural abscess arising from pansinusitis. J Emerg Med. 2011;41:616-22 pubmed publisher
  18. Ohba M, Shibazaki M, Sasano T, Inoue M, Takada H, Endo Y. Platelet responses and anaphylaxis-like shock induced in mice by intravenous injection of whole cells of oral streptococci. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:26-30 pubmed
    ..Here we examined the mechanism underlying this shock. In non-primed mice, Streptococcus intermedius K-213K (SiK213) and Streptococcus constellatus T21 (ScT21) produced little or no sign of shock...
  19. Kaga A, Higo R, Yoshikawa H, Yokoi N, Haruyama T, Komatsu H, et al. A case of multiple empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2017;44:745-748 pubmed publisher
    ..sinusitis and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as subsequent epidural empyema, all caused by Streptococcus intermedius. A 38-year-old man presented with chief complaints of headache, left ear discharge, and nasal congestion...
  20. Tomoyasu T, Imaki H, Masuda S, Okamoto A, Kim H, Waite R, et al. LacR mutations are frequently observed in Streptococcus intermedius and are responsible for increased intermedilysin production and virulence. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3276-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius secretes a human-specific cytolysin, intermedilysin (ILY), which is considered to be the major virulence factor of this pathogen...
  21. Uchimuro T, Fukui T, Nakamichi T, Mihara W, Takanashi S. Coronary arterial compression caused by an aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva with aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;60:834-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The aortic root was successfully replaced and antibiotic treatment was continued for 6 weeks after surgery. ..
  22. LaBarbera M, Berkowitz M, Shah A, Slater J. Percutaneous PFO closure for the prevention of recurrent brain abscess. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006;68:957-60 pubmed
    ..Only prospective, randomized trials comparing PFO closure to conservative therapy could provide a definitive answer as to the optimal strategy for preventing recurrent cerebral abscess. ..
  23. Maeda S, Sado T, Sakurada A, Okada Y, Kondo T. Successful closure of an open-window thoracostomy wound by negative-pressure wound therapy: report of a case. Surg Today. 2012;42:295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The pleural space was reduced, and the patient was discharged home with self-administered wound care. The wound healed completely in 5 months without any need for surgical closure. ..
  24. Hanson M, Liu F, Dai S, Kearns A, Qin X, Bryda E. Rapid conditional targeted ablation model for hemolytic anemia in the rat. Physiol Genomics. 2016;48:626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..human CD59 (hCD59), a membrane receptor, and administering intermedilysin (ILY), a toxin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which binds specifically to hCD59 to induce cell lysis...
  25. Crespo Valadés E, Barberá Farré J, Ruiz de Gauna Martín E, Cabra Dueñas J. [Bacteremia, endocarditis and abscess due to Streptococcus intermedius]. An Med Interna. 2003;20:601-2 pubmed
  26. Liu D, Yumoto H, Murakami K, Hirota K, Ono T, Nagamune H, et al. The essentiality and involvement of Streptococcus intermedius histone-like DNA-binding protein in bacterial viability and normal growth. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:1268-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius histone-like DNA-binding protein (Si-HLP) is a homodimeric protein and, conserved with Escherichia coli HU, a well-documented nucleoid-associated protein (NAP). In E...
  27. Cobo F, Sampedro A, Rodriguez Granger J, Aliaga Martínez L, Navarro Marí J. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pleuro-pulmonary infection due to Streptococcus intermedius. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2018;31:146-151 pubmed
    The clinical and microbiological characteristics of pleuro-pulmonary infection (PPI) caused by Streptococcus intermedius is described, including 6 cases in the literature and 9 cases handled at the present centre...
  28. Benadjaoud Y, Klopp Dutote N, Choquet M, Brunel E, Guiheneuf R, Page C. A case of acute clival osteomyelitis in a 7-year-old boy secondary to infection of a Thornwaldt cyst. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;95:87-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It can be related to congenital anomalies. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with Streptococcus intermedius and Fusobacterium clival osteomyelitis arising from a Thornwaldt cyst situated in a fossa navicularis ..
  29. Lancaster H, Roberts A, Bedi R, Wilson M, Mullany P. Characterization of Tn916S, a Tn916-like element containing the tetracycline resistance determinant tet(S). J Bacteriol. 2004;186:4395-8 pubmed
    We have characterized a transferable tetracycline resistance (Tcr) element from a Streptococcus intermedius isolate. The gene responsible for this resistance was identified by PCR and Southern hybridization as tet(S)...
  30. Hassel B, de Souza G, Stensland M, Ivanovic J, Voie Ø, Dahlberg D. The proteome of pus from human brain abscesses: host-derived neurotoxic proteins and the cell-type diversity of CNS pus. J Neurosurg. 2017;:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, perfringolysin O, a cytotoxic protein from Streptococcus intermedius that was detected in 16 patients, did not correlate with abscess volume (r = 0.12, p = 0.66)...
  31. Heller D, Helmerhorst E, Gower A, Siqueira W, Paster B, Oppenheim F. Microbial Diversity in the Early In Vivo-Formed Dental Biofilm. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:1881-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Abundance changes over time were noted for Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius (P = 0.02), Streptococcus mitis bv. 2 (P = 0.0002), Streptococcus oralis (P = 0...
  32. Detante O, von Raison F, Brugieres P, Palfi S, Le Guerinel C, Djindjian M, et al. [Early diagnosis of bacterial brain abscesses: interest of diffusion-weighted MRI]. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2003;159:421-4 pubmed
    ..36- 0.49 x 10(-3) mm2/s). So, this new MRI technique provides an available and rapid element in the brain abscess diagnosis which often remains a complex clinical and radiological diagnosis...
  33. Olson A, Sibley C, Schmidt L, Wilcox M, Surette M, Corbett C. Development of real-time PCR assays for detection of the Streptococcus milleri group from cystic fibrosis clinical specimens by targeting the cpn60 and 16S rRNA genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1150-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel molecular methods were developed providing detection ability for SMG, an emerging opportunistic pathogen...
  34. Tomoyasu T, Tabata A, Imaki H, Tsuruno K, Miyazaki A, Sonomoto K, et al. Role of Streptococcus intermedius DnaK chaperone system in stress tolerance and pathogenicity. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2012;17:41-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius is a facultatively anaerobic, opportunistic pathogen that causes purulent infections and abscess formation...
  35. Velasco Loera N, De Alba Vazquez Y, Garrocho Rangel A, Gonzalez Amaro A, Flores Reyes H, Pozos Guillén A. Comparison of the antibacterial effect of modified 3-mix paste versus Ultrapex over anaerobic microorganisms from infected root canals of primary teeth: an in vitro study. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2012;36:239-44 pubmed
    ..The bactericidal effect of the modified 3-mix paste was superior to Ultrapex, with a statistically significant difference, against anaerobic microorganisms isolated from infected root canals of primary teeth. ..
  36. Hanna M, Das D. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma presenting with multiple Streptococcus intermedius cerebral abscesses. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2014;45 Suppl 1:18-21 pubmed publisher
  37. Benjasupattananan S, Lai C, Persson G, Pjetursson B, Lang N. Effect of a stannous fluoride dentifrice on the sulcular microbiota: a prospective cohort study in subjects with various levels of periodontal inflammation. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2005;3:263-72 pubmed
    ..RUNNING HEAD: Effect of stannous fluoride on sulcular microbiota. ..
  38. Williams J, Pearson G, Colles M. Antibacterial action of photoactivated disinfection {PAD} used on endodontic bacteria in planktonic suspension and in artificial and human root canals. J Dent. 2006;34:363-71 pubmed
    ..Four bacteria, Fusobacterium nucleatum,Peptostreptococcus micros, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus intermedius, were tested in suspension...
  39. Kaye I, Protopsaltis T. Cervical Facet Joint Infection and Associated Epidural Abscess with Streptococcus intermedius from a Dental Infection Origin A Case Report and Review. Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013). 2016;74:237-43 pubmed
    ..Of these few cases, none have described infection with Streptococcus intermedius as the pathogen...
  40. Quast M, Carr C, Hooten W. Multilevel lumbar spine infection due to poor dentition in an immunocompetent adult: a case report. J Med Case Rep. 2017;11:328 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood cultures grew pan-sensitive Streptococcus intermedius in four of four bottles within 45 hours...
  41. Mishra A, Fournier P. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S...
  42. Yamaguchi T. Human salivary aggregation in Streptococcus intermedius type g strains: relationship with IgA. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004;41:101-7 pubmed
    ..b>Streptococcus intermedius K1K aggregates in human saliva. In this study, the salivary agglutinin was identified...
  43. Harrington A, Hsia J, Mendez E, Clarridge J. A lingual abscess caused by Streptococcus intermedius. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:590-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The organism recovered by culture of drainage material collected prior to antibiotic treatment was Streptococcus intermedius, an organism recognized as flora of the oropharynx and associated with abscess formation...
  44. Wickham S, Hotze E, Farrand A, Polekhina G, Nero T, Tomlinson S, et al. Mapping the intermedilysin-human CD59 receptor interface reveals a deep correspondence with the binding site on CD59 for complement binding proteins C8alpha and C9. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..that inhibits the assembly of the terminal complement membrane attack complex (MAC) pore, whereas Streptococcus intermedius intermedilysin (ILY), a pore forming cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC), specifically binds to human ..
  45. Suntharalingam P, Cvitkovitch D. Quorum sensing in streptococcal biofilm formation. Trends Microbiol. 2005;13:3-6 pubmed
    ..Recent work, especially with bacteria that inhabit the biofilm of dental plaque, has linked CSP stimuli to other cell-density adaptations, such as biofilm formation...
  46. Gonzalez Mera L, Fernández González S, Martínez Yelamos S, Fernandez Viladrich P. [Brain abscess caused by Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius associated with bowel carcinoid tumour]. Med Clin (Barc). 2005;125:117-8 pubmed
  47. Mochizuki K, Kumada M, Suemori S, Kawakami H, Sawada A, Yamamoto T, et al. Streptococcus intermedius-associated late-onset endophthalmitis after trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C. J Glaucoma. 2009;18:79-80 pubmed publisher
    To report a woman with congenital rubella syndrome of delayed-onset, bleb-related endophthalmitis induced by Streptococcus intermedius.
  48. Sibley C, Grinwis M, Field T, Parkins M, Norgaard J, Gregson D, et al. McKay agar enables routine quantification of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group in cystic fibrosis patients. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:534-40 pubmed publisher
    ..u. ml(-1) directly from sputum. All members of the SMG were detected [Streptococcus anginosus (40.7 %), Streptococcus intermedius (34.3 %) and Streptococcus constellatus (25 %)] with an overall prevalence rate of 40...
  49. Lönn Stensrud J, Petersen F, Benneche T, Scheie A. Synthetic bromated furanone inhibits autoinducer-2-mediated communication and biofilm formation in oral streptococci. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2007;22:340-6 pubmed
    ..In some streptococci AI-2 is reported to be involved in virulence expression and biofilm formation. It has earlier been shown that the alga Delisea pulchra produces bromated furanones, which prevent bacterial colonization of the algae...
  50. Podbielski A, Spahr A, Haller B. Additive antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on common endodontic bacterial pathogens. J Endod. 2003;29:340-5 pubmed
    ..Enterococcus faecalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus intermedius) in pure cultures served as target organisms...
  51. Landrygan Bakri J, Wilson M, Williams D, Lewis M, Waddington R. Real-time monitoring of the adherence of Streptococcus anginosus group bacteria to extracellular matrix decorin and biglycan proteoglycans in biofilm formation. Res Microbiol. 2012;163:436-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Using surface plasmon resonance, adherence of the SAGs S. anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius to immobilised proteoglycan was assessed as a function of real-time biofilm formation...
  52. Siegman Igra Y, Azmon Y, Schwartz D. Milleri group streptococcus--a stepchild in the viridans family. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:2453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they have a previously unappreciated clinical niche concerning urinary tract infection. The identification of viridans streptococci to the species level is of paramount clinical significance...
  53. Armstrong D, Wright S, McVeigh C, Finch M. Infective endocarditis complicating rituximab (anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody) treatment in an SLE patient with a past history of Libman-Sacks endocarditis: a case for antibiotic prophylaxis?. Clin Rheumatol. 2006;25:583-4 pubmed
    We report a 54 year old female whose successful treatment of cerebral lupus with rituximab was complicated by the development of streptococcus intermedius, on valves damaged by Libman-Sacks endocarditis more than 20 years previously.
  54. Crespo Valadés E, Fernández Blanco J, Troya García J, Malmierca Corral M. [Primary left subphrenic abscess due to Streptococcus intermedias]. An Med Interna. 2005;22:202-3 pubmed
  55. Thibault L, Corne P, Lechiche C, Sabatier P, Jonquet O. [A very purulent lumbar puncture]. Rev Med Interne. 2005;26:594-5 pubmed
  56. Diaz M, CUELLAR J, Valencia Rey P, Fisher J. Unsuspected polymicrobial brain abscess arising from an intra-abdominal source in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. South Med J. 2010;103:842-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient underwent neurosurgical drainage of the abscess. On culture the abscess yielded methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Candida guilliermondii.
  57. Taylor M, Oh J, Kang K, Chow V. Intermedilysin release by Streptococcus intermedius: effects of various antibacterial drugs at sub-MIC levels. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243:379-84 pubmed
    Intermedilysin is a cytolytic toxin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, a pathogen of humans. In vitro studies showed that exposure of S...
  58. Kobo O, Nikola S, Geffen Y, Paul M. The pyogenic potential of the different Streptococcus anginosus group bacterial species: retrospective cohort study. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:3065-3069 pubmed publisher
    ..anginosus and S. constellatus were associated with bacteraemia with no abscess or empyema formation. These data may indicate differences in virulence mechanisms of these SAG bacteria...
  59. Okayama H, Nagata E, Ito H, Oho T, Inoue M. Experimental abscess formation caused by human dental plaque. Microbiol Immunol. 2005;49:399-405 pubmed
    ..S. anginosus was the most frequently detected organism and the most prevalent in seven abscesses, and Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus were predominant in one and three abscess samples, respectively...
  60. Liu D, Yumoto H, Hirota K, Murakami K, Takahashi K, Hirao K, et al. Histone-like DNA binding protein of Streptococcus intermedius induces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human monocytes via activation of ERK1/2 and JNK pathways. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:262-76 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus intermedius is a commensal associated with serious, deep-seated purulent infections in major organs, such as the brain and liver...
  61. Zhiyong Z, Xiufang L, Jiajie L. Thigh abscess caused by Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius: a case report. J Infect. 2007;54:e17-9 pubmed
    ..Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from puncture drainage...
  62. Jouhadi Z, Sadiki H, Hafid I, Najib J. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children]. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20:282-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group...
  63. Iskandar S, al Hasan M, Roy T, Byrd R. Streptococcus intermedius: an unusual cause of a primary empyema. Tenn Med. 2006;99:37-9 pubmed
    ..We present a patient with a primary empyema caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Relatively few studies have investigated primary empyema caused Streptococcus intermedius...
  64. Skuldbøl T, Johansen K, Dahlen G, Stoltze K, Holmstrup P. Is pre-term labour associated with periodontitis in a Danish maternity ward?. J Clin Periodontol. 2006;33:177-83 pubmed
    ..To reveal differences in periodontal status and presence of subgingival bacteria in a Scandinavian population of women with pre-term birth compared with women who delivered at term...
  65. Haruta I, Kikuchi K, Hashimoto E, Nakamura M, Miyakawa H, Hirota K, et al. Long-term bacterial exposure can trigger nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis associated with multifocal epithelial inflammation. Lab Invest. 2010;90:577-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In the livers of the Streptococcus intermedius (S.i...
  66. De La Garza Ramos M, Galan Wong L, Caffesse R, Gonzalez Salazar F, Pereyra Alférez B. Detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius in chronic periodontitis patients by multiplex PCR. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2008;21:163-7 pubmed
    A Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus intermedius in chronic periodontitis is presented...
  67. Ledezma Rasillo G, Flores Reyes H, Gonzalez Amaro A, Garrocho Rangel A, Ruiz Rodriguez M, Pozos Guillen A. Identification of cultivable microorganisms from primary teeth with necrotic pulps. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2010;34:329-33 pubmed
    ..Most of the isolate consisted of Bifidobacterium Spp2 and Streptococcus intermedius. Other less frequently encountered species were Actinomyces israelii, Bifidobacterium spp 1, Clostridium ..
  68. Rigante D, Spanu T, Nanni L, Tornesello A, Sanguinetti M, D Inzeo T, et al. Deep neck infection complicating lymphadenitis caused by Streptococcus intermedius in an immunocompetent child. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:61 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus intermedius belongs to the Streptococcus anginosus group. It is part of the normal flora of the human mouth, but it can be etiologically associated with deep-site infections.
  69. Summanen P, Rowlinson M, Wooton J, Finegold S. Evaluation of genotypic and phenotypic methods for differentiation of the members of the Anginosus group streptococci. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:1123-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The three species could not be separated with the API 20 Strep test. Streptococcus intermedius could be differentiated from the other two species by beta-galactosidase (ONPG) and beta-N-acetyl-..
  70. Nagamune H, Ohkura K, Sukeno A, Cowan G, Mitchell T, Ito W, et al. The human-specific action of intermedilysin, a homolog of streptolysin O, is dictated by domain 4 of the protein. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:677-92 pubmed
  71. Polekhina G, Giddings K, Tweten R, Parker M. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the human-specific toxin intermedilysin. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:347-9 pubmed
    Intermedilysin is a human-specific toxin from Streptococcus intermedius, which is part of normal human oral flora. The bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen with a tendency for deep-seated infection in the brain and liver...
  72. Renvert S, Pettersson T, Ohlsson O, Persson G. Bacterial profile and burden of periodontal infection in subjects with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. J Periodontol. 2006;77:1110-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the role of periodontal infection and bacterial burden as an explanatory variable to the activation of the inflammatory process leading to acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
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    ..Brain abscesses occur in 5 to 13 % of patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM), more often present in Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)...
  74. Presnell L, Maeda K, Griffin M, Axelrod D. A child with purulent pericarditis and Streptococcus intermedius in the presence of a pericardial teratoma: an unusual presentation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;147:e23-4 pubmed publisher
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    ..The authors present the case of a patient who developed an atrial flutter as the initial presentation of a hepatic abscess that imagiologically mimicked a hepatic tumour. ..
  77. Svensater G, Borgstrom M, Bowden G, Edwardsson S. The acid-tolerant microbiota associated with plaque from initial caries and healthy tooth surfaces. Caries Res. 2003;37:395-403 pubmed
    ..isolates included Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus gordinii, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius and SStreptococcus sanguis...
  78. Nakashima K, Terata R. Effect of pH modified EDTA solution to the properties of dentin. J Endod. 2005;31:47-9 pubmed
    ..The permeability of root canal disinfectants increased to similar degrees in the 3% and the 15% EDTA groups. In comparing these properties, we propose that the 3% EDTA is more useful for clinical applications...
  79. Otten J, Wiedmann Al Ahmad M, Jahnke H, Pelz K. Bacterial colonization on different suture materials--a potential risk for intraoral dentoalveolar surgery. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2005;74:627-35 pubmed
    ..For the in vitro study the sutures were incubated with Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella intermedia for 0.5 h...
  80. Hueber A, Rech J, Kallert S, Requadt C, Cavallaro A, Kalden J, et al. Paraneoplastic syndrome, infection or arthritis: Difficulties in diagnosis. Int J Clin Pract. 2006;60:1310-2 pubmed
    ..This unique case demonstrates in a dramatic way the difficulties in daily clinical practice to differentiate between paraneoplasia, infection and autoimmune disease and the potentially life-threatening consequences of their therapy...
  81. Isaacson G, Isaacson D. Pediatric epiglottitis caused by group G beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:846-7 pubmed
  82. Yamaguchi T. Purification of saliva agglutinin of Streptococcus intermedius and its association with bacterial aggregation and adherence. Arch Microbiol. 2004;181:106-11 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus intermedius strain 1208-1 cells were aggregated in the presence of saliva. The saliva agglutinin was purified by centrifugation, filtration, and gel filtration...
  83. Morita E, Narikiyo M, Yokoyama A, Yano A, Kamoi K, Yoshikawa E, et al. Predominant presence of Streptococcus anginosus in the saliva of alcoholics. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005;20:362-5 pubmed
    ..In alcoholics, however, there was an extremely high level of S. anginosus, suggesting that they, rather than healthy people and general esophageal cancer patients, have a high risk for S. anginosus infection...