viridans streptococci


Summary: A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.

Top Publications

  1. Presterl E, Grisold A, Reichmann S, Hirschl A, Georgopoulos A, Graninger W. Viridans streptococci in endocarditis and neutropenic sepsis: biofilm formation and effects of antibiotics. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:45-50 pubmed
    ..This study examined the in vitro potency for biofilm formation of clinical VGS bloodstream isolates, and the effects of antibiotics on these biofilms...
  2. Uehara Y, Agematsu K, Kikuchi K, Matsuzaki S, Imai S, Takamoto M, et al. Secretory IgA, salivary peroxidase, and catalase-mediated microbicidal activity during hydrogen peroxide catabolism in viridans streptococci: pathogen coaggregation. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:98-107 pubmed
    b>Viridans streptococci can kill methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, several hundred viridans streptococci cells are necessary to kill 1 cfu of MRSA...
  3. Jonsson M, Swedberg G. Macrolide resistance can be transferred by conjugation from viridans streptococci to Streptococcus pyogenes. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;28:101-3 pubmed
    ..We present data indicating conjugative transfer of the mef(E) gene from viridans streptococci to the pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes...
  4. Gassas A, Grant R, Richardson S, Dupuis L, Doyle J, Allen U, et al. Predictors of viridans streptococcal shock syndrome in bacteremic children with cancer and stem-cell transplant recipients. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:1222-7 pubmed
  5. Ergin A, Eser O, Hascelik G. Erythromycin and penicillin resistance mechanisms among viridans group streptococci isolated from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases. New Microbiol. 2011;34:187-93 pubmed
    ..species distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and erythromycin-penicillin resistance mechanisms of viridans streptococci (VGS) isolates from blood cultures of adult patients with underlying diseases...
  6. Friedrichs C, Rodloff A, Chhatwal G, Schellenberger W, Eschrich K. Rapid identification of viridans streptococci by mass spectrometric discrimination. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2392-7 pubmed
    b>Viridans streptococci (VS) are responsible for several systemic diseases, such as endocarditis, abscesses, and septicemia...
  7. Zbinden A, Kohler N, Bloemberg G. recA-based PCR assay for accurate differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae from other viridans streptococci. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae were identified within the 313-bp recA fragment. We show that recA analysis is a useful tool for proper identification to species level within the S. mitis group, in particular, for pneumococci...
  8. Prabhu R, Piper K, Litzow M, Steckelberg J, Patel R. Emergence of quinolone resistance among viridans group streptococci isolated from the oropharynx of neutropenic peripheral blood stem cell transplant patients receiving quinolone antimicrobial prophylaxis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24:832-8 pubmed
    ..Quinolone-resistant viridans group streptococci are frequently found in the oropharynx of neutropenic patients after a brief (median, 8 days) exposure to gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin...
  9. Cattaneo C, Casari S, Bracchi F, Signorini L, Ravizzola G, Borlenghi E, et al. Recent increase in enterococci, viridans streptococci, Pseudomonas spp. and multiresistant strains among haematological patients, with a negative impact on outcome. Results of a 3-year surveillance study at a single institution. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..9% of MDI. A significant decrease in Staphylococcus aureus (p < 0.001) and an increase in enterococci, viridans streptococci and Pseudomonas spp. (p = 0.004) were observed during the second period...

More Information


  1. Raber Durlacher J, Laheij A, Epstein J, Epstein M, Geerligs G, Wolffe G, et al. Periodontal status and bacteremia with oral viridans streptococci and coagulase negative staphylococci in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients: a prospective observational study. Support Care Cancer. 2013;21:1621-7 pubmed publisher
    ..g., gingivitis and periodontitis) and the development of bacteremia during neutropenia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
  2. Husain E, Whitehead S, Castell A, Thomas E, Speert D. Viridans streptococci bacteremia in children with malignancy: relevance of species identification and penicillin susceptibility. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:563-6 pubmed
    Our aim was to determine the significance of species identification and penicillin susceptibility of viridans streptococci in children with malignancies...
  3. Lyytikainen O, Rautio M, Carlson P, Anttila V, Vuento R, Sarkkinen H, et al. Nosocomial bloodstream infections due to viridans streptococci in haematological and non-haematological patients: species distribution and antimicrobial resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:631-4 pubmed
    We studied the species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of viridans streptococci (VS) isolates causing nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Finnish hospitals.
  4. Tomas I, Alvarez M, Limeres J, Potel C, Medina J, Diz P. Prevalence, duration and aetiology of bacteraemia following dental extractions. Oral Dis. 2007;13:56-62 pubmed
    ..To investigate the prevalence, duration and aetiology of bacteraemia following dental extractions, analysing the factors affecting its development...
  5. Chen C, Teng L, Kaiung S, Chang T. Identification of clinically relevant viridans streptococci by an oligonucleotide array. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1515-21 pubmed
    b>Viridans streptococci (VS) are common etiologic agents of subacute infective endocarditis and are capable of causing a variety of pyogenic infections. Many species of VS are difficult to differentiate by phenotypic traits...
  6. Kiratisin P, Li L, Murray P, Fischer S. Use of housekeeping gene sequencing for species identification of viridans streptococci. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;51:297-301 pubmed
    ..the sequencing of 2 housekeeping genes, zwf and gki, to identify members of the mitis-sanguinis group of viridans streptococci to the species level, with a better discrimination compared with 16S rDNA sequencing...
  7. Reilly A, Lange B. Infections with viridans group streptococci in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;49:774-80 pubmed
    ..Routine systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis against VGS infection has not been proven effective. Current recommendations include appropriate antibiotic therapy and intensive supportive care...
  8. Shun C, Lu S, Yeh C, Chiang C, Chia J, Chen J. Glucosyltransferases of viridans streptococci are modulins of interleukin-6 induction in infective endocarditis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3261-70 pubmed
    The glucosyltransferases (GTFs) of viridans streptococci, common pathogens of infective endocarditis, are extracellular proteins that convert sucrose into exopolysaccharides and glucans...
  9. Arbique J, Poyart C, Trieu Cuot P, Quesne G, Carvalho M, Steigerwalt A, et al. Accuracy of phenotypic and genotypic testing for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4686-96 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae. Genetic tests for pneumolysin (ply) and manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (sodA) and identification tests with a commercial probe, AccuProbe Pneumococcus, do not discriminate between the new species and S. pneumoniae...
  10. Uh Y, Shin D, Jang I, Hwang G, Lee M, Yoon K, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and macrolide resistance genes of viridans group streptococci from blood cultures in Korea. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;53:1095-7 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to study the antimicrobial susceptibilities and macrolide resistance mechanisms of viridans group streptococci (VGS) in a Korean tertiary hospital...
  11. Bilavsky E, Eliahou R, Keller N, Yarden Bilavsky H, Harel L, Amir J. Effect of benzathine penicillin treatment on antibiotic susceptibility of viridans streptococci in oral flora of patients receiving secondary prophylaxis after rheumatic fever. J Infect. 2008;56:244-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the level of antibiotic resistance of viridans streptococci in the oral flora of children with a history of rheumatic fever, receiving long-term monthly intramuscular benzathine penicillin G prophylaxis.
  12. Freitas M, Castelo A, Petty G, Gomes C, Carvalho E. Viridans streptococci causing community acquired pneumonia. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:779-80 pubmed
    ..of age, presenting to the paediatric emergency room with clinical and radiological findings of pneumonia, viridans streptococci were isolated in 10/33 positive haemocultures as the only microorganism...
  13. Westling K, Julander I, Ljungman P, Heimdahl A, Thalme A, Nord C. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin of viridans group streptococci in the oral cavity of patients with haematological disease. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2004;10:899-903 pubmed
  14. Bishop C, Aanensen D, Jordan G, Kilian M, Hanage W, Spratt B. Assigning strains to bacterial species via the internet. BMC Biol. 2009;7:3 pubmed publisher
    ..As an exemplar of this approach, we have studied a group of species, the viridans streptococci, which are very difficult to assign to species using standard taxonomic procedures, and have developed a ..
  15. Han X, Kamana M, Rolston K. Viridans streptococci isolated by culture from blood of cancer patients: clinical and microbiologic analysis of 50 cases. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:160-5 pubmed
    ..mitis (P = 0.007). These results suggest that S. mitis is the most common cause of viridans streptococcal bacteremia in cancer patients and is more resistant to antibiotics than other species...
  16. Bruckner L, Gigliotti F. Viridans group streptococcal infections among children with cancer and the importance of emerging antibiotic resistance. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2006;17:153-60 pubmed
  17. Hryniewiecki T, Gzyl A, Augustynowicz E, Rawczynska Englert I. Development of broad-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) bacterial identification in diagnosis of infective endocarditis. J Heart Valve Dis. 2002;11:870-4 pubmed
    ..The study aim was to identify the value of broad-range bacterial PCR in infective endocarditis (IE) of bacterial etiology, and to determine its specificity and sensitivity...
  18. Petti S, Tarsitani G, Simonetti D Arca A. Antibacterial activity of yoghurt against viridans streptococci in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53:985-90 pubmed publisher
    ..It is not clear whether this decrease is due to the bactericidal activity of yoghurt or other mechanisms. The present study investigated the differences in susceptibility to yoghurt between several strains of viridans streptococci.
  19. Uh Y, Hwang G, Jang I, Kwon O, Kim H, Yoon K. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and macrolide resistance genes of beta-hemolytic viridans group streptococci in a tertiary Korean hospital. J Korean Med Sci. 2007;22:791-4 pubmed
    ..The resistance rates to erythromycin and clindamycin of beta-hemolytic VGS seemed to be lower than those of non-beta-hemolytic VGS in our hospital, although cMLSB phenotype carrying erm(B) was dominant in beta-hemolytic VGS...
  20. Choudhry A, Baghdadi Y, Amr M, Alzghari M, Jenkins D, Zielinski M. Pylephlebitis: a Review of 95 Cases. J Gastrointest Surg. 2016;20:656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment should be individualized to culture results and extent of thrombosis. If diagnosed early and managed appropriately, a favorable outcome is possible. ..
  21. Sepkowitz K. Treatment of patients with hematologic neoplasm, fever, and neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40 Suppl 4:S253-6 pubmed
    ..National guidelines should be applied according to the microbiological patterns and trends in drug resistance at each institution. Case studies are provided to illustrate these challenges in daily practice. ..
  22. Lockhart P, Brennan M, Kent M, Norton H, Weinrib D. Impact of amoxicillin prophylaxis on the incidence, nature, and duration of bacteremia in children after intubation and dental procedures. Circulation. 2004;109:2878-84 pubmed
    ..Amoxicillin has a significant impact on the incidence, nature, and duration of bacteremia after nasal intubation, dental restorative and cleaning procedures, and dental extractions. ..
  23. Lankipalli R, Lax K, Keane M, Toca F, Bavaria J, Milas B, et al. Images in cardiovascular medicine. Infected patent ductus arteriosus. Circulation. 2005;112:e364-5 pubmed
  24. Fujitani S, Rowlinson M, George W. Penicillin G-resistant viridans group streptococcal endocarditis and interpretation of the American Heart Association's Guidelines for the Treatment of Infective Endocarditis. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1064-6 pubmed publisher
  25. Borrás Blasco J, Nuñez Cornejo C, Gracia Perez A, Rosique Robles J, Casterá M, Viosca E, et al. Parapharyngeal abscess in a patient receiving etanercept. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:341-4 pubmed
    ..During treatment, all febrile or novel illnesses should be evaluated promptly. If clinical evaluation leads to the suspicion of tuberculosis and other infections associated with etanercept, it should be discontinued immediately. ..
  26. Knopf H, Carter K, Moshirfar M, Espandar L, Meyer J. Persistent corneal ulcer. Compr Ophthalmol Update. 2007;8:287-8 pubmed
  27. Girardi L. Mondor's disease affecting the superficial dorsal vein of the penis. Vasa. 2012;41:233-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Two possible causes have been identified: a urogenital infection and a muscular strain (strength training). The first one was probably the underlying cause, the second one triggered the disease. ..
  28. Pessi T, Karhunen V, Karjalainen P, Ylitalo A, Airaksinen J, Niemi M, et al. Bacterial signatures in thrombus aspirates of patients with myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2013;127:1219-28, e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Bacterial DNA typical for endodontic infection, mainly oral viridans streptococci, was measured in 78.2% of thrombi, and periodontal pathogens were measured in 34.7%...
  29. Esposito S, Mayer A, Krzysztofiak A, Garazzino S, Lipreri R, Galli L, et al. Infective Endocarditis in Children in Italy from 2000 to 2015. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2016;14:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Over the 15-year study period, 47 IE episodes were observed (19 males; age range, 2-17 years). Viridans Streptococci were the most common pathogens among patients with predisposing cardiac conditions and Staphylococcus ..
  30. Deng M, Wei X, Zhang W, Tang H. Mycotic aneurysm of the root of left subclavian artery associated with aortic coarctation discovered by echocardiography. Echocardiography. 2017;34:1742-1743 pubmed publisher
    ..Computed tomography reconstruction confirmed the presence of aortic coarctation and mycotic aneurysm, it also revealed an aberrant right subclavian artery...
  31. Faibis F, Mihaila L, Perna S, Lefort J, Demachy M, Le Flèche Matéos A, et al. Streptococcus sinensis: an emerging agent of infective endocarditis. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:528-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We characterized a strain of Streptococcus sinensis responsible for infective endocarditis by sequencing both the 16S rRNA and the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase genes. ..
  32. Schrag S, Farley M, Petit S, Reingold A, Weston E, Pondo T, et al. Epidemiology of Invasive Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis, 2005 to 2014. Pediatrics. 2016;138: pubmed
    ..Surveillance identified 1484 cases. GBS was most common (532) followed by E coli (368) and viridans streptococci (280). Eleven percent of cases died and 6.3% of survivors had sequelae at discharge. All-cause (2005: 0...
  33. Fok K, Chan Y, Law Y, Cheng S. Septic Carotid Endarterectomy Patch as a Result of Preoperative Tooth Extraction. Ann Vasc Surg. 2018;50:299.e1-299.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first case in the world's literature of a patient who had S. viridans carotid patch infection that may be related to his preoperative tooth extraction. ..
  34. Turgeman Y, Atar S, Reisner S. Severe mitral regurgitation due to infective endocarditis: do not miss the "hole". Isr Med Assoc J. 2004;6:181-2 pubmed
  35. Maeda Y, Goldsmith C, Coulter W, Mason C, Dooley J, Lowery C, et al. Comparasion of five gene loci (rnpB, 16S rRNA, 16S-23S rRNA, sodA and dnaJ) to aid the molecular identification of viridans-group streptococci and pneumococci. Br J Biomed Sci. 2011;68:190-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the use of rnpB sequencing for the identification of VGS to species level is a reliable and feasible option, based on a single gene target. ..
  36. Wilson R, Bhuta T, Haydon R. Multiple simultaneous complications of acute otitis media in a child diagnosed with chronic granulomatous disease: a case report. Ear Nose Throat J. 2008;87:271-2, 279 pubmed
    ..The presented case should encourage physicians to investigate the possibility of an underlying immunodeficiency when treating patients with multiple simultaneous complications of acute otitis media. ..
  37. Goldan O, Garbov Nardini G, Regev E, Orenstein A, Winkler E. Late-onset infections and granuloma formation after facial polylactic acid (New-Fill) injections in women who are heavy smokers. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2008;121:336e-338e pubmed publisher
  38. Bert F, Noussair L, Lambert Zechovsky N, Valla D. Viridans group streptococci: an underestimated cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17:929-33 pubmed
    ..VGS are an underestimated cause of SBP in patients with cirrhosis. Most isolates are susceptible to beta-lactam agents and new fluoroquinolones. ..
  39. Chee F, How C. Doctor, my dentist wants your opinion. Singapore Med J. 2013;54:11-3; quiz p.14 pubmed
    ..Patients on antiplatelet with recent coronary artery stenting should be referred to their primary cardiologist regarding the cessation of these agents before any surgery. ..
  40. Sala Pérez S, López Ramírez M, Quinteros Borgarello M, Valmaseda Castellón E, Gay Escoda C. Antibacterial suture vs silk for the surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. A randomized clinical study. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2016;21:e95-102 pubmed
    ..The greatest antibacterial effect of Monocryl Plus suture was observed after 72 hours. According to most authors, there is no doubt that this antibacterial suture can provide little safety in the control of SSI. ..
  41. Oyama H, Kito A, Maki H, Hattori K, Noda T, Wada K. Inflammatory index and treatment of brain abscess. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2012;74:313-24 pubmed
    ..The source of infection tended to suggest some specific primary causative organism. It was reasonable to initiate therapy with carbapenem...
  42. Dias T, Broeiro P. [Proceedings could be dangerous! An endocarditis clinical case]. Acta Med Port. 2007;20:87-92 pubmed
    ..In patients with Infective Endocarditis high risk, who had haemorrhoids, before transrectal proceedings antibiotic prophylaxis may be considered. ..
  43. Seppälä H, Haanperä M, Al Juhaish M, Järvinen H, Jalava J, Huovinen P. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and macrolide resistance genes of viridans group streptococci from normal flora. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2003;52:636-44 pubmed
    ..In vitro susceptibilities of 16 antimicrobials were studied for 161 viridans streptococci (on average 5.8 isolates per person) from the normal flora of 28 elderly persons...
  44. Liphaus B, Goldenstein Schainberg C, Kitamura L, Silva C. Abdominal mycotic aneurysm and cerebral embolic event associated with infective endocarditis in a patient with chronic rheumatic valvar disease. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2007;88:e7-9 pubmed
    ..We report the case of a girl with chronic rheumatic valvar heart disease who developed infective endocarditis and two complications, ischemic stroke due to cerebral embolic event and mycotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery. ..
  45. Hillman J, McDonell E, Hillman C, Zahradnik R, Soni M. Safety assessment of ProBiora3, a probiotic mouthwash: subchronic toxicity study in rats. Int J Toxicol. 2009;28:357-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these investigations reveal that the no-observed-adverse-effect level of the probiotic mouthwash is 2.16 x 10(9) colony-forming units per strain per kilogram of body weight per day, the highest dose used. ..
  46. Ramalho J, Castillo M. Case of the season: brainstem abscess. Semin Roentgenol. 2008;43:168-70 pubmed publisher
  47. Inoue T, Shinohara T, Saga T. Surgical treatment of infective endocarditis complicated by intracranial hemorrhage in a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Can J Cardiol. 2004;20:643-5 pubmed
    ..Postoperative echocardiography revealed that the left ventricular outflow gradient had decreased to 15 mmHg. Ten months after the combined operation, the patient was well and asymptomatic. ..
  48. Schneider M, Pomidor M. Cerebral Mycotic Aneurysm and Infective Endocarditis: A Case Study. J Neurosci Nurs. 2016;48:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The information in this article will help to support neurological nurses in refining care and facilitating the best possible recovery for patients who develop this condition. ..
  49. Anderegg T, Biedenbach D, Jones R. In vitro evaluation of AZD2563, a new oxazolidinone, tested against beta-haemolytic and viridans group streptococci. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;49:1019-21 pubmed
    ..5 or 1 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. AZD2563 activity screening against these non-pneumococcal streptococci indicated a slightly greater potency of AZD2563 when compared with linezolid. All AZD2563 MICs were <2 mg/L. ..
  50. Takayama Y, Okamoto R, Sunakawa K. Definite infective endocarditis: clinical and microbiological features of 155 episodes in one Japanese university hospital. J Formos Med Assoc. 2010;109:788-99 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus (MRSA)]. Thirty-nine of the 40 strains of viridans streptococci were fully susceptible to penicillin. Comparison of IE due to methicillin-sensitive S...
  51. Eisenblatter M, Klaus C, Pletz M, Orawa H, Hahn H, Wagner J, et al. Influence of azithromycin and clarithromycin on macrolide susceptibility of viridans streptococci from the oral cavity of healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:1087-92 pubmed publisher
    Oral viridans streptococci are a reservoir of resistance genes for pathogens. Through prolonged exposure, long-acting macrolides (e.g...
  52. La Scola B, Raoult D. Direct identification of bacteria in positive blood culture bottles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8041 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to speed up the identification process, in the present work we attempted bacterial identification directly from blood culture bottles detected positive by the automate...
  53. Shanson D. Conflicting advice. Br Dent J. 2006;201:613-4; author reply 615 pubmed
  54. Lin P, Lin H. Facial necrotizing fasciitis following acute dacryocystitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:203-4 pubmed
    ..To report a case of progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the face following acute dacryocystitis...
  55. Keles E, Aral M, Alpay H. Antibiotic sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2006;16:18-24 pubmed
    To investigate antibiotic sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from the culture materials obtained from the sinuses of patients undergoing functional endoscopic ..
  56. Hajoui F, Daoudi N, Kabbaj H, Alaoui A, Seffar M. [Bacteriological study of the strains isolated from ocular infections]. Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 2012;70:689-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The alpha hemolytic streptococci showed very low sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In conclusion many species could be responsible for eye infections. They were sensitive to most antibiotics tested exceptions...
  57. Ikryannikova L, Lapin K, Malakhova M, Filimonova A, Ilina E, Dubovickaya V, et al. Misidentification of alpha-hemolytic streptococci by routine tests in clinical practice. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1709-15 pubmed publisher
  58. Chang J, Lee G. Late hematogenous bacterial infections of breast implants: two case reports of unique bacterial infections. Ann Plast Surg. 2011;67:14-6 pubmed publisher
  59. Nagata E, de Toledo A, Oho T. Invasion of human aortic endothelial cells by oral viridans group streptococci and induction of inflammatory cytokine production. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2011;26:78-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that oral streptococci may participate in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
  60. Bhavsar A, Googe J, Stockdale C, Bressler N, Brucker A, Elman M, et al. Risk of endophthalmitis after intravitreal drug injection when topical antibiotics are not required: the diabetic retinopathy clinical research network laser-ranibizumab-triamcinolone clinical trials. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009;127:1581-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal drug injection by means of a standardized procedure that does not require topical antibiotics, sterile gloves, or a sterile drape...
  61. Reeves K, Horvat R. Aerosolized alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus as a cause of knee sepsis after intra-articular injection: predisposing factors. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;89:77-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Potential parallels with the literature on aerosol-transmitted postdural meningitis with alpha hemolytic strep are explored...
  62. Yoshida Y, Negishi M, Amano A, Oho T, Nakano Y. Differences in the betaC-S lyase activities of viridans group streptococci. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:55-60 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the extremely high capacity of S. anginosus to produce hydrogen sulfide is due to the unique characteristic of betaC-S lyase from that organism...
  63. Chaudhry I, Al Ghamdi A, Kirat O, Al Swelmi F, Al Rashed W, Shamsi F. Bilateral infectious keratitis after implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segments. Cornea. 2010;29:339-41 pubmed publisher
    ..To report the development of bilateral infectious keratitis after implantation of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRSs)...
  64. Johnson J, Boyce T, Cetta F, Steckelberg J, Johnson J. Infective endocarditis in the pediatric patient: a 60-year single-institution review. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87:629-35 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting in pediatric patients during a 60-year period at our institution...
  65. Salas A, Cabot H. Catastrophic fat embolism following augmentation of pedicle screws with bone cement. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85-A:1613; author reply 1613-4 pubmed
  66. Madershahian N, Strauch J, Breuer M, Bruhin R, Straube E, Wahlers T. Polymerase chain reaction amplification as a diagnostic tool in culture-negative multiple-valve endocarditis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005;79:e21-2 pubmed
  67. Walls G, McBride S, Raymond N, Read K, Coomarasamy C, Morris A, et al. Infective endocarditis in New Zealand: data from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study. N Z Med J. 2014;127:38-51 pubmed
    ..We present data from patients with endocarditis enrolled from New Zealand...
  68. Han S, Bae E, Lee J, Lee D, Chung N, Jeong D, et al. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities of viridans streptococcal bacteremia during febrile neutropenia in patients with hematologic malignancies: a comparison between adults and children. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:273 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to compare the clinical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibilities of viridans streptococcal bacteremia (VSB) between febrile neutropenic adults and children with hematologic malignancies...
  69. Smith A, Jackson M, Kennedy H. Antimicrobial susceptibility of viridans group streptococcal blood isolates to eight antimicrobial agents. Scand J Infect Dis. 2004;36:259-63 pubmed
    ..These findings are of concern in the light of spread of antibiotic resistance genes from S. oralis and S. mitis to the more invasive pneumococcus...
  70. Motta R, Ramacciato J, Groppo F, Pacheco A, de Mattos Filho T. Environmental contamination before, during, and after dental treatment. Am J Dent. 2005;18:340-4 pubmed
    ..To verify environmental contamination by collecting microorganisms from dental equipment surfaces before, during and after clinical procedures...
  71. Botkin N, Aurigemma G, Meyer T, Tighe D. Periprosthetic aortic valve ring abscess. Echocardiography. 2002;19:569-70 pubmed
  72. Matthys C, Claeys G, Verschraegen G, Wauters G, Vogelaers D, de Baere T, et al. Streptococcus cristatus isolated from a resected heart valve and blood cultures: case reports and application of phenotypic and genotypic techniques for identification. Acta Clin Belg. 2006;61:196-200 pubmed
    b>Viridans streptococci are known as an important cause of endocarditis, but at present no cases of endocarditis caused by Streptococcus cristatus have been published, probably because phenotypic identification of viridans streptococci is ..
  73. Baird R. Multiple doses of an antibiotic over a series of dental appointments--the problem. Part 2. Aust Dent J. 2002;47:357 pubmed
  74. Sader H, Rhomberg P, Castanheira M, Farrell D, Flamm R, Mendes R, et al. Ceftaroline activity tested against viridans group streptococci from US hospitals. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2016;84:232-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, ceftaroline exhibited potent in vitro activity against VGS, including many uncommonly isolated species/groups for which very limited susceptibility information is currently available to guide therapy. ..
  75. Humpl T, McCrindle B, Smallhorn J. The relative roles of transthoracic compared with transesophageal echocardiography in children with suspected infective endocarditis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;41:2068-71 pubmed
    ..The study evaluated the additional benefit of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) versus transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in pediatric cases with suspected bacterial endocarditis...
  76. Shinn S, Sung K, Park P, Lee Y, Kim W, Yang J, et al. Results of annular reconstruction with a pericardial patch in active infective endocarditis. J Heart Valve Dis. 2009;18:315-20 pubmed
    ..The study aim was to determine the midterm results of annular reconstruction with a pericardial patch in active IE...
  77. Lin C, Hsu R. Infective endocarditis caused by nutritionally variant streptococci. Am J Med Sci. 2007;334:235-9 pubmed
    ..Recent case reports showed successful antibiotic treatment in the absence of surgery. Here, we report the clinical outcome of infective endocarditis caused by NVS in our hospital...
  78. Stougiannos P, Mytas D, Kosma L, Pappas L, Pyrgakis V, Mitropoulos F. Successful surgical repair of mitral valve prolapse endocarditis: a case report and review of the current literature. Hellenic J Cardiol. 2011;52:177-81 pubmed
    ..However, cardiac surgical intervention plays an important role in the treatment of intracardiac complications. Mitral valve repair in the context of a healed and stable infective endocarditis is the treatment of choice...
  79. Rutten J, Wolters F, van Schelven R, Dejong C. Infected liver cyst after adrenaline injection for active duodenal ulcer. Endoscopy. 2005;37:496 pubmed
  80. Stauffer W, Siwek A, Kamat D, Kempler Meyer E. Visual diagnosis: a 14-year-old male who has fever and rash. Pediatr Rev. 2003;24:424-9 pubmed
  81. Colson P, Tamalet C, Raoult D. SVARAP and aSVARAP: simple tools for quantitative analysis of nucleotide and amino acid variability and primer selection for clinical microbiology. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:21 pubmed
    ..Our aim was therefore to test easy and cost-free tools (SVARAP and aSVARAP) that require short hands-on work, little expertise, and which allow visual interpretation and statistical analysis of results...
  82. Smith S, Truwit C. Images in emergency medicine. Iatrogenic postmyelogram bacterial meningitis. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48:17, 20 pubmed
  83. Macfarlane D, Durward W, McGavigan A. A rare and life threatening complication of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Heart Lung Circ. 2006;15:64-5 pubmed
    ..This case highlights that this potentially life-threatening diagnosis should be considered in any patient presenting with symptoms of peripheral nervous system dysfunction following an infective illness...
  84. Grohs P, Houssaye S, Aubert A, Gutmann L, Varon E. In vitro activities of garenoxacin (BMS-284756) against Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis compared to those of six other quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3542-7 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae and at 24 h for S. oralis and E. faecalis, was not influenced by the presence of mutation either in the ParC or in both the ParC and GyrA QRDRs...