streptococcus equi

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.

Top Publications

  1. Timoney J. The pathogenic equine streptococci. Vet Res. 2004;35:397-409 pubmed
    ..The inherent complexity of this interaction suggests that discovery of effective combinations of immunogens from potential targets identified in genomic sequence will be laborious...
  2. Kelly C, Bugg M, Robinson C, Mitchell Z, Davis Poynter N, Newton J, et al. Sequence variation of the SeM gene of Streptococcus equi allows discrimination of the source of strangles outbreaks. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:480-6 pubmed
    Improved understanding of the epidemiology of Streptococcus equi transmission requires sensitive and portable subtyping methods that can rationally discriminate between strains. S...
  3. Flock M, Jacobsson K, Frykberg L, Hirst T, Franklin A, Guss B, et al. Recombinant Streptococcus equi proteins protect mice in challenge experiments and induce immune response in horses. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3228-36 pubmed
    Horses that have undergone infection caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (strangles) were found to have significantly increased serum antibody titers against three previously characterized proteins, FNZ (cell surface-bound ..
  4. Newton J, Laxton R, Wood J, Chanter N. Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection in naturally occurring equine respiratory disease. Vet J. 2008;175:338-45 pubmed
    ..zooepidemicus types. Novel S. zooepidemicus types were identified, including previously untyped HV regions and intra-strain multiples of both the HV region and intergenic spacer types...
  5. Beres S, Sesso R, Pinto S, Hoe N, Porcella S, Deleo F, et al. Genome sequence of a Lancefield group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus strain causing epidemic nephritis: new information about an old disease. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3026 pubmed publisher
    ..As a first step toward gaining new information about PSGN pathogenesis, we sequenced the genome of Streptococcus equi subsp...
  6. Byun J, Yoon S, Woo G, Jung B, Joo Y. An outbreak of fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in shelter dogs. J Vet Sci. 2009;10:269-71 pubmed
    ..In this study, we reported an outbreak of canine hemorrhagic bronchopneumonia caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus in an animal shelter in Yangju, Korea. ..
  7. Las Heras A, Vela A, Fernandez E, Legaz E, Dominguez L, Fernández Garayzábal J. Unusual outbreak of clinical mastitis in dairy sheep caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:1106-8 pubmed
    This work describes an outbreak of clinical mastitis affecting 13 of 58 lactating ewes due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated in pure culture from all milk samples...
  8. Kemp Symonds J, Kemble T, Waller A. Modified live Streptococcus equi ('strangles') vaccination followed by clinically adverse reactions associated with bacterial replication. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:284-6 pubmed
  9. Duan X, Yang L, Zhang X, Tan W. Effect of oxygen and shear stress on molecular weight of hyaluronic acid. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:718-24 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a high DO concentration and mild shear environment would appear to be essential to enhance the HA molecular weight. ..

More Information

Publications85

  1. Lannergård J, Flock M, Johansson S, Flock J, Guss B. Studies of fibronectin-binding proteins of Streptococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7243-51 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. The initiation of S. equi subsp...
  2. Hamilton A, Robinson C, Sutcliffe I, Slater J, Maskell D, Davis Poynter N, et al. Mutation of the maturase lipoprotein attenuates the virulence of Streptococcus equi to a greater extent than does loss of general lipoprotein lipidation. Infect Immun. 2006;74:6907-19 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi is the causative agent of strangles, a prevalent and highly contagious disease of horses. Despite the animal suffering and economic burden associated with strangles, little is known about the molecular basis of S...
  3. Lannergård J, Guss B. IdeE, an IgG-endopeptidase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;262:230-5 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious and serious disease in the upper respiratory tract of horses...
  4. Prasad S, Jayaraman G, Ramachandran K. Hyaluronic acid production is enhanced by the additional co-expression of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in Lactococcus lactis. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;86:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The HA yield was further enhanced in batch bioreactor experiments with controlled pH and aeration, and a maximum of 1.8 g/l HA was produced by the SJR3 culture. ..
  5. Hong Jie F, Fu yu T, Ying M, Cheng ping L. Virulence and antigenicity of the szp-gene deleted Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus mutant in mice. Vaccine. 2009;27:56-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) causes serious disease in pigs. M-like protein (SzP) of SEZ is a virulence factor with opsonin function...
  6. Florindo H, Pandit S, Lacerda L, Gonçalves L, Alpar H, Almeida A. The enhancement of the immune response against S. equi antigens through the intranasal administration of poly-epsilon-caprolactone-based nanoparticles. Biomaterials. 2009;30:879-91 pubmed publisher
    ..a bacterial infection of the Equidae family that affects the nasopharynx and draining lymph nodes, caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi...
  7. Wu T, Huang W, Chen Y, Tsay Y, Chang C. Proteomic investigation of the impact of oxygen on the protein profiles of hyaluronic acid-producing Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Proteomics. 2009;9:4507-18 pubmed publisher
  8. Sheng J, Ling P, Zhu X, Guo X, Zhang T, He Y, et al. Use of induction promoters to regulate hyaluronan synthase and UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase of Streptococcus zooepidemicus expression in Lactococcus lactis: a case study of the regulation mechanism of hyaluronic acid polymer. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;107:136-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This study put forward a guide to establish an efficacious way to control the size of HA in fermentation. ..
  9. Priestnall S, Erles K, Brooks H, Cardwell J, Waller A, Paillot R, et al. Characterization of pneumonia due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in dogs. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1790-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus has been linked to cases of acute fatal pneumonia in dogs in several countries. Outbreaks can occur in kenneled dog populations and result in significant levels of morbidity and mortality...
  10. Duan X, Niu H, Tan W, Zhang X. Mechanism analysis of effect of oxygen on molecular weight of hyaluronic acid produced by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;19:299-306 pubmed
    ..It is expected that this work will contribute to a better understanding of the effect of the DO level on the mechanism of the elongation of HA chains. ..
  11. Blum S, Elad D, Zukin N, Lysnyansky I, Weisblith L, Perl S, et al. Outbreak of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infections in cats. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:236-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a commensal of the mucous membranes and skin of animals, notably equine, and is associated with various infections in animals and humans...
  12. Waller A, Flock M, Smith K, Robinson C, Mitchell Z, Karlström A, et al. Vaccination of horses against strangles using recombinant antigens from Streptococcus equi. Vaccine. 2007;25:3629-35 pubmed
    ..Three recombinant antigens were used to vaccinate horses, which were then experimentally challenged with Streptococcus equi, the causative agent for strangles. The vaccinated horses showed significantly reduced bacterial growth (p=0...
  13. Newton R, Waller A, King A. Investigation of suspected adverse reactions following strangles vaccination in horses. Vet Rec. 2005;156:291-2 pubmed
  14. Chalker V, Waller A, Webb K, Spearing E, Crosse P, Brownlie J, et al. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and doxycycline resistance in kennelled dogs. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2134-6 pubmed publisher
    The genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profiles of 38 Streptococcus equi subsp...
  15. Kim M, Jee H, Shin S, Lee B, Pakhrin B, Yoo H, et al. Outbreak and control of haemorrhagic pneumonia due to Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus in dogs. Vet Rec. 2007;161:528-30 pubmed
  16. Luque I, Fernandez Garayzabal J, Blume V, Maldonado A, Astorga R, Tarradas C. Molecular typing and anti-microbial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus from equine bacterial endometritis. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:451-4 pubmed
    The anti-microbial susceptibility and genetic diversity of 65 strains of Streptococcus equi ssp...
  17. Lindmark H, Nilsson M, Guss B. Comparison of the fibronectin-binding protein FNE from Streptococcus equi subspecies equi with FNZ from S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus reveals a major and conserved difference. Infect Immun. 2001;69:3159-63 pubmed
    The gene fnz from Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus encodes a cell surface protein that binds fibronectin (Fn). Fifty tested isolates of S. equi subspecies equi all contain DNA sequences with similarity to fnz...
  18. Priestnall S, Erles K. Streptococcus zooepidemicus: an emerging canine pathogen. Vet J. 2011;188:142-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) has caused several outbreaks of haemorrhagic pneumonia in dogs in recent years...
  19. Timoney J, Yang J, Liu J, Merant C. IdeE reduces the bactericidal activity of equine neutrophils for Streptococcus equi. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;122:76-82 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi (S. equi) causes equine strangles, a highly contagious and widespread purulent lymphadenitis of the head and neck. Highly resistant to phagocytosis, it produces long extracellular chains in affected lymph nodes...
  20. Båverud V, Johansson S, Aspan A. Real-time PCR for detection and differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:219-29 pubmed
    Strangles is a contagious equine disease caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. In this study, clinical strains of S. equi (n=24) and Streptococcus equi subsp...
  21. Flock M, Karlstrom A, Lannergård J, Guss B, Flock J. Protective effect of vaccination with recombinant proteins from Streptococcus equi subspecies equi in a strangles model in the mouse. Vaccine. 2006;24:4144-51 pubmed
    A mouse model resembling Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection in the horse, strangles, was used to assess the protective effect of vaccination with selected recombinant proteins from S. equi subsp. equi...
  22. Harrington D, Greated J, Chanter N, Sutcliffe I. Identification of lipoprotein homologues of pneumococcal PsaA in the equine pathogens Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6048-51 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus are major etiological agents of upper and lower airway disease in horses...
  23. Carragoso A, Capelo J. [Spinal epidural abscess due to group C Streptococcus]. Acta Reumatol Port. 2007;32:287-97 pubmed
    ..We describe the case of a diabetic woman who presented with a spinal epidural abscess due to Streptococcus equi subsp...
  24. Mao Y, Fan H, Lu C. Immunoproteomic assay of extracellular proteins in Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;286:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..laser desorption tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been used to map the extracellular proteins of Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) strain ATCC 35246...
  25. Florindo H, Pandit S, Gonçalves L, Alpar H, Almeida A. New approach on the development of a mucosal vaccine against strangles: Systemic and mucosal immune responses in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2009;27:1230-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus equi subspecies equi affects animals of Equidae family and is the causative agent of strangles, an acute, extremely contagious and deadly disease...
  26. Marcellin E, Chen W, Nielsen L. Understanding plasmid effect on hyaluronic acid molecular weight produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Metab Eng. 2010;12:62-9 pubmed publisher
    Hyaluronic acid is a biopolymer with valuable applications in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus cells transformed with a nisin-inducible, empty plasmid control displayed higher ..
  27. Kuusi M, Lahti E, Virolainen A, Hatakka M, Vuento R, Rantala L, et al. An outbreak of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus associated with consumption of fresh goat cheese. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:36 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products...
  28. Lai A, Tran S, Simmonds R. Functional characterization of domains found within a lytic enzyme produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;215:133-8 pubmed
    Zoocin A is a lysostaphin-like streptococcolytic enzyme produced by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus 4881 that specifically targets the cell walls of some closely related species...
  29. Slater J, Allen A, May J, Bolitho S, Lindsay H, Maskell D. Mutagenesis of Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus suis by transposon Tn917. Vet Microbiol. 2003;93:197-206 pubmed
    ..of a transposon mutagenesis system that we have used to mutate two important veterinary streptococci, Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus suis...
  30. Lee A, Dyer J. Severe Streptococcus zooepidemicus infection in a gardener. Med J Aust. 2004;180:366 pubmed
  31. Blank L, McLaughlin R, Nielsen L. Stable production of hyaluronic acid in Streptococcus zooepidemicus chemostats operated at high dilution rate. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2005;90:685-93 pubmed
    ..The successful establishment of continuous culture at high dilution rate enables both commercial production at reduced cost and a more rational characterization and optimization of hyaluronic acid production in streptococci...
  32. Alber J, El Sayed A, Lammler C, Hassan A, Weiss R, Zschock M. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction for identification and differentiation of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and Streptococcus equi subsp. equi. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2004;51:455-8 pubmed
    The closely related streptococcal species Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. equi subsp...
  33. Blank L, Hugenholtz P, Nielsen L. Evolution of the hyaluronic acid synthesis (has) operon in Streptococcus zooepidemicus and other pathogenic streptococci. J Mol Evol. 2008;67:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We report two new members of the has operon family from Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) and Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi). The has operon of S...
  34. Friederichs J, Hungerer S, Werle R, Militz M, Buhren V. Human bacterial arthritis caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus: report of a case. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14 Suppl 3:e233-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of a septic arthritis caused by S. zooepidemicus where a cutaneous entry route is described...
  35. Liu L, Sun J, Xu W, Du G, Chen J. Modeling and optimization of microbial hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus using radial basis function neural network coupling quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization algorithm. Biotechnol Prog. 2009;25:1819-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The developed RBF-QPSO approach in this work may be helpful for the modeling and optimization of the other multivariable, nonlinear, time-variant bioprocesses...
  36. Pires A, Eguchi S, Santana M. The influence of mineral ions on the microbial production and molecular weight of hyaluronic acid. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2010;162:2125-35 pubmed publisher
    ..4?x?10? Da) was observed in the individual presence of Na+ in spite of the lowest HA concentration (0.65 g x L?¹). These results suggest that the quality of HA can be modulated through the mineral ion supplementation...
  37. Barquero N, Chanter N, Laxton R, Wood J, Newton J. Molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus zooepidemicus isolated from the respiratory tracts of Thoroughbred racehorses in training. Vet J. 2010;183:348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This diversity also highlights potential difficulties in using vaccines to control S. zooepidemicus infections in horses as it is likely that the induction of a heterologous, cross-protective immunity will be required...
  38. Ma Z, Geng J, Zhang H, Yu H, Yi L, Lei M, et al. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain ATCC 35246. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5583-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is an opportunistic pathogen. It has caused a very large economic loss in the swine industry of China and has become a threat to human health. We announce the complete genome sequence of S...
  39. Ma Z, Fan H, Lu C. Molecular cloning and analysis of the UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:2751-60 pubmed publisher
    UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase (EC 2.7.7.9, UGPase) plays an important role in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S...
  40. Bordes Benitez A, Sánchez Oñoro M, Suárez Bordón P, García Rojas A, Saez Nieto J, Gonzalez Garcia A, et al. Outbreak of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infections on the island of Gran Canaria associated with the consumption of inadequately pasteurized cheese. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:242-6 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus infections are infrequent in humans. A clinical and epidemiological study of a milk-borne outbreak caused by this organism is described...
  41. Karlström A, Jacobsson K, Guss B. SclC is a member of a novel family of collagen-like proteins in Streptococcus equi subspecies equi that are recognised by antibodies against SclC. Vet Microbiol. 2006;114:72-81 pubmed
    Previously we have reported on a cell surface collagen-like protein, called SclC, from Streptococcus equi subspecies equi...
  42. Thorley A, Campbell D, Moghal N, Hudson S. Post streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis secondary to sporadic Streptococcus equi infection. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007;22:597-9 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus infection is rare in humans, but a well-known cause of pyogenic disease in cows and horses. S...
  43. Xie G, Liu M, Zhu H, Lei B. Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a novel nonspecific carboxylic ester hydrolase. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;289:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase)...
  44. Shah S, Matthews R, Cohen C. Group C streptococcal meningitis: case report and review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001;20:445-8 pubmed
    ..We also review cases of group C streptococcal meningitis reported previously...
  45. Artiushin S, Timoney J, Sheoran A, Muthupalani S. Characterization and immunogenicity of pyrogenic mitogens SePE-H and SePE-I of Streptococcus equi. Microb Pathog. 2002;32:71-85 pubmed publisher
    Two pyrogenic mitogens, SePE-H and SePE-I, were characterized in Streptococcus equi, the cause of equine strangles. SePE-H and SePE-I have molecular masses of 27.5 and 29...
  46. Fan H, Wang Y, Tang F, Lu C. Determination of the mimic epitope of the M-like protein adhesin in swine Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:170 pubmed publisher
    The M-like protein, also known as SzP, is expressed on the surface of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus)...
  47. Paillot R, Darby A, Robinson C, Wright N, Steward K, Anderson E, et al. Identification of three novel superantigen-encoding genes in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, szeF, szeN, and szeP. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4817-27 pubmed publisher
    ..has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in humans, and the gain of four superantigens by Streptococcus equi is linked to the evolution of this host-restricted pathogen from an ancestral strain of the opportunistic ..
  48. Popescu G, Fuerea R, Benea E. Meningitis due to an unusual human pathogen: Streptococcus equi subspecies equi. South Med J. 2006;99:190-1 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is involved in human infection. We present a case of meningitis in a 75-year-old patient with a favorable outcome after ceftriaxone and dexamethasone therapy...
  49. Anzai T, Timoney J, Kuwamoto Y, Fujita Y, Wada R, Inoue T. In vivo pathogenicity and resistance to phagocytosis of Streptococcus equi strains with different levels of capsule expression. Vet Microbiol. 1999;67:277-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, NCTC 9682 produced no clinical disease although it infected the guttural pouch and caused seroconversion. Typical strangles with guttural pouch invasion was observed in all horses infected with encapsulated strains...
  50. Höner O, Wachter B, Speck S, Wibbelt G, Ludwig A, Fyumagwa R, et al. Severe Streptococcus infection in spotted hyenas in the Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Vet Microbiol. 2006;115:223-8 pubmed
    ..The high genetic similarity between the hyena and zebra isolates indicates that inter-specific transmission may occur, possibly when hyenas consume infected zebra carcasses...
  51. Ladlow J, Scase T, Waller A. Canine strangles case reveals a new host susceptible to infection with Streptococcus equi. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2664-5 pubmed
    We report the first documented case of canine strangles due to infection with Streptococcus equi in a dog with enlarged lymph nodes...
  52. Boucher C, Higgins R, Nadeau M, Vincent C. [A case of zoonosis associated with Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus]. Can Vet J. 2002;43:123-4 pubmed
    ..where there were also many horses, suffered a severe respiratory infection associated with the bacterium Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus...
  53. Kakizaki I, Takagaki K, Endo Y, Kudo D, Ikeya H, Miyoshi T, et al. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis in Streptococcus equi FM100 by 4-methylumbelliferone. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:5066-75 pubmed
    ..in cultured human skin fibroblasts, a decrease of hyaluronan production was also observed in group C Streptococcus equi FM100 cells treated with 4-methylumbelliferone (MU), although there was no effect on their growth...
  54. Korman T, Boers A, Gooding T, Curtis N, Visvanathan K. Fatal case of toxic shock-like syndrome due to group C streptococcus associated with superantigen exotoxin. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2866-9 pubmed
    ..We describe a fatal case of toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus...
  55. Adams S. Peracute haemorrhagic pneumonia syndrome in dogs. Vet Rec. 2008;162:599-600 pubmed
  56. Heather Z, Holden M, Steward K, Parkhill J, Song L, Challis G, et al. A novel streptococcal integrative conjugative element involved in iron acquisition. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1274-92 pubmed publisher
    ..ICESe2, although absolutely conserved in Streptococcus equi, the causative agent of equine strangles, was absent from all strains of the closely related opportunistic ..
  57. Liu L, Wang M, Du G, Chen J. Enhanced hyaluronic acid production of Streptococcus zooepidemicus by an intermittent alkaline-stress strategy. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;46:383-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced hyaluronic acid (HA) production of Streptococcus zooepidemicus by redirecting carbon flux through an intermittent alkaline-stress strategy...
  58. Timoney J, Kumar P. Early pathogenesis of equine Streptococcus equi infection (strangles). Equine Vet J. 2008;40:637-42 pubmed
    Little is known about entry and subsequent multiplication of Streptococcus equi following exposure of a susceptible horse...
  59. Krahulec J, Krahulcová J. Increase in hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strain deficient in beta-glucuronidase in laboratory conditions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006;71:415-22 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus is known to produce a hyaluronic acid capsule to resist the host immune defense. As the structure of the polysaccharide is identical to the one produced by humans, the bacteria S. equi subsp...
  60. Figueiredo L, Cadete A, Gonçalves L, Corvo M, Almeida A. Intranasal immunisation of mice against Streptococcus equi using positively charged nanoparticulate carrier systems. Vaccine. 2012;30:6551-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both formulations share the ability to induce Th1-mediated immune responses characterised by IFN-? production and high IgG2a antibody titers as well as a Th2 immune response characterised mainly by IL-4 production and IgG1 antibodies...
  61. Eyre D, Kenkre J, Bowler I, McBride S. Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus meningitis--a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;29:1459-63 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated as the causative organism. S. equi subsp...
  62. Holden M, Heather Z, Paillot R, Steward K, Webb K, Ainslie F, et al. Genomic evidence for the evolution of Streptococcus equi: host restriction, increased virulence, and genetic exchange with human pathogens. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000346 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S...
  63. Salasia S, Wibawan I, Pasaribu F, Abdulmawjood A, Lammler C. Persistent occurrence of a single Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus clone in the pig and monkey population in Indonesia. J Vet Sci. 2004;5:263-5 pubmed
    In the present study 41 mucoid growing Streptococcus equi subsp...
  64. Downar J, Willey B, Sutherland J, Mathew K, Low D. Streptococcal meningitis resulting from contact with an infected horse. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2358-9 pubmed
    ..Blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Streptococcus equi subsp...
  65. Lannergård J, Frykberg L, Guss B. CNE, a collagen-binding protein of Streptococcus equi. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;222:69-74 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi subspecies equi is an important horse pathogenic bacterium causing a serious disease called strangles. Using bioinformatics we identified a gene denoted cne (gene encoding collagen-binding protein from S...
  66. Chong B, Blank L, McLaughlin R, Nielsen L. Microbial hyaluronic acid production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005;66:341-51 pubmed
    ..In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering, however, greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying chain termination is required...
  67. Pati S, Al Araji A, Orendi J. Atypical presentation of Streptococcus zooepidemicus bacteraemia and secondary meningitis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2007;109:475-6 pubmed
  68. Chen W, Marcellin E, Hung J, Nielsen L. Hyaluronan molecular weight is controlled by UDP-N-acetylglucosamine concentration in Streptococcus zooepidemicus. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18007-14 pubmed publisher
    ..in the hyaluronan pathway by overexpressing the five genes of the hyaluronan synthesis operon in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus...
  69. Pisoni G, Zadoks R, Vimercati C, Locatelli C, Zanoni M, Moroni P. Epidemiological investigation of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus involved in clinical mastitis in dairy goats. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:943-51 pubmed publisher
    An outbreak of clinical mastitis was observed in dairy goats due to the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus. Affected goats were culled to prevent transmission of infection to other animals or humans...
  70. Tiwari R, Qin A, Artiushin S, Timoney J. Se18.9, an anti-phagocytic factor H binding protein of Streptococcus equi. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:105-15 pubmed
    Evasion of phagocytosis is an important virulence determinant of Streptococcus equi (S. equi subsp. equi), the cause of equine strangles and distinguishes it from the closely related but much less virulent S. zooepidemicus (S. equi subsp...
  71. Akineden O, Alber J, Lammler C, Weiss R, Siebert U, Foster G, et al. Relatedness of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus strains isolated from harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) of various origins of the North Sea during 1988-2005. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:158-62 pubmed
    ..All isolates were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus...
  72. Harrington D, Sutcliffe I, Chanter N. The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:501-10 pubmed
    b>Streptococcus equi is the aetiological agent of strangles, one of the most prevalent diseases of the horse. The animal suffering and economic burden associated with this disease necessitate effective treatment...
  73. Karlström A, Jacobsson K, Flock M, Flock J, Guss B. Identification of a novel collagen-like protein, SclC, in Streptococcus equi using signal sequence phage display. Vet Microbiol. 2004;104:179-88 pubmed
    Strangles is a serious disease in horses caused by Streptococcus equi subspecies equi. In this study, genes encoding putative extracellular proteins in this subspecies have been identified using signal sequence phage display...
  74. Yoshikawa H, Yasu T, Ueki H, Oyamada T, Oishi H, Anzai T, et al. Pneumonia in horses induced by intrapulmonary inoculation of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:787-92 pubmed
    To evaluate the possibility that Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S...
  75. Ural O, Tuncer I, Dikici N, Aridogan B. Streptococcus zooepidemicus meningitis and bacteraemia. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:206-7 pubmed
    ..He had frequent contact with horses, which were a possible source of infection. In spite of treatment with a third generation cephalosporin, the outcome was fatal...
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    b>Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (Streptococcus zooepidemicus, SEZ) is an important pathogen associated with opportunistic infections of a wide range of species, including pigs and humans...