streptococcus milleri group


Summary: A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.

Top Publications

  1. Ripley R, Cothren C, Moore E, Long J, Johnson J, Haenel J. Streptococcus milleri infections of the pleural space: operative management predominates. Am J Surg. 2006;192:817-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we hypothesized that patients with S milleri pleural space infections often require operative intervention as definitive treatment...
  2. Knepil G, Fabbroni G. A life-threatening complication of acute parotitis. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2008;46:328-9 pubmed
    ..Early diagnosis and aggressive therapy is necessary to reduce the incidence of mortality of this severe infection...
  3. Parkins M, Sibley C, Surette M, Rabin H. The Streptococcus milleri group--an unrecognized cause of disease in cystic fibrosis: a case series and literature review. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008;43:490-7 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa leading to speculation of polymicrobial interactions resulting in enhanced virulence. SMG deserves considerable attention as a potential pathogen within the airways of patients with CF...
  4. Kobashi Y, Mouri K, Yagi S, Obase Y, Oka M. Clinical analysis of cases of empyema due to Streptococcus milleri group. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:484-6 pubmed
    In this study we analyzed 15 cases of empyema due to Streptococcus milleri group treated between January 2000 and December 2007. The majority (87%) were men, and the mean patient age was 62 years (range 36 to 83)...
  5. Grinwis M, Sibley C, Parkins M, Eshaghurshan C, Rabin H, Surette M. Characterization of Streptococcus milleri group isolates from expectorated sputum of adult patients with cystic fibrosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:395-401 pubmed publisher
    With the recent insights into the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) as pulmonary pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), we sought to characterize 128 isolates from the sputum of adults with CF, along with 45 isolates from ..
  6. Grinwis M, Sibley C, Parkins M, Eshaghurshan C, Rabin H, Surette M. Macrolide and clindamycin resistance in Streptococcus milleri group isolates from the airways of cystic fibrosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2823-9 pubmed publisher
    Organisms belonging to the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) are known for their role in pyogenic infections but have recently been implicated as etiological agents of pulmonary exacerbation in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF)...
  7. Hidaka H, Kuriyama S, Yano H, Tsuji I, Kobayashi T. Precipitating factors in the pathogenesis of peritonsillar abscess and bacteriological significance of the Streptococcus milleri group. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacteriological culture revealed that 55 of 67 aerobic isolates were Streptococcus subspecies, with the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) as the most common (20 isolates). Twenty-three anaerobic species were isolated...
  8. Weightman N, Barnham M, Dove M. Streptococcus milleri group bacteraemia in North Yorkshire, England (1989-2000). Indian J Med Res. 2004;119 Suppl:164-7 pubmed
    Though carriage and local infection with organisms of the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) are regular in clinical practice, bacteraemia is infrequent in man...
  9. Kanamori S, Kusano N, Shinzato T, Saito A. The role of the capsule of the Streptococcus milleri group in its pathogenicity. J Infect Chemother. 2004;10:105-9 pubmed
    Study of the pathogenicity of encapsulated strains of the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) was performed by examination of the ability to cause subcutaneous abscesses in mice and by phagocytosis and phagocytic killing of human ..

More Information


  1. Coudert A, Ayari Khalfallah S, Suy P, Truy E. Microbiology and antibiotic therapy of subperiosteal orbital abscess in children with acute ethmoiditis. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;106:91-95 pubmed publisher
    ..For five years Streptococcus milleri, Staphylococcus spp and anaerobic bacteria are on the rise in acute ethmoiditis complicated by SPOA. That is why antibiotics must be adapted to these bacteria even in children under ten years old. ..
  2. Ching H, Ramsden J, Bottrill I. A unique presentation: Bezold's abscess and glomerulonephritis. Eur J Pediatr. 2006;165:569-70 pubmed
  3. Vaikjärv R, Kasenõmm P, Jaanimäe L, Kivisild A, Rööp T, Sepp E, et al. Microbiology of peritonsillar abscess in the South Estonian population. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2016;27:27787 pubmed publisher
    ..In pus samples, the most frequently found bacteria were Streptococcus spp. and bacteria from the Streptococcus milleri group. PTA patients had mixed anaerobic and aerobic microbiota both in the tissue of the tonsillar fossa and ..
  4. Friedlander R, Gonzalez R, Afridi N, Pfannl R. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 16-2003. A 58-year-old woman with left-sided weakness and a right frontal brain mass. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2125-32 pubmed
  5. Malik V, Gadepalli C, Agrawal S, Inkster C, Lobo C. An algorithm for early diagnosis of cervicofacial necrotising fasciitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;267:1169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment involves early aggressive surgical debridement/fasciotomy, intravenous antibiotics and general metabolic support in the intensive care unit. ..
  6. Mijnhout G, Klinkenberg E, Lycklama G, Linskens R, Meuwissen S. Sepsis and elevated liver enzymes in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease: think of portal vein thrombosis. Dig Liver Dis. 2004;36:296-300 pubmed
  7. Yamaguchi T, Koreeda H. Distribution and characterization of hemolytic activity by an oral anaerobe from the Streptococcus milleri group. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2004;19:132-5 pubmed
    ..Other enzymes tested showed no effects. Further, the presence of the intermedilysin gene in the portion with hemolytic activity was not identified by polymerase chain reaction. ..
  8. Al Qamachi L, Aga H, McMahon J, Leanord A, Hammersley N. Microbiology of odontogenic infections in deep neck spaces: a retrospective study. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:37-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A multi-centre randomized controlled clinical trial directly comparing initial empiric second-generation cephalosporin therapy with benzylpenicillin in non-allergic patients is justified. ..
  9. Morais L, Zanardi V, Faria A. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis and etiological definition of brain bacterial abscesses. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2007;65:1144-8 pubmed
    ..Conventional MRI, associated with DWI and MRS is effective in diagnosing bacterial abscess and promising in exploring its etiology. ..
  10. Ballardini P, Incasa E, Gamberini S, Tampieri M, Zangirolami A, Marzocchi S, et al. Not all acute lower back pain is benign--paravertebral abscess and colonic cancer. Am J Emerg Med. 2008;26:513.e3-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause was a large paravertebral abscess by Streptococcus milleri, and this was the first presenting sign of an unknown underlying colonic cancer. ..
  11. Watkins L, Pasternack M, Banks M, Kousoubris P, Rubin P. Bilateral cavernous sinus thromboses and intraorbital abscesses secondary to Streptococcus milleri. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:569-74 pubmed
    ..To report the first case of bilateral cavernous sinus thromboses and bilateral intraorbital abscesses secondary to Streptococcus milleri...
  12. Gorelik M, Sabates B, Elkbuli A, Dunne T. Ileal GIST presenting with bacteremia and liver abscess: A case report and review of literature. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018;42:261-265 pubmed publisher
    ..If a member of the Streptococcus milleri group is isolated in blood cultures, a consideration for gastrointestinal malignancy is imperative...
  13. Ishigami K, Khanna G, Samuel I, Dahmoush L, Sato Y. Gas-forming abdominal wall abscess: unusual manifestation of perforated retroperitoneal appendicitis extending through the superior lumbar triangle. Emerg Radiol. 2004;10:207-9 pubmed
    ..The applied anatomy of the lumbar triangle as a conduit of intra-abdominal and retroperitoneal processes into the abdominal wall is reviewed. ..
  14. Fihman V, Raskine L, Petitpas F, Mateo J, Kania R, Gravisse J, et al. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: 8-years' experience of microbiology. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:691-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In 152 CNF patients, Streptococcus milleri group and Prevotella species were the predominant isolates, frequently copathogens, mostly in dental CNF ..
  15. Stelzmueller I, Hoeller E, Wiesmayr S, Kafka R, Aigner F, Weiss H, et al. Severe intra-abdominal infection due to Streptococcus Milleri following adjustable gastric banding. Obes Surg. 2005;15:576-9 pubmed
    ..In patients with intra-abdominal implanted devices such as the SAGB who undergo endoscopic polypectomy, antibiotic prophylaxis should therefore be considered. ..
  16. Stelzmueller I, Pfausler B, Fille M, Dossett L, Bonatti H. Streptococcus milleri group isolates from blood cultures: consider surgical sepsis. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2009;10:259-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus milleri group bacteria (SMG) frequently are involved in purulent infections, often resulting in abscess formation with a high recurrence rate. Blood stream infections with these organisms are infrequent...
  17. Morrow B, McNatt R, Joyce L, McBride S, Morgan D, Tressler C, et al. Highly pathogenic beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections in cats from an institutionalized hoarding facility and a multi-species comparison. J Feline Med Surg. 2016;18:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific virulence factors present may be more useful in predicting the pathophysiology of BHS infections than the species of Streptococcus found in the host per se. ..
  18. Udaka T, Hiraki N, Shiomori T, Miyamoto H, Fujimura T, Inaba T, et al. Eikenella corrodens in head and neck infections. J Infect. 2007;54:343-8 pubmed
    ..corrodens can be a potential pathogen not only in immunocompromised patients but also in hosts with normal immunity. We herein study E. corrodens infections of the head and neck encountered in our department...
  19. González López J, Górgolas M, Muñiz J, Lopez Medrano F, Barnés P, Fernandez Guerrero M. Spontaneous epidural abscess: analysis of 15 cases with emphasis on diagnostic and prognostic factors. Eur J Intern Med. 2009;20:514-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The onset of spinal pain in patients with focal infections should prompt MRI of the spine, even in the absence of neurologic abnormalities or fever. ..
  20. Birnbaum D, D Journo X, Casanova D, Thomas P. Necrotizing fasciitis of the chest wall. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010;10:483-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the surgical management with a three-step procedure: antibiotherapy-debridement, vacuum-assisted closure and delayed surgical reconstruction...
  21. Sow A, Jahendran J, Toh C, Kew T. Sphenoethmoid sinusitis in a child resulting in a disastrous intracranial sequela. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91:E20-2 pubmed
    ..Morbidity from subdural empyema in children is high. Early diagnosis and treatment based on recognition that the etiology might involve the paranasal sinuses affects the overall prognosis. ..
  22. Plum A, Mortelliti A, Walsh R. Microbial flora and antibiotic resistance in odontogenic abscesses in Upstate New York. Ear Nose Throat J. 2018;97:E27-E31 pubmed
  23. Chew Y, Cheong J, Khir A, Brito Mutunayagam S, Prepageran N. Complications of chronic suppurative otitis media: a left otogenic brain abscess and a right mastoid fistula. Ear Nose Throat J. 2012;91:428, 430 pubmed
    ..We describe a rare case of bilateral chronic suppurative otitis media that caused a left temporal lobe abscess and a right mastoid fistula...
  24. Brown C, Jaffer H, Jaffer N, Burul C, McLeod R. Spinal epidural abscess -- a rare complication of inflammatory bowel disease. Can J Gastroenterol. 2008;22:177-80 pubmed
    ..Two cases of spinal epidural abscess in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are reported: one in a patient with Crohn's disease and one in a patient with ulcerative colitis after restorative proctocolectomy. ..
  25. Neher A, Arnitz R, Gstottner M, Schafer D, Kröss E, Nagl M. Antimicrobial activity of dexamethasone and its combination with N-chlorotaurine. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:615-20 pubmed publisher
    ..milleri, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus was observed after extended exposure to dexamethasone. The combined application of dexamethasone and NCT might be a promising therapeutic option, producing high efficacy with low side effects. ..
  26. Raclavsky V, Novotny R, Stary L, Navrátilová L, Zatloukal J, Jakubec P, et al. NAS agar is more suitable than McKay agar for primary culture of Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) fastidious bacteria, S. intermedius in particular. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2017;62:11-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) is a group of three streptococcal species (S. anginosus, intermedius and constellatus) that act as opportunist pathogens, among others in cystic fibrosis...
  27. Roberts S, Chan L, Eisenberg R. Idiopathic pretracheal deep neck space infection with mediastinal extension: A series of 3 cases and review of the literature. Ear Nose Throat J. 2017;96:221-224 pubmed
    ..Treatment with intravenous antibiotics and surgical drainage, particularly when mediastinitis is present, is recommended. This rare presentation warrants a thorough investigation to identify the source of infection. ..
  28. Lopez F, Santamarta E, Martinez P, Saiz Ayala A, Llorente J. Cavernous sinus thrombosis during pregnancy. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2017;44:232-236 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter was the key point to resolution the disease. ..
  29. Stelzmueller I, Aigner F, Albright J, Margreiter R, Fille M, Swenson B, et al. Group Milleri Streptococci in perianal infections. Colorectal Dis. 2010;12:e121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..First-line treatment includes surgical drainage, and antibiotic treatment may be useful in selected patients. ..
  30. Daley P, Church D, Gregson D, Elsayed S. Species-level molecular identification of invasive "Streptococcus milleri" group clinical isolates by nucleic acid sequencing in a centralized regional microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2987-8 pubmed
    ..A detailed understanding of their pathogenesis in human infection has only recently been facilitated by the use of molecular methods to study this group of organisms. ..
  31. Hassan M, Mohamed M, Kalsi P, Sinar E, Bradey N. Intramedullary pyogenic abscess in the conus medullaris. Br J Neurosurg. 2012;26:118-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary pyogenic abscess in the conus medullaris in a healthy adult has never been reported. An urgent MRI scan with contrast and prompt surgical evacuation may lead to good neurological recovery. ..
  32. Okada F, Ono A, Ando Y, Nakayama T, Ishii H, Hiramatsu K, et al. High-resolution CT findings in Streptococcus milleri pulmonary infection. Clin Radiol. 2013;68:e331-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The CT findings in patients with S. milleri consisted mainly of ground-glass opacity, bronchial wall thickening, pleural effusions, and cavities. ..
  33. Takano Y, Matsuyama H, Fujita A, Kobayashi A, Kawamura M. [A case of urgent aortic valve replacement for infective endocarditis in pregnancy]. Masui. 2003;52:1086-8 pubmed
    ..If these drugs could have been avoided, the fetus may have stayed alive. However, considering the risk of teratogenesis due to drug administration and cardiopulmonary bypass, propriety of pregnancy prolongation is controversial...
  34. Tcherveniakov P, Svennevik E, Tzafetta K, Milton R. Necrotizing fasciitis following drainage of Streptococcus milleri empyema. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2010;10:481-2 pubmed publisher
    ..He required extensive debridement with significant soft tissue loss and subsequent latissimus dorsi flap reconstruction to cover the defect. ..
  35. Hirai T, Kimura S, Mori N. Head and neck infections caused by Streptococcus milleri group: an analysis of 17 cases. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2005;32:55-8 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) is a common inhabitant of the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and can be an aggressive pathogen causing abscess formation at various sites in the body...
  36. Bancescu G, Bancescu A, Neagu A, Radu Popescu M, Barbuceanu S. Contribution towards developing a new semi-selective medium for Streptococcus anginosus group. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2009;113:1243-8 pubmed
  37. Felsenstein S, Williams B, Shingadia D, Coxon L, Riordan A, Demetriades A, et al. Clinical and microbiologic features guiding treatment recommendations for brain abscesses in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:129-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to identify factors affecting outcome to inform antibiotic recommendations...
  38. Laupland K, Ross T, Church D, Gregson D. Population-based surveillance of invasive pyogenic streptococcal infection in a large Canadian region. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2006;12:224-30 pubmed
    ..The overall annual incidence rate was 18.65/100,000 population, with isolates belonging to the Streptococcus milleri group forming the most important aetiology (incidence of 8.65/100,000 population)...
  39. Bartie K, Devine D, Wilson M, Lewis M. In vitro susceptibility of the Streptococcus milleri group to antimicrobial peptides. Int Endod J. 2008;41:586-92 pubmed publisher
    To determine the susceptibility of strains of the Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) to commercially available antimicrobial peptides.
  40. Mohammed Ali R, McGurk M. Atypical fulminating dental nfections. Dent Update. 2008;35:420-4 pubmed
    ..Aggressive management is critical for patient survival and time wasted is tissue lost...
  41. Hasegawa J, Hidaka H, Tateda M, Kudo T, Sagai S, Miyazaki M, et al. An analysis of clinical risk factors of deep neck infection. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2011;38:101-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To clarify the clinical risk factors that aggravate deep neck infection...
  42. Smith S, Ughratdar I, Macarthur D. Never go to sleep on undrained pus: a retrospective review of surgery for intraparenchymal cerebral abscess. Br J Neurosurg. 2009;23:412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Delay had an adverse affect, so operation should be as expeditious as possible whenever the differential diagnosis includes abscess, diagnosis of which may be aided by advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques...
  43. Law S, Kong Li M. Is there any difference in pyogenic liver abscess caused by Streptococcus milleri and Klebsiella spp?: retrospective analysis over a 10-year period in a regional hospital. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2013;46:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare the clinical characteristics of patients with Streptococcus milleri (SM) and Klebsiella spp. associated pyogenic liver abscess (PLA)...
  44. Oyama H, Kito A, Maki H, Hattori K, Noda T, Wada K. Inflammatory index and treatment of brain abscess. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2012;74:313-24 pubmed
    ..The source of infection tended to suggest some specific primary causative organism. It was reasonable to initiate therapy with carbapenem...
  45. Mueller A, Saldamli B, Stubinger S, Walter C, Fluckiger U, Merlo A, et al. Oral bacterial cultures in nontraumatic brain abscesses: results of a first-line study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial cultures from nontraumatic brain abscesses (BAs) frequently contain oral bacteria. We assessed bacterial cultures from BAs and oral infective sources for a bacterial match...
  46. Listernick R. A 5-year-old girl with fever, vomiting, abdominal pain. Pediatr Ann. 2006;35:11, 14, 16-7 pubmed
  47. Russell W, Taylor W, Ray G, Gravil J, Davidson S. Not just a 'simple stroke'. Acute Med. 2011;10:35-7 pubmed
    ..He was transferred for urgent craniotomy and evacuation of a Streptococcus milleri abscess. Following several weeks of neurosurgical care and antibiotics he made a near full recovery...
  48. Lefort A, Lortholary O, Casassus P, Selton Suty C, Guillevin L, Mainardi J. Comparison between adult endocarditis due to beta-hemolytic streptococci (serogroups A, B, C, and G) and Streptococcus milleri: a multicenter study in France. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2450-6 pubmed
    ..Because BHS and Sm share some physiologic and pathogenic properties, we wondered whether IE caused by these streptococci might present similarities...
  49. Harrington A, Clarridge J. Impact of identification of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis from throat cultures in an adult population. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;76:20-3 pubmed publisher
  50. Wirth K, Bowden G, Richmond D, Sheridan M, Cole M. Antibody binding to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis cell fractions. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:141-9 pubmed
    ..To determine which cell fraction(s) of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 serve as the best source of antigens recognized by salivary SIgA antibodies in infants...
  51. Farmer A, Browett K, Rusius V, Bhalerao S, Anderson M. Pyogenic liver abscess as a complication of sigmoid polypectomy. Endoscopy. 2007;39 Suppl 1:E261 pubmed
  52. Ohori S, Kimura N. [Treatment of infected aortic arch aneurysm by in situ total arch replacement with omental wrapping; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka. 2007;60:1099-102 pubmed
    ..70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for persistent high fever and blood culture demonstrated Streptococcus milleri group. Computed tomography revealed an aortic aneurysm. At the take off of the brachiocepharicartery...
  53. Ahmed R, Marrie T, Huang J. Thoracic empyema in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Med. 2006;119:877-83 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to update the incidence and natural history of empyema in patients admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)...
  54. Jochberger S, Luckner G, Mayr V, Wenzel V, Morgenthaler N, Friesenecker B, et al. Course of vasopressin and copeptin plasma concentrations in a patient with severe septic shock. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2006;34:498-500 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the decrease in arginine vasopressin and copeptin can be at least partly explained by an improvement of cardiovascular function...
  55. Neher A, Gstottner M, Scholtz A, Nagl M. Antibacterial activity of mometasone furoate. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;134:519-21 pubmed publisher
    ..To test the antibacterial properties of the topical corticoid mometasone furoate, which is used as a nasal spray...
  56. Leeuwenburgh M, Monpellier V, Vlaminckx B, Go P. Streptococcus milleri in intraabdominal abscesses in children after appendectomy: incidence and course. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intraabdominal abscesses are a common complication after appendectomy, especially in children. In this study, we describe the incidence and course of this complication in relation to the cultured pathogens found in intraabdominal abscesses...
  57. Picard C, Krug B, Boutsen Y, Delaere B, Nisolle J, Abouhamad P, et al. An uncommon case of septic cortical osteitis. Clin Nucl Med. 2007;32:624-7 pubmed
    ..Upon first consultation the plain radiographs of the right leg were normal, but control radiographs obtained 2 weeks later showed cortical and lamellar lucencies of the right tibial crest...
  58. Tang S, Faughnan M, Marcon N. Bilateral nevoid telangiectasia syndrome. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60:468-71 pubmed
  59. Nagler J, Ruebner R. Suppurative complications and upper airway obstruction in infectious mononucleosis. J Hosp Med. 2007;2:280-2 pubmed
  60. Enoch D, Gillham M, Macfarlane R, Antoun N, Sule O. A troublesome head-butt. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007;7:694 pubmed
  61. Atiq M, Ahmed U, Allana S, Chishti K. Brain abscess in children. Indian J Pediatr. 2006;73:401-4 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to look at the clinical profile of patients, predisposing conditions, microbiology and outcome of children suffering from brain abscess...
  62. Huang B, Fan M, Wang S, Han D, Chen Z, Bian Z. The inhibitory effect of magnolol from Magnolia officinalis on glucosyltransferase. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:899-905 pubmed
    ..Magnolol could be a valuable resource for the exploration of novel bioactive compounds in natural products...
  63. Cottom H, Gallagher J, Dhariwal D, Abu Serriah M. Odontogenic cervico-fascial infections: a continuing threat. J Ir Dent Assoc. 2013;59:301-7 pubmed
    ..General dental practitioners (GDPs) in primary care face the challenging decision of whether to refer patients to secondary care or to manage them in the community...
  64. Oxford L, McClay J. Complications of acute sinusitis in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:32-7 pubmed
    ..To review the demographic, microbiologic, and outcome data for children with complications of acute sinusitis...
  65. Stelzmueller I, Berger N, Wiesmayr S, Eller M, Tabarelli W, Fille M, et al. Group milleri streptococci: significant pathogens in solid organ recipients. Transpl Int. 2007;20:51-6 pubmed
    ..GMS may cause serious infections in transplant recipients which are difficult to treat. Their prevalence in transplant surgical site infections thus far may have been underestimated...
  66. Tokuyasu H, Saitoh Y, Harada T, Touge H, Kawasaki Y, Maeda R, et al. Purulent pericarditis caused by the Streptococcus milleri group: a case report and review of the literature. Intern Med. 2009;48:1073-8 pubmed
    ..Pericardiocentesis was performed; strains of the Streptococcus milleri group were detected on culture of the fluid thus obtained. Therefore, purulent pericarditis was diagnosed...
  67. Bucca K, Spencer R, Orford N, Cattigan C, Athan E, McDonald A. Early diagnosis and treatment of necrotizing fasciitis can improve survival: an observational intensive care unit cohort study. ANZ J Surg. 2013;83:365-70 pubmed publisher
  68. Edelstein P. Case 16-2003 - brain abscess. N Engl J Med. 2003;349:1004-6; author reply 1004-6 pubmed
  69. Wheatley G, Wait M, Jessen M. Infective endocarditis associated with a scorpion sting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;80:1489-90 pubmed
    ..Both patients completed a 6-week postoperative course of antibiotic therapy and are without recurrent infection...
  70. Abe Y, Ishii M, Takeuchi M, Ueshige M, Tanaka S, Akagawa Y. Effect of saliva on an antimicrobial tissue conditioner containing silver-zeolite. J Oral Rehabil. 2004;31:568-73 pubmed
    ..aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Streptococcus milleri group (S. constellatus and S. intermedius), were selected as test microorganisms...
  71. Guillet Caruba C, Cheikhelard A, Guillet M, Bille E, Descamps P, Yin L, et al. Bacteriologic epidemiology and empirical treatment of pediatric complicated appendicitis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;69:376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Although antibiotic use may be considered as an adjunct to surgical intervention of CA, the appropriate use of preoperative antibiotics is essential and must be constantly reevaluated according to the bacterial epidemiology...
  72. Lønnebakken M, Greve G, Leirgul E, Gerdts E. Brain abscess caused by paradoxical embolization in Ebstein's anomaly. Eur J Echocardiogr. 2008;9:105-6 pubmed
    ..Ebstein's anomaly can remain undiagnosed until adulthood if the right ventricle, in spite of the smaller size, is haemodynamically well functioning...
  73. Morizumi S, Kikuchi Y. [Freestyle valve for right ventricular reconstruction in Ross operation; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka. 2008;61:161-3 pubmed
    ..b>Streptococcus milleri group was isolated from his blood and infectious aortic valve postoperatively...
  74. Aron M, Manoukian J, Al Saab F. Deep neck abscess via direct bony erosion of the external ear canal. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008;37:E26-7 pubmed
  75. Stelzmueller I, Biebl M, Berger N, Eller M, Mendez J, Fille M, et al. Relevance of group Milleri streptococci in thoracic surgery: a clinical update. Am Surg. 2007;73:492-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, timely removal of pleural collection by percutaneous drainage or surgical intervention seems indicated. If surgery is required, thoracoscopic decortication may be the preferred approach...
  76. Veide N, Numminen J, Vasama J, Laranne J, Rautiainen M. [Pott's puffy tumor--a rare complication of frontal sinusitis]. Duodecim. 2012;128:94-7 pubmed
    ..The antibiotics are administered intravenously for 1 to 2 weeks and thereafter orally for at least four weeks. Paranasal sinuses must be operated, and if necessary, intracranial abscesses are treated neurosurgically...
  77. Dhariwal D, Patton D, Gregory M. Epidural spinal abscess following dental extraction--a rare and potentially fatal complication. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2003;41:56-8 pubmed
  78. Tsang K, Leung W, Chan V, Lin A, Chu C. Complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema thoracis: microbiology and predictors of adverse outcomes. Hong Kong Med J. 2007;13:178-86 pubmed
  79. Bonnet E, Arista S, Archambaud M, Boot B, Clave D, Massip P, et al. Streptococcus milleri group infection associated with digestive fistula in patients with vascular graft: report of seven cases and review. Infection. 2007;35:182-5 pubmed
    We described seven patients with Streptococcus milleri group aortic (six patients) or vena cava (one patient) graft infection secondary to a vasculo-digestive fistula...
  80. Flam F, Boijsen M, Lind F. Necrotizing fasciitis following transobturator tape treated by extensive surgery and hyperbaric oxygen. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009;20:113-5 pubmed publisher
    ..HBO therapy can oxygenate infected hypoxic tissues to help marginally viable tissues survive, reduce the inflammatory response, improve leukocyte bacterial oxidative killing capacity, and achieve infection control and healing...
  81. Sugihara E, Kido Y, Okamoto M, Koyanagi T, Niizeki T, Hirota N, et al. Clinical features of acute respiratory infections associated with the Streptococcus milleri group in the elderly. Kurume Med J. 2004;51:53-7 pubmed
    The Streptococcus milleri group are becoming increasingly recognized as important pulmonary pathogens which may lead to the development of empyema or lung abscesses...
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    ..Lemierre syndrome, previously thought to be rare, is now becoming more commonly reported. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for patient survival. ..
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