haemophilus influenzae type b

Summary

Summary: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.

Top Publications

  1. Lee Y, Kelly D, Yu L, Slack M, Booy R, Heath P, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine failure in children is associated with inadequate production of high-quality antibody. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:186-92 pubmed publisher
    Despite the excellent immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, breakthrough cases of Hib disease still affect a small proportion of vaccinated children in the United Kingdom...
  2. Sow S, Diallo S, Campbell J, Tapia M, Keita T, Keita M, et al. Burden of invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b in Bamako, Mali: impetus for routine infant immunization with conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:533-7 pubmed
    ..confirmed disease burden data aid decision makers in African countries pondering whether to introduce Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) immunization for infants...
  3. Levine O, Knoll M, Jones A, Walker D, Risko N, Gilani Z. Global status of Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: evidence, policies, and introductions. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:236-41 pubmed publisher
    The leading causes of bacterial meningitis and pneumonia in children, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, are vaccine preventable...
  4. Gatchalian S, Ramakrishnan G, Bock H, Lefevre I, Jacquet J. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of three-dose primary and booster vaccination with combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole-cell pertussis-hepatitis B-reduced antigen content Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine in Filipino children. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:664-72 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the immunogenicity, reactogenicity and safety of primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HBVLT/Hib2.5 vaccine containing low thiomersal and reduced quantities of Hib polysaccharide (PRP)...
  5. Rerks Ngarm S, Treleaven S, Chunsuttiwat S, Muangchana C, Jolley D, Brooks A, et al. Prospective population-based incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Thailand. Vaccine. 2004;22:975-83 pubmed
    There are limited prospective data for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in Asia, where some countries are considering vaccine introduction...
  6. Jacups S, Morris P, Leach A. Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage in Indigenous children and children attending childcare centers in the Northern Territory, Australia, spanning pre- and post-vaccine eras. Vaccine. 2011;29:3083-8 pubmed publisher
    This paper investigates Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage in Indigenous children and children attending childcare centres in the Northern Territory of Australia, 1992-2005...
  7. Griffiths U, Miners A. Economic evaluations of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: systematic review of the literature. Expert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res. 2009;9:333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been available since the early 1990s, but uptake of the vaccine was slow in low-..
  8. Spanjaard L, van den Hof S, de Melker H, Vermeer de Bondt P, van der Ende A, Rijkers G. [Increase in the number of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b infections]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2005;149:2738-42 pubmed
    To describe the increase of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections in The Netherlands before and after the introduction of Hib vaccination in 1993, and to hypothesise about possible explanations. Descriptive...
  9. White K, Pabst L, Cullen K. Up-to-date Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination coverage during a vaccine shortage. Pediatrics. 2011;127:e707-12 pubmed publisher
    We sought to assess Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination coverage in diverse areas of the United States during the 2008-2009 Hib vaccine shortage...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Campos J, Hernando M, Román F, Perez Vazquez M, Aracil B, Oteo J, et al. Analysis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections after extensive vaccination against H. influenzae type b. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:524-9 pubmed
    ..In the post-Hib vaccination era, most invasive infections were due to noncapsulated strains and occurred in the extreme ages of life in patients with predisposing conditions. ..
  2. Fitzwater S, Watt J, Levine O, Santosham M. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines: considerations for vaccination schedules and implications for developing countries. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:810-8 pubmed
    Prior to widespread vaccination, Haemophilus influenzae type b was a leading cause of severe childhood bacterial infection, including meningitis, worldwide...
  3. Tzanakaki G, Mastrantonio P. Aetiology of bacterial meningitis and resistance to antibiotics of causative pathogens in Europe and in the Mediterranean region. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;29:621-9 pubmed
    Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b are most commonly associated with bacterial meningitis accounting for almost 90% of reported cases of acute bacterial meningitis in infants over 60 days ..
  4. Oh S, Griffiths D, John T, Lee Y, Yu L, McCarthy N, et al. School-aged children: a reservoir for continued circulation of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the United Kingdom. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1275-81 pubmed publisher
    A resurgence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease occurred in the United Kingdom between 1999 and 2003 and was partially attributed to lower immunogenicity of combination vaccines...
  5. Cisse M, Breugelmans J, Ba M, Diop M, Faye P, Mhlanga B, et al. The Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis following conjugate vaccine introduction in Senegal. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:499-503 pubmed publisher
    Senegal introduced routine infant Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine during 2005...
  6. Cowgill K, Ndiritu M, Nyiro J, Slack M, Chiphatsi S, Ismail A, et al. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b Conjugate vaccine introduction into routine childhood immunization in Kenya. JAMA. 2006;296:671-8 pubmed
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is not perceived as a public health priority in Africa because data on Hib disease burden and vaccine effectiveness are scarce...
  7. Verghese V, Friberg I, Cherian T, Raghupathy P, Balaji V, Lalitha M, et al. Community effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in India. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:738-40 pubmed publisher
    We assessed the effect of distribution of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the private health care sector on Hib meningitis admissions at a referral hospital in India. The annual mean number of Hib cases was 10...
  8. Kennedy W, Chang S, Purdy K, Le T, Kilgore P, Kim J, et al. Incidence of bacterial meningitis in Asia using enhanced CSF testing: polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination and culture. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:1217-26 pubmed
    ..latex agglutination (LA) and polymerase chain reaction-enzyme immunoassay (PCR-EIA) testing for Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp)...
  9. El Mdaghri N, Jilali N, Belabbes H, Jouhadi Z, Lahssoune M, Zaid S. Epidemiological profile of invasive bacterial diseases in children in Casablanca, Morocco: antimicrobial susceptibilities and serotype distribution. East Mediterr Health J. 2012;18:1097-101 pubmed
    ..The 5 predominant Str. pneumoniae serotypes were 19F, 14, 23F, 6B and 19A and the theoretical coverage of the 7, 10 and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines was 60%, 78% and 91% respectively. ..
  10. Ribeiro G, Lima J, Reis J, Gouveia E, Cordeiro S, Lobo T, et al. Haemophilus influenzae meningitis 5 years after introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in Brazil. Vaccine. 2007;25:4420-8 pubmed
    The long-term impact of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, introduced throughout Latin America in the late 1990s, has not been evaluated. Active surveillance for H...
  11. Peltola H, Roine I, Leinonen M, Kuisma L, Mata A, Arbo A, et al. Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis by identifying DNA from cerebrospinal fluid-impregnated filter paper strips. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:111-4 pubmed
    ..the potential of real-time polymerase chain reaction to identify Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) from cerebrospinal fluid impregnated on filter paper strips...
  12. Trotter C, McVernon J, Ramsay M, Whitney C, Mulholland E, Goldblatt D, et al. Optimising the use of conjugate vaccines to prevent disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Vaccine. 2008;26:4434-45 pubmed publisher
    Conjugate vaccines exist that offer protection against disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and selected serogroups/serotypes of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae...
  13. Gessner B, Adegbola R. The impact of vaccines on pneumonia: key lessons from Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 2:B3-8 pubmed publisher
    This article explores key lessons learned from vaccination with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine and how these lessons may provide insight into the impact of emergent pneumococcal vaccines against pneumonia...
  14. Leino T, Takala T, Auranen K, Makela P, Takala A. Indirect protection obtained by Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination: analysis in a structured population model. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:959-66 pubmed
    ..a structured population model to study factors determining the magnitude of indirect protection in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination...
  15. Mendsaikhan J, Watt J, Mansoor O, Suvdmaa N, Edmond K, Litt D, et al. Childhood bacterial meningitis in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, 2002-2004. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48 Suppl 2:S141-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Few data on childhood bacterial meningitis in Northeast and Central Asia exist. Our aim was to determine the incidence and etiology of childhood bacterial meningitis in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia...
  16. Von Gottberg A, de Gouveia L, Madhi S, du Plessis M, Quan V, Soma K, et al. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2006;84:811-8 pubmed
    ..influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule...
  17. Karimi A, Alborzi A, Fahimzad A, Gooya M, Esteghamati A, Armin S, et al. Prevalence of oropharyngeal colonization by Haemophilus influenzae type b in Iranian children. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15:544-8 pubmed
    Healthy carriers of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) play an important role in the spread of invasive disease...
  18. Clark A, Griffiths U, Abbas S, Rao K, Privor Dumm L, Hajjeh R, et al. Impact and cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination in India. J Pediatr. 2013;163:S60-72 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the potential health impact and cost-effectiveness of nationwide Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination in India...
  19. Farhoudi D, Löfdahl M, Giesecke J. Invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in Sweden 1997-2003: epidemiological trends and patterns in the post-vaccine era. Scand J Infect Dis. 2005;37:717-22 pubmed
    ..Together with a shift in age distribution towards adults this points to women aged +30 y as a potential new risk group. This may reflect an increased risk owing to women being the primary carers of young children. ..
  20. Gessner B. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine impact in resource-poor settings in Asia and Africa. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:91-102 pubmed publisher
    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has been administered for almost 20 years in developed countries with remarkable success...
  21. Kim K, Lee H, Chung E, Kang J, Kim J, Kim J, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of two different Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in Korean infants. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:929-36 pubmed publisher
    The incidence of invasive diseases, including meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was markedly decreased after routine immunization of Hib vaccine through diverse schedules in many countries...
  22. Adegbola R, Secka O, Lahai G, Lloyd Evans N, Njie A, Usen S, et al. Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with a Hib conjugate vaccine: a prospective study. Lancet. 2005;366:144-50 pubmed
    Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997...
  23. Soltani M, Bchir A, Amri F, Gueddiche N, Sfar T, Sahloul S, et al. [Epidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in Tunisia]. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:14-27 pubmed
    ..4/100 000 children. The estimated cost of identifying and treating Hib meningitis and its complications was greater than the cost of vaccine introduction. Based this study, the Ministry of Health has decided to introduce Hib vaccination...
  24. Otsuka T, Komiyama K, Yoshida K, Ishikawa Y, Zaraket H, Fujii K, et al. Genotyping of Haemophilus influenzae type b in pre-vaccination era. J Infect Chemother. 2012;18:213-8 pubmed publisher
    Identification of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in asymptomatic carriers is critical to control the spread of disease...
  25. Anh D, Kilgore P, Kennedy W, Nyambat B, Long H, Jodar L, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type B meningitis among children in Hanoi, Vietnam: epidemiologic patterns and estimates of H. Influenzae type B disease burden. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:509-15 pubmed
    From March 2000 to February 2002, a population-based study of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis was conducted among children less than five years of age in Hanoi, Vietnam...
  26. Ndiritu M, Cowgill K, Ismail A, Chiphatsi S, Kamau T, Fegan G, et al. Immunization coverage and risk factors for failure to immunize within the Expanded Programme on Immunization in Kenya after introduction of new Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:132 pubmed
    Kenya introduced a pentavalent vaccine including the DTP, Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis b virus antigens in Nov 2001 and strengthened immunization services...
  27. Minz S, Balraj V, Lalitha M, Murali N, Cherian T, Manoharan G, et al. Incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in India. Indian J Med Res. 2008;128:57-64 pubmed
    Vaccine policy depends on locally relevant disease burden estimates. The incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is not well characterized in the South Asian region, home to 30 per cent of the world's children...
  28. Tzanakaki G, Tsopanomichalou M, Kesanopoulos K, Matzourani R, Sioumala M, Tabaki A, et al. Simultaneous single-tube PCR assay for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:386-90 pubmed
    ..of a multiplex PCR assay for the detection of Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b, which globally account for 90% of cases of bacterial meningitis...
  29. Batuwanthudawe R, Rajapakse L, Somaratne P, Dassanayake M, Abeysinghe N. Incidence of childhood Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Sri Lanka. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e372-6 pubmed publisher
    To demonstrate the burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in Sri Lanka and provide information for decision-making in public health planning and vaccine introduction.
  30. Kim J, Jang Y, Kim J, Park T, Park J, Kilgore P, et al. Incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b and other invasive diseases in South Korean children. Vaccine. 2004;22:3952-62 pubmed
    To determine incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in a defined population of Jeonbuk Province, Korea, children <5 years were evaluated in prospective, population-based surveillance of invasive bacterial ..
  31. Von Gottberg A, Cohen C, Whitelaw A, Chhagan M, Flannery B, Cohen A, et al. Invasive disease due to Haemophilus influenzae serotype b ten years after routine vaccination, South Africa, 2003-2009. Vaccine. 2012;30:565-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Following initial declines in Hib disease, national surveillance has identified increasing numbers of Hib disease episodes in fully vaccinated children...
  32. Ladhani S. Two decades of experience with the Haemophilus influenzae serotype b conjugate vaccine in the United Kingdom. Clin Ther. 2012;34:385-99 pubmed publisher
  33. Russell F, Carapetis J, Mansoor O, Darcy A, Fakakovi T, Metai A, et al. High incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b infection in children in Pacific island countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1593-9 pubmed
    The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease burden among children <5 years old in 4 Pacific island countries (PICs) was estimated...
  34. Pace D, Snape M, Westcar S, Hamaluba M, Yu L, Begg N, et al. A new combination haemophilus influenzae type B and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine for primary immunization of infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26:1057-9 pubmed
    ..a phase 3 randomized controlled trial looking at the immunogenicity and safety of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine, Hib-MenC-TT in a 2-, 3-, and ..
  35. Romero Steiner S, Spear W, Brown N, Holder P, Hennessy T, Gomez De Leon P, et al. Measurement of serum bactericidal activity specific for Haemophilus influenzae type b by using a chromogenic and fluorescent metabolic indicator. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:89-93 pubmed
    ..indicator in a standardized assay for the measurement of serum bactericidal activity (SBA) to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) using sera containing natural and vaccine-induced anticapsular (polyribosylribitol phosphate) ..
  36. Tran T, Tran T, Le Q, Schlumberger M, N guyen T, Leboulleux D. [Role of Haemophilus influenzae b and pneumococcus in bacterial meningitis in Vietnam (1995-1997)]. Arch Pediatr. 2004;11:373-4 pubmed
  37. Mallet E, Belohradsky B, Lagos R, Gothefors L, Camier P, Carrière J, et al. A liquid hexavalent combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B: review of immunogenicity and safety. Vaccine. 2004;22:1343-57 pubmed
    ..Hexavac provided immunity against six important childhood diseases with a single injection at each visit...
  38. McVernon J, Howard A, Slack M, Ramsay M. Long-term impact of vaccination on Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage in the United Kingdom. Epidemiol Infect. 2004;132:765-7 pubmed
    A recent resurgence in serious infections due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) has been observed in the United Kingdom...
  39. Kelly D, Moxon E, Pollard A. Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. Immunology. 2004;113:163-74 pubmed
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of invasive bacterial infection in young children worldwide...
  40. Cerquetti M, Cardines R, Ciofi degli Atti M, Giufre M, Bella A, Sofia T, et al. Presence of multiple copies of the capsulation b locus in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) strains isolated from children with Hib conjugate vaccine failure. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:819-23 pubmed
    Most invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b strains possess a duplication of the capsulation locus. Further amplification resulting in as many as 5 copies has been described...
  41. Eskola J. Foresight in medicine: current challenges with Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines. J Intern Med. 2010;267:241-50 pubmed publisher
    An effective vaccine to prevent invasive infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) bacteria has been available for more than 20 years...
  42. Howie S, Oluwalana C, Secka O, Scott S, Ideh R, Ebruke B, et al. The effectiveness of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine in The Gambia 14 years after introduction. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:1527-34 pubmed publisher
    The Gambia was the first country in Africa to introduce conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, which, as in other developing countries but unlike industrialized countries, is delivered as a 3-dose primary series with no ..
  43. Metz J, Hanieh S, Pradhan R, Joshi A, Shakya D, Shrestha L, et al. Evaluation of haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine for routine immunization in Nepali infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:e66-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) carriage and disease studies in Nepali children suggest a significant burden of infection. Hib conjugate vaccines (HibCV) do not have uniform immunogenicity between populations...
  44. Lowther S, Shinoda N, Juni B, Theodore M, Wang X, Jawahir S, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type b infection, vaccination, and H. influenzae carriage in children in Minnesota, 2008-2009. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:566-74 pubmed publisher
    An increase in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) cases occurred in Minnesota in 2008 after the recommended deferral of the 12-15 months Hib vaccine boosters during a US vaccine shortage...
  45. Feikin D, Nelson C, Watt J, Mohsni E, Wenger J, Levine O. Rapid assessment tool for Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in developing countries. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1270-6 pubmed
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) still causes a substantial number of deaths among children in developing countries, despite the availability of effective conjugate vaccines...
  46. Kilgore P, Nyambat B. Introducing new vaccines in developing countries: concepts and approaches to estimating burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b-associated disease. J Health Popul Nutr. 2004;22:246-56 pubmed
    ..Despite this, the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines has progressed rather slowly compared to previously-introduced vaccines for infant ..
  47. Madhi S, Kuwanda L, Saarinen L, Cutland C, Mothupi R, Kayhty H, et al. Immunogenicity and effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in HIV infected and uninfected African children. Vaccine. 2005;23:5517-25 pubmed
    ..anti-HibPS) and qualitative (bactericidal activity and avidity) aspects in immune responses to Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosyl ribitol phospshate-CRM(197) conjugate vaccine (HibCV; HibTiter) were evaluated in 66 HIV ..
  48. Kelly D, Moxon E, Yu L, Pollard A. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody concentrations and avidities in children since the start of Haemophilus influenzae type b immunization of infants in the United Kingdom. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:246-52 pubmed publisher
    The introduction of routine infant immunization with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines in the United Kingdom in 1992 led to a significant reduction in invasive disease due to this organism...
  49. Kalies H, Grote V, Siedler A, Gröndahl B, Schmitt H, Von Kries R. Effectiveness of hexavalent vaccines against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease: Germany's experience after 5 years of licensure. Vaccine. 2008;26:2545-52 pubmed publisher
    ..6) for incomplete primary series and 90.4% (95% CI: 70.6-96.8) for the full primary series. For full immunisation VE was 100.0% (95% CI: 52.7-100.0). Hexavalent vaccines show a high effectiveness against invasive Hib disease in Germany...
  50. Nigrovic L, Kuppermann N, Malley R. Children with bacterial meningitis presenting to the emergency department during the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Acad Emerg Med. 2008;15:522-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in children in the era of widespread heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination (PCV7) is unknown...
  51. Hviid A, Melbye M. Impact of routine vaccination with a conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. Vaccine. 2004;22:378-82 pubmed
    ..5 years into the programme. In conclusion, nationwide routine Hib vaccination is highly effective in protecting against Hib meningitis, and rapid achievement of herd immunity is possible with catch-up vaccination of older children...
  52. Blanchard Rohner G, Pollard A. Sustaining immunity after immunization against encapsulated bacteria. Hum Vaccin. 2008;4:309-12 pubmed
    ..to protect against the major invasive bacterial diseases of childhood, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Neisseria meningitidis...
  53. Hajjeh R. Accelerating introduction of new vaccines: barriers to introduction and lessons learned from the recent Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine experience. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:2827-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) supported efforts to accelerate the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccines in developing countries, which resulted in a significant surge in vaccine adoption by ..
  54. McCormick D, Molyneux E. Bacterial meningitis and Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine, Malawi. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:688-90 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective database review showed that Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine decreased the annual number of cases of H. influenzae type b meningitis in children in Blantyre, Malawi...
  55. Williams E, Lewis J, John T, Hoe J, Yu L, Dongol S, et al. Haemophilus influenzae type b carriage and novel bacterial population structure among children in urban Kathmandu, Nepal. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children that can be prevented by a vaccine, but there is still uncertainty about its relative importance in Asia...
  56. Danovaro Holliday M, Garcia S, de Quadros C, Tambini G, Andrus J. Progress in vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in the Americas. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e87 pubmed publisher
  57. McVernon J, Trotter C, Slack M, Ramsay M. Trends in Haemophilus influenzae type b infections in adults in England and Wales: surveillance study. BMJ. 2004;329:655-8 pubmed
    To describe invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections in individuals aged 15 years or older in England and Wales between 1991 and 2003.
  58. Habermehl P, Leroux Roels G, Sänger R, Mächler G, Boutriau D. Combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (HibMenC) or serogroup C and Y-tetanus toxoid conjugate (and HibMenCY) vaccines are well-tolerated and immunogenic when administered according to the 2,3,4 months schedule . Hum Vaccin. 2010;6:640-51 pubmed
    ..study 792014 and 100381;www.clinicaltrial.govID:NCT00129116)..
  59. Ladhani S, Slack M, Heys M, White J, Ramsay M. Fall in Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease following implementation of a booster campaign. Arch Dis Child. 2008;93:665-9 pubmed
  60. van den Berg J, Westerbeek E, Berbers G, van Gageldonk P, van der Klis F, van Elburg R. Transplacental transport of IgG antibodies specific for pertussis, diphtheria, tetanus, haemophilus influenzae type b, and Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C is lower in preterm compared with term infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:801-5 pubmed
  61. Sukupolvi Petty S, Grass S, St Geme J. The Haemophilus influenzae Type b hcsA and hcsB gene products facilitate transport of capsular polysaccharide across the outer membrane and are essential for virulence. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:3870-7 pubmed
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b is a common cause of invasive bacterial disease, especially among children in underdeveloped countries...
  62. Olsen S, Dejsirilert S, Sangsuk L, Chunsutiwat S, Dowell S. Frequent Haemophilus influenzae type B colonization in rural Thailand. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:739-42 pubmed
    In Asia, there is uncertainty regarding whether the burden of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease is great enough to warrant vaccination...
  63. Borrow R, Andrews N, Findlow H, Waight P, Southern J, Crowley Luke A, et al. Kinetics of antibody persistence following administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in healthy infants in the United Kingdom primed with a monovalent meningococcal serogroup C vacci. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of antibody persistence following the administration of a combination meningococcal serogroup C and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (Menitorix) in the second year of life in children primed with two doses of ..
  64. Sandstedt S, Marrs C, Patel M, Hirasawa H, Zhang L, Davis G, et al. Prevalence of Haemophilus influenzae type b genetic islands among clinical and commensal H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2565-8 pubmed publisher
    Five genetic islands (HiGI) found in Haemophilus influenzae type b strain Eagan were used as hybridization probes on type b, Haemophilus haemolyticus, and nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi) isolates...
  65. NEVIN J, Kanter Washko J, Arnold J. Haemophilus influenzae type B in an immunocompetent, fully vaccinated ALL survivor. Pediatrics. 2013;131:e1639-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The organism in the original blood culture was identified as Haemophilus influenzae type b, ?-lactamase negative...
  66. Nix E, Hawdon N, Gravelle S, Biman B, Brigden M, Malik S, et al. Risk of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease in adults with secondary immunodeficiency in the post-Hib vaccine era. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:766-71 pubmed publisher
    Prior to the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, invasive Hib disease affected almost exclusively children...
  67. Husain E, Chawla R, Dobson S, Dele Davies H. Epidemiology and outcome of bacterial meningitis in Canadian children: 1998-1999. Clin Invest Med. 2006;29:131-5 pubmed
    ..We describe the epidemiology and outcome of bacterial meningitis in Canadian children six years after the introduction of Hib conjugate vaccine and prior to the introduction of the conjugate Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine...
  68. Theodoridou M, Vasilopoulou V, Atsali E, Pangalis A, Mostrou G, Syriopoulou V, et al. Meningitis registry of hospitalized cases in children: epidemiological patterns of acute bacterial meningitis throughout a 32-year period. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:101 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it discusses the contribution of communicable disease registries in the study of acute infectious diseases...
  69. Peltola H, Salo E, Saxen H. Incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis during 18 years of vaccine use: observational study using routine hospital data. BMJ. 2005;330:18-9 pubmed
  70. Kalies H, Verstraeten T, Grote V, Meyer N, Siedler A, Schmitt H, et al. Four and one-half-year follow-up of the effectiveness of diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis/Haemophilus influenzae type b and diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus/H. influenzae type b combination vaccines . Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:944-50 pubmed
    Recently an increase in the number of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) cases was observed in the United Kingdom, which coincided with a temporary change from diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-wild-type pertussis to diphtheria-..
  71. Shearer J, Stack M, Richmond M, Bear A, Hajjeh R, Bishai D. Accelerating policy decisions to adopt haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine: a global, multivariable analysis. PLoS Med. 2010;7:e1000249 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the case of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine, this paper endeavors to explain these delays through the analysis of country-level ..
  72. Saha S, Baqui A, El Areefin S, Qazi S, Billal D, Islam M, et al. Detection of antigenuria for diagnosis of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2006;26:329-36 pubmed
    b>Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) diseases are responsible for an estimated 400,000 childhood deaths, mostly in developing countries.
  73. Fernandez S, Cisney E, Ulrich R. Enhancement of serum and mucosal immune responses to a Haemophilus influenzae Type B vaccine by intranasal delivery. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:1690-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined i.n. vaccination in a mouse immune-response model with a commonly used Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine (Hibv) composed of the polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) capsule antigen conjugated to ..
  74. Schouls L, van der Ende A, Van de Pol I, Schot C, Spanjaard L, Vauterin P, et al. Increase in genetic diversity of Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) strains after introduction of Hib vaccination in The Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2741-9 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that after the introduction of the Hib vaccine young children no longer constitute the reservoir for Hib and that they are infected by adults carrying genetically diverse Hib strains...
  75. Newton S, Filteau S, Owusu Agyei S, Ampofo W, Kirkwood B. Seroprotection associated with infant vitamin A supplementation given with vaccines is not related to antibody affinity to Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:4738-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of a pentavalent vaccine in 888 infants, antibody affinity analyses of the hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b components were investigated in infants given 15mg RE vitamin A with their vaccination and those who ..
  76. de Andrade A, de Andrade J, Martelli C, e Silva S, de Oliveira R, Costa M, et al. Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae b conjugate vaccine on childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in Brazil. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:173-81 pubmed
    The conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine has been highly efficacious in reducing type b H. influenzae meningitis...
  77. Hasegawa K, Chiba N, Kobayashi R, Murayama S, Iwata S, Sunakawa K, et al. Rapidly increasing prevalence of beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b in patients with meningitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:1509-14 pubmed
    ..Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested the rapid spread of specific H. influenzae type b strains throughout Japan. Expedited vaccination, rapid identification, and judicious antibiotic use could slow their spread...
  78. Lewis R, Kisakye A, Gessner B, Duku C, Odipio J, Iriso R, et al. Action for child survival: elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis in Uganda. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:292-301 pubmed
    To guide immunization policy, we determined the public health benefit of introducing Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in Uganda and estimated the vaccine effectiveness.
  79. Mikolajczyk M, Concepcion N, Wang T, Frazier D, Golding B, Frasch C, et al. Characterization of antibodies to capsular polysaccharide antigens of Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immune globulin intravenous preparations. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:1158-64 pubmed
    ..infections in primary immune deficiency disease (PIDD) patients involve encapsulated bacteria, mainly Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus)...
  80. Vergauwen B, Herbert M, Van Beeumen J. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging is not a virulence determinant in the pathogenesis of Haemophilus influenzae type b strain Eagan. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:3 pubmed
    ..However, Haemophilus influenzae type b strain Eagan (Hib), a causative agent of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in young children, disrupted ..
  81. Mangtani P, Mulholland K, Madhi S, Edmond K, O Loughlin R, Hajjeh R. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in HIV-infected children: a review of the disease epidemiology and effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccines. Vaccine. 2010;28:1677-83 pubmed publisher
    ..However, HIV-infected children have an almost 6-fold higher risk of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease than HIV-uninfected children and HibCV effectiveness is lower in this ..
  82. Nolan T, Lambert S, Roberton D, Marshall H, Richmond P, Streeton C, et al. A novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine is immunogenic and induces immune memory when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV and conjugate pneumococcal vaccines in infants. Vaccine. 2007;25:8487-99 pubmed
    Immunogenicity and safety of a novel combined Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C and Y-tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Hib-MenCY-TT) candidate was evaluated when co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV(Pediarix)..
  83. Gatchalian S, Palestroque E, de Vleeschauwer I, Han H, Poolman J, Schuerman L, et al. The development of a new heptavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C vaccine: a randomized dose-ranging trial of the conjugate vaccine components. Int J Infect Dis. 2008;12:278-88 pubmed
    ..persistence, immune memory, and reactogenicity of a novel heptavalent DTPw-HBV/Hib-MenAC (diphtheria, tetanus, whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B virus/Haemophilus influenzae type b-Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A and C) vaccine.
  84. Singleton R, Hammitt L, Hennessy T, Bulkow L, DeByle C, Parkinson A, et al. The Alaska Haemophilus influenzae type b experience: lessons in controlling a vaccine-preventable disease. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e421-9 pubmed
    Before 1991, Alaska Native children experienced one of the highest rates of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease...