francisella

Summary

Summary: The lone genus of bacteria in the family Francisellaceae, frequently found in natural waters. It can be parasitic in humans, other MAMMALS; BIRDS; and ARTHROPODS.

Top Publications

  1. Baldridge G, Scoles G, Burkhardt N, Schloeder B, Kurtti T, Munderloh U. Transovarial transmission of Francisella-like endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:625-32 pubmed
    ..from Minnesota white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for bacteria of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene amplification and sequence analyses...
  2. Rajaram M, Butchar J, Parsa K, Cremer T, Amer A, Schlesinger L, et al. Akt and SHIP modulate Francisella escape from the phagosome and induction of the Fas-mediated death pathway. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7919 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis infects macrophages and escapes phago-lysosomal fusion to replicate within the host cytosol, resulting in host cell apoptosis...
  3. Gray C, Cowley S, Cheung K, Nano F. The identification of five genetic loci of Francisella novicida associated with intracellular growth. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;215:53-6 pubmed
    Five transposon mutants of Francisella novicida were isolated that are compromised in their ability to grow in mouse macrophages in vitro...
  4. Ludu J, de Bruin O, Duplantis B, Schmerk C, Chou A, Elkins K, et al. The Francisella pathogenicity island protein PdpD is required for full virulence and associates with homologues of the type VI secretion system. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4584-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious, facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that is the causative agent of tularemia...
  5. Leelaporn A, Yongyod S, Limsrivanichakorn S, Yungyuen T, Kiratisin P. Francisella novicida bacteremia, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1935-7 pubmed publisher
    We report isolation of Francisella novicida-causing bacteremia in a woman from Thailand who was receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer. The organism was isolated from blood cultures and identified by 16S rDNA and PPIase gene analyses...
  6. Moule M, Monack D, Schneider D. Reciprocal analysis of Francisella novicida infections of a Drosophila melanogaster model reveal host-pathogen conflicts mediated by reactive oxygen and imd-regulated innate immune response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001065 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the pathogen Francisella novicida and identified new bacterial virulence factors that interact with different parts of the Drosophila ..
  7. Barns S, Grow C, Okinaka R, Keim P, Kuske C. Detection of diverse new Francisella-like bacteria in environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:5494-500 pubmed
    Following detection of putative Francisella species in aerosol samples from Houston, Texas, we surveyed soil and water samples from the area for the agent of tularemia, Francisella tularensis, and related species...
  8. Kay W, Petersen B, Duus J, Perry M, Vinogradov E. Characterization of the lipopolysaccharide and beta-glucan of the fish pathogen Francisella victoria. FEBS J. 2006;273:3002-13 pubmed
    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and beta-glucan from Francisella victoria, a fish pathogen and close relative of highly virulent mammal pathogen Francisella tularensis, have been analyzed using chemical and spectroscopy methods...
  9. Ottem K, Nylund A, Karlsbakk E, Friis Møller A, Krossøy B. Characterization of Francisella sp., GM2212, the first Francisella isolate from marine fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Arch Microbiol. 2007;187:343-50 pubmed
    A Francisella sp., isolate GM2212(T), previously isolated from diseased farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in Norway is characterized...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Larsson P, Elfsmark D, Svensson K, Wikström P, Forsman M, Brettin T, et al. Molecular evolutionary consequences of niche restriction in Francisella tularensis, a facultative intracellular pathogen. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000472 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a potent mammalian pathogen well adapted to intracellular habitats, whereas F. novicida and F. philomiragia are less virulent in mammals and appear to have less specialized lifecycles...
  2. Peng K, Broz P, Jones J, Joubert L, Monack D. Elevated AIM2-mediated pyroptosis triggered by hypercytotoxic Francisella mutant strains is attributed to increased intracellular bacteriolysis. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1586-600 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular bacterial pathogens Francisella novicida and the Live Vaccine Strain (LVS) are recognized in the macrophage cytosol by the AIM2 inflammasome, which leads to the activation of caspase-1 and the processing and secretion of ..
  3. Ottem K, Nylund A, Karlsbakk E, Friis Møller A, Kamaishi T. Elevation of Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis Mikalsen et al. (2007) to Francisella noatunensis comb. nov. [syn. Francisella piscicida Ottem et al. (2008) syn. nov.] and characterization of Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis subsp. . J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:1231-43 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to clarify the taxonomic status of Francisella sp. strain Ehime-1, a fish pathogen, in relation to the fish pathogens F. piscicida and F. philomiragia subsp. noatunensis and to F. philomiragia subsp. philomiragia...
  4. Huber B, Escudero R, Busse H, Seibold E, Scholz H, Anda P, et al. Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolated from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) Olsufiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010;60:1887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..By 16S rRNA and recA gene sequencing, the strain was shown to belong to the genus Francisella. In the 16S rRNA gene sequence, Francisella sp...
  5. Gallagher L, McKevitt M, Ramage E, Manoil C. Genetic dissection of the Francisella novicida restriction barrier. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:7830-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia and is a category A select agent. Francisella novicida, considered by some to be one of four subspecies of F...
  6. Brotcke A, Monack D. Identification of fevR, a novel regulator of virulence gene expression in Francisella novicida. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3473-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis infects wild animals and humans to cause tularemia. This pathogen targets the cytosol of macrophages, where it replicates using the genes in the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI)...
  7. Zogaj X, Chakraborty S, Liu J, Thanassi D, Klose K. Characterization of the Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida type IV pilus. Microbiology. 2008;154:2139-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularaemia. Type IV pili (Tfp) genes are present in the genomes of all F. tularensis subspecies. We show that the wild-type F. tularensis subsp...
  8. Escudero R, Toledo A, Gil H, Kovácsová K, Rodríguez Vargas M, Jado I, et al. Molecular method for discrimination between Francisella tularensis and Francisella-like endosymbionts. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3139-43 pubmed publisher
    Environmental studies on the distribution of Francisella spp. are hampered by the frequency of Francisella-like endosymbionts that can produce a misleading positive result...
  9. Read A, Vogl S, Hueffer K, Gallagher L, Happ G. Francisella genes required for replication in mosquito cells. J Med Entomol. 2008;45:1108-16 pubmed
    b>Francisella tularensis, a potential bioterrorism agent, is transmitted by arthropod vectors and causes tularemia in many mammals, including humans. Francisella novicida causes disease with similar pathology in mice. We show that F...
  10. Svensson K, Granberg M, Karlsson L, Neubauerova V, Forsman M, Johansson A. A real-time PCR array for hierarchical identification of Francisella isolates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8360 pubmed publisher
    ..and flexible real-time PCR assay for hierarchical genetic typing of clinical and environmental isolates of Francisella is presented...
  11. Mohapatra N, Balagopal A, Soni S, Schlesinger L, Gunn J. AcpA is a Francisella acid phosphatase that affects intramacrophage survival and virulence. Infect Immun. 2007;75:390-6 pubmed
    AcpA of Francisella spp. is a respiratory-burst-inhibiting acid phosphatase that also exhibits phospholipase C activity...
  12. Berrada Z, Telford S. Diversity of Francisella species in environmental samples from Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Microb Ecol. 2010;59:277-83 pubmed publisher
    We determined whether Francisella spp. are present in water, sediment, and soil from an active tularemia natural focus on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, during a multiyear outbreak of pneumonic tularemia...
  13. de Carvalho I, Santos N, Soares T, Zé Zé L, Núncio M. Francisella-like endosymbiont in Dermacentor reticulatus collected in Portugal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:185-8 pubmed publisher
    In Portugal, recent studies have confirmed the presence of Francisella tularensis in Dermacentor reticulatus. Bacterial endosymbionts with significant homology to F. tularensis have been described in several species of ticks...
  14. Mikalsen J, Olsen A, Tengs T, Colquhoun D. Francisella philomiragia subsp. noatunensis subsp. nov., isolated from farmed Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2007;57:1960-5 pubmed
    ..H(2)S from cysteine-supplemented media and are therefore phenotypically consistent with members of the genus Francisella. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences and six partial housekeeping gene sequences (groEL, shdA, rpoB, rpoA, ..
  15. Parsa K, Ganesan L, Rajaram M, Gavrilin M, Balagopal A, Mohapatra N, et al. Macrophage pro-inflammatory response to Francisella novicida infection is regulated by SHIP. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e71 pubmed
    b>Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen infecting principally macrophages and monocytes, is the etiological agent of tularemia. Macrophage responses to F...
  16. Vojtech L, Scharping N, Woodson J, Hansen J. Roles of inflammatory caspases during processing of zebrafish interleukin-1? in Francisella noatunensis infection. Infect Immun. 2012;80:2878-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that in response to infection with the fish-specific bacterial pathogen Francisella noatunensis, primary leukocytes from adult zebrafish display caspase-1-like activity that results in IL-1? ..
  17. Kamaishi T, Miwa S, Goto E, Matsuyama T, Oseko N. Mass mortality of giant abalone Haliotis gigantea caused by a Francisella sp. bacterium. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;89:145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacterium was classified within the genus Francisella by gene sequence analysis...
  18. Brevik Ø, Ottem K, Nylund A. Multiple-locus, variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of the fish-pathogen Francisella noatunensis. BMC Vet Res. 2011;7:5 pubmed publisher
    Since Francisella noatunensis was first isolated from cultured Atlantic cod in 2004, it has emerged as a global fish pathogen causing disease in both warm and cold water species...
  19. Ludu J, Nix E, Duplantis B, de Bruin O, Gallagher L, Hawley L, et al. Genetic elements for selection, deletion mutagenesis and complementation in Francisella spp. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;278:86-93 pubmed
    b>Francisella novicida is a gram-negative pathogen that can induce disease in mice that mimics human tularemia, and is nearly identical to Francisella tularensis at the genomic level...
  20. Gallagher L, Ramage E, Jacobs M, Kaul R, Brittnacher M, Manoil C. A comprehensive transposon mutant library of Francisella novicida, a bioweapon surrogate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1009-14 pubmed
    b>Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is one of the most infectious bacterial pathogens known and is a category A select agent. We created a sequence-defined, near-saturation transposon mutant library of F...
  21. Mdluli K, Anthony L, Baron G, McDonald M, Myltseva S, Nano F. Serum-sensitive mutation of Francisella novicida: association with an ABC transporter gene. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 12):3309-18 pubmed
    b>Francisella novicida is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can survive and grow in macrophages by preventing phagolysosomal fusion...
  22. Vilcins I, Fournier P, Old J, Deane E. Evidence for the presence of Francisella and spotted fever group rickettsia DNA in the tick Amblyomma fimbriatum (Acari: Ixodidae), Northern Territory, Australia. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:926-33 pubmed
    ..In addition, amplification and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene detected in the same tick samples the presence of a Francisella species closely related to other tick-borne Francisellae identified in ticks from the Northern Hemisphere.
  23. Schrallhammer M, Schweikert M, Vallesi A, Verni F, Petroni G. Detection of a novel subspecies of Francisella noatunensis as endosymbiont of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi. Microb Ecol. 2011;61:455-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella are facultative intracellular bacteria causing severe disease in a broad range of animals...
  24. Kraemer P, Mitchell A, Pelletier M, Gallagher L, Wasnick M, Rohmer L, et al. Genome-wide screen in Francisella novicida for genes required for pulmonary and systemic infection in mice. Infect Immun. 2009;77:232-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative, highly infectious, aerosolizable facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the potentially life-threatening disease tularemia...
  25. Kugeler K, Gurfield N, Creek J, Mahoney K, Versage J, Petersen J. Discrimination between Francisella tularensis and Francisella-like endosymbionts when screening ticks by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:7594-7 pubmed
    The presence of Francisella-like endosymbionts in tick species known to transmit tularemia poses a potential diagnostic problem for laboratories that screen tick samples by PCR for Francisella tularensis...
  26. Kieffer T, Cowley S, Nano F, Elkins K. Francisella novicida LPS has greater immunobiological activity in mice than F. tularensis LPS, and contributes to F. novicida murine pathogenesis. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:397-403 pubmed
    To further understand the role of LPS in the pathogenesis of Francisella infection, we characterized murine infection with F. novicida, and compared immunobiological activities of F. novicida LPS and the LPS from F...
  27. Lai X, Wang S, Edebro H, Sjostedt A. Francisella strains express hemolysins of distinct characteristics. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;224:91-5 pubmed
    Historically, Francisella strains have been described as nonhemolytic. In this study, we show by use of solid and liquid hemolysis assays that some Francisella strains have hemolytic properties...
  28. Kanistanon D, Powell D, Hajjar A, Pelletier M, Cohen I, Way S, et al. Role of Francisella lipid A phosphate modification in virulence and long-term protective immune responses. Infect Immun. 2012;80:943-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In Francisella, modification of the lipid A component of LPS resulted in a molecule with no to low endotoxic activity...
  29. Napier B, Meyer L, Bina J, Miller M, Sjostedt A, Weiss D. Link between intraphagosomal biotin and rapid phagosomal escape in Francisella. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18084-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously identified a Francisella protein, FTN_0818, as being essential for intracellular replication and involved in virulence in vivo...
  30. Olakanmi O, Gunn J, Su S, Soni S, Hassett D, Britigan B. Gallium disrupts iron uptake by intracellular and extracellular Francisella strains and exhibits therapeutic efficacy in a murine pulmonary infection model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:244-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis requires iron (Fe) for growth, but the biologic sources of Fe for this organism are largely unknown. We found that Francisella sp...
  31. Durham Colleran M, Verhoeven A, van Hoek M. Francisella novicida forms in vitro biofilms mediated by an orphan response regulator. Microb Ecol. 2010;59:457-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is associated with water and waterways and infects many species of animals, insects, and protists. The mechanism Francisella utilizes to persist in the environment and in tick vectors is currently unknown...
  32. Sharma J, Li Q, Mishra B, Pena C, Teale J. Lethal pulmonary infection with Francisella novicida is associated with severe sepsis. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;86:491-504 pubmed publisher
    The bacterial or host determinants of lethality associated with respiratory Francisella infections are currently unknown. No exo- or endotoxins that contribute to the severity of this disease have been identified...
  33. Vojtech L, Sanders G, Conway C, Ostland V, Hansen J. Host immune response and acute disease in a zebrafish model of Francisella pathogenesis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:914-25 pubmed publisher
    Members of the bacterial genus Francisella are highly virulent and infectious pathogens...
  34. Soto E, Baumgartner W, Wiles J, Hawke J. Francisella asiatica as the causative agent of piscine francisellosis in cultured tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:821-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella asiatica is a Gram-negative, pleomorphic, facultative intracellular, bacterial pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in a wide variety of warm-water cultured and wild fish species...
  35. Birkbeck T, Bordevik M, Frøystad M, Baklien A. Identification of Francisella sp. from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Chile. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:505-7 pubmed
  36. Sharma J, Mishra B, Li Q, Teale J. TLR4-dependent activation of inflammatory cytokine response in macrophages by Francisella elongation factor Tu. Cell Immunol. 2011;269:69-73 pubmed publisher
    The bacterial determinants of pulmonary Francisella induced inflammatory responses and their interaction with host components are not clearly defined...
  37. Kugeler K, Mead P, McGowan K, Burnham J, Hogarty M, Ruchelli E, et al. Isolation and characterization of a novel Francisella sp. from human cerebrospinal fluid and blood. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2428-31 pubmed publisher
    We describe the isolation of a Francisella sp. from normally sterile sites in acutely ill patients in two different states within 2 years. Microbiologic and molecular analyses indicate that this organism represents a novel Francisella sp...
  38. Soto E, Fernandez D, Hawke J. Attenuation of the fish pathogen Francisella sp. by mutation of the iglC* gene. J Aquat Anim Health. 2009;21:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..francisellosis is an emergent disease caused by gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria of the genus Francisella. Different strains of the bacterium have caused high mortalities in warmwater and coldwater fish species...
  39. Qu P, Chen S, Scholz H, Busse H, Gu Q, Kampfer P, et al. Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2013;63:3628-35 pubmed publisher
    ..enhanced in the presence of l-cysteine, which was consistent with the properties of members of the genus Francisella. The quinone system was composed of ubiquinone Q-8 with minor amounts of Q-9...
  40. Sridhar S, Sharma A, Kongshaug H, Nilsen F, Jonassen I. Whole genome sequencing of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis Toba04 gives novel insights into Francisella evolution and pathogenecity. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:598 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella is a genus of gram-negative bacterium highly virulent in fishes and human where F. tularensis is causing the serious disease tularaemia in human...
  41. Chandler J, Molins C, Petersen J, Belisle J. Differential chitinase activity and production within Francisella species, subspecies, and subpopulations. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3265-75 pubmed publisher
    Genotyping of Francisella tularensis (A1a, A1b, A2, and type B) and Francisella novicida has identified multiple differences between species and among F. tularensis subspecies and subpopulations...
  42. Raetz C, Guan Z, Ingram B, Six D, Song F, Wang X, et al. Discovery of new biosynthetic pathways: the lipid A story. J Lipid Res. 2009;50 Suppl:S103-8 pubmed publisher
  43. Zogaj X, Wyatt G, Klose K. Cyclic di-GMP stimulates biofilm formation and inhibits virulence of Francisella novicida. Infect Immun. 2012;80:4239-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that is highly virulent in humans, causing the disease tularemia. F. novicida is closely related to F...
  44. Soto E, Hawke J, Fernandez D, Morales J. Francisella sp., an emerging pathogen of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), in Costa Rica. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:713-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella sp. is an emergent bacterial pathogen that causes acute to chronic disease in warm and cold water cultured and wild fish species...
  45. Barel M, Meibom K, Dubail I, Botella J, Charbit A. Francisella tularensis regulates the expression of the amino acid transporter SLC1A5 in infected THP-1 human monocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:1769-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the disease tularemia in a large number of animal species, is thought to reside preferentially within macrophages in vivo. F...
  46. Gunn J, Ernst R. The structure and function of Francisella lipopolysaccharide. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1105:202-18 pubmed
    A key factor in the biology of Francisella spp. is lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  47. Gavrilin M, Bouakl I, Knatz N, Duncan M, Hall M, Gunn J, et al. Internalization and phagosome escape required for Francisella to induce human monocyte IL-1beta processing and release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:141-6 pubmed
    Macrophage responses to Francisella infection have been characterized previously by subdued proinflammatory responses; however, these studies have generally focused on macrophage cell lines or monocyte-derived macrophages...
  48. Hsieh C, Wu Z, Tung M, Tsai S. PCR and in situ hybridization for the detection and localization of a new pathogen Francisella-like bacterium (FLB) in ornamental cichlids. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;75:29-36 pubmed
    ..granulomas were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) for detection of Francisella-like bacteria (FLB)...
  49. Thomas R, Titball R, Oyston P, Griffin K, Waters E, Hitchen P, et al. The immunologically distinct O antigens from Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis and Francisella novicida are both virulence determinants and protective antigens. Infect Immun. 2007;75:371-8 pubmed
    We have determined the sequence of the gene cluster encoding the O antigen in Francisella novicida and compared it to the previously reported O-antigen cluster in Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis...
  50. Siddaramappa S, Challacombe J, Petersen J, Pillai S, Hogg G, Kuske C. Common ancestry and novel genetic traits of Francisella novicida-like isolates from North America and Australia as revealed by comparative genomic analyses. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5110-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella novicida is a close relative of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia. The genomes of F. novicida-like clinical isolates 3523 (Australian strain) and Fx1 (Texas strain) were sequenced and compared to F...
  51. Jeffery K, Stone D, Feist S, Verner Jeffreys D. An outbreak of disease caused by Francisella sp. in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus at a recirculation fish farm in the UK. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;91:161-5 pubmed publisher
    This study details the first diagnosis of Francisella sp. in tilapia in the United Kingdom...
  52. Feng Y, Napier B, Manandhar M, Henke S, Weiss D, Cronan J. A Francisella virulence factor catalyses an essential reaction of biotin synthesis. Mol Microbiol. 2014;91:300-14 pubmed publisher
    We recently identified a gene (FTN_0818) required for Francisella virulence that seemed likely involved in biotin metabolism. However, the molecular function of this virulence determinant was unclear...
  53. Soto E, Wiles J, Elzer P, MACALUSO K, Hawke J. Attenuated Francisella asiatica iglC mutant induces protective immunity to francisellosis in tilapia. Vaccine. 2011;29:593-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella asiatica is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that causes fish francisellosis...
  54. Ivanov I, Mitkova N, Reye A, Hübschen J, Vatcheva Dobrevska R, Dobreva E, et al. Detection of new Francisella-like tick endosymbionts in Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. (Acari: Ixodidae) from Bulgaria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:5562-5 pubmed publisher
    We report on the identification of two new Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) found in three different tick species from Bulgaria...
  55. Baron G, Nano F. MglA and MglB are required for the intramacrophage growth of Francisella novicida. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:247-59 pubmed
    b>Francisella novicida is a facultative intracellular pathogen capable of growing in macrophages. A spontaneous mutant of F...
  56. Jawaid S, Seidle H, Zhou W, Abdirahman H, Abadeer M, Hix J, et al. Kinetic characterization and phosphoregulation of the Francisella tularensis 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (MEP synthase). PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8288 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report we describe the cloning and characterization of Francisella tularensis MEP synthase, a MEP pathway enzyme and potential target for antibiotic development...
  57. Johansson A, Ibrahim A, G ransson I, Eriksson U, Gurycova D, Clarridge J, et al. Evaluation of PCR-based methods for discrimination of Francisella species and subspecies and development of a specific PCR that distinguishes the two major subspecies of Francisella tularensis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:4180-5 pubmed
    Previous studies have demonstrated that the four subspecies of the human pathogen Francisella tularensis, despite showing marked variations in their virulence for mammals and originating from different regions in the Northern Hemisphere, ..
  58. Vinogradov E, Perry M. Characterisation of the core part of the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen of Francisella novicida (U112). Carbohydr Res. 2004;339:1643-8 pubmed
    b>Francisella novicida (U112), a close relative of the highly virulent bacterium F. tularensis, is known to produce a lipopolysaccharide that is significantly different in biological properties from the LPS of F. tularensis...
  59. Roth K, Oghumu S, Satoskar A, Gunn J, Van Rooijen N, Satoskar A. Respiratory infection with Francisella novicida induces rapid dystrophic cardiac calcinosis (DCC). FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;53:72-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis causes pulmonary tularemia and death in humans when left untreated...
  60. de Bruin O, Duplantis B, Ludu J, Hare R, Nix E, Schmerk C, et al. The biochemical properties of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded proteins IglA, IglB, IglC, PdpB and DotU suggest roles in type VI secretion. Microbiology. 2011;157:3483-91 pubmed publisher
    The Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) encodes proteins thought to compose a type VI secretion system (T6SS) that is required for the intracellular growth of Francisella novicida...
  61. Olsen A, Mikalsen J, Rode M, Alfjorden A, Hoel E, Straum Lie K, et al. A novel systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease in farmed Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., associated with a bacterium belonging to the genus Francisella. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:307-11 pubmed
  62. Nallaparaju K, Yu J, Rodriguez S, Zogaj X, Manam S, Guentzel M, et al. Evasion of IFN-? signaling by Francisella novicida is dependent upon Francisella outer membrane protein C. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18201 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of the lethal disease tularemia. An outer membrane protein (FTT0918) of F. tularensis subsp...
  63. Parsa K, Butchar J, Rajaram M, Cremer T, Tridandapani S. The tyrosine kinase Syk promotes phagocytosis of Francisella through the activation of Erk. Mol Immunol. 2008;45:3012-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious, Gram-negative intra-cellular pathogen that can cause the zoonotic disease tularemia...
  64. Furevik A, Pettersen E, Colquhoun D, Wergeland H. The intracellular lifestyle of Francisella noatunensis in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) leucocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:488-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella noatunensis causes the systemic granulomatous inflammatory disease, francisellosis in cod. Little is known about the lifestyle of this facultative intracellular bacterium within cod leucocytes...
  65. Siddaramappa S, Challacombe J, Petersen J, Pillai S, Kuske C. Genetic diversity within the genus Francisella as revealed by comparative analyses of the genomes of two North American isolates from environmental sources. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:422 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is an intracellular pathogen that causes tularemia in humans and the public health importance of this bacterium has been well documented in recent history. Francisella philomiragia, a distant relative of F...
  66. Splettstoesser W, Seibold E, Zeman E, Trebesius K, Podbielski A. Rapid differentiation of Francisella species and subspecies by fluorescent in situ hybridization targeting the 23S rRNA. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:72 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella (F.) tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia. Due to its low infectious dose, ease of dissemination and high case fatality rate, F...
  67. Wenger J, Hollis D, Weaver R, Baker C, Brown G, Brenner D, et al. Infection caused by Francisella philomiragia (formerly Yersinia philomiragia). A newly recognized human pathogen. Ann Intern Med. 1989;110:888-92 pubmed
    We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with Francisella philomiragia (formerly Yersinia philomiragia) isolated from normally sterile sites...
  68. Pierson T, Matrakas D, Taylor Y, Manyam G, Morozov V, Zhou W, et al. Proteomic characterization and functional analysis of outer membrane vesicles of Francisella novicida suggests possible role in virulence and use as a vaccine. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:954-67 pubmed publisher
    We have isolated and characterized outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Francisella. Transport of effector molecules through secretion systems is a major mechanism by which Francisella tularensis alters the extracellular proteome and ..
  69. Colquhoun D, Duodu S. Francisella infections in farmed and wild aquatic organisms. Vet Res. 2011;42:47 pubmed publisher
    Over the last 10 years or so, infections caused by bacteria belonging to a particular branch of the genus Francisella have become increasingly recognised in farmed fish and molluscs worldwide...
  70. Keim P, Johansson A, Wagner D. Molecular epidemiology, evolution, and ecology of Francisella. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1105:30-66 pubmed
    Tularemia is a disease caused by several subspecies of Francisella tularensis, although the severity of the disease varies greatly from subspecies to subspecies...
  71. Frank D, Zahrt T. Genetics and genetic manipulation in Francisella tularensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1105:67-97 pubmed
    b>Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative coccobacillus and the etiological agent of tularemia. The limited knowledge regarding the interaction of F...
  72. Goethert H, Telford S. A new Francisella (Beggiatiales: Francisellaceae) inquiline within Dermacentor variabilis say (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:502-5 pubmed
    ..DVS) in dog ticks on Martha's Vineyard, MA, we identified DNA that may represent a heretofore unrecognized Francisella sp...
  73. Bröms J, Meyer L, Lavander M, Larsson P, Sjöstedt A. DotU and VgrG, core components of type VI secretion systems, are essential for Francisella LVS pathogenicity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34639 pubmed publisher
    The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis causes tularemia, a disease which requires bacterial escape from phagosomes of infected macrophages...
  74. Maier T, Havig A, Casey M, Nano F, Frank D, Zahrt T. Construction and characterization of a highly efficient Francisella shuttle plasmid. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:7511-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that infects a wide variety of mammals and causes tularemia in humans...
  75. Schilling B, McLendon M, Phillips N, Apicella M, Gibson B. Characterization of lipid A acylation patterns in Francisella tularensis, Francisella novicida, and Francisella philomiragia using multiple-stage mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization on an intermediate vacuum source linea. Anal Chem. 2007;79:1034-42 pubmed
    ..We have previously identified the two major lipid A species from Francisella tularensis as asymmetric tetraacylated structures containing four long acyl chains (16 and 18 carbons) and a ..
  76. Henry T, Brotcke A, Weiss D, Thompson L, Monack D. Type I interferon signaling is required for activation of the inflammasome during Francisella infection. J Exp Med. 2007;204:987-94 pubmed
    b>Francisella tularensis is a pathogenic bacterium whose virulence is linked to its ability to replicate within the host cell cytosol...
  77. Schmerk C, Duplantis B, Wang D, Burke R, Chou A, Elkins K, et al. Characterization of the pathogenicity island protein PdpA and its role in the virulence of Francisella novicida. Microbiology. 2009;155:1489-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a highly virulent, intracellular pathogen that causes the disease tularaemia. A research surrogate for F...
  78. Hager A, Bolton D, Pelletier M, Brittnacher M, Gallagher L, Kaul R, et al. Type IV pili-mediated secretion modulates Francisella virulence. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:227-37 pubmed
    b>Francisella tularensis are the causative agent of the zoonotic disease, tularaemia. Among four F. tularensis subspecies, ssp. novicida (F...
  79. Ostland V, Stannard J, Creek J, Hedrick R, Ferguson H, Carlberg J, et al. Aquatic Francisella-like bacterium associated with mortality of intensively cultured hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:135-45 pubmed
    The present study identifies an emerging disease associated with an aquatic Francisella-like bacterium that can cause mortality in hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x M. saxatilis reared intensively in freshwater...
  80. Bell B, Mohapatra N, Gunn J. Regulation of virulence gene transcripts by the Francisella novicida orphan response regulator PmrA: role of phosphorylation and evidence of MglA/SspA interaction. Infect Immun. 2010;78:2189-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is the etiologic agent of tularemia and has been designated a category A biothreat agent by the CDC. Tularemia is characterized by replication and dissemination within host phagocytes...
  81. Pomerantsev A, Golovliov I, Ohara Y, Mokrievich A, Obuchi M, Norqvist A, et al. Genetic organization of the Francisella plasmid pFNL10. Plasmid. 2001;46:210-22 pubmed
    We report here the molecular characterization of pFNL10, a 3990-bp cryptic plasmid of Francisella novicida-like F6168. The plasmid was maintained in F. novicida Utah 112 and F. tularensis LVS strains...
  82. Amer L, Bishop B, van Hoek M. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of cathelicidins and short, synthetic peptides against Francisella. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:246-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella infects the lungs causing pneumonic tularemia. Focusing on the lung's host defense, we have examined antimicrobial peptides as part of the innate immune response to Francisella infection...
  83. Belhocine K, Monack D. Francisella infection triggers activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in murine dendritic cells. Cell Microbiol. 2012;14:71-80 pubmed publisher
    The intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis is the causative agent of tularemia, a potentially fatal disease...
  84. Crosa L, Crosa J, Heffron F. Iron transport in Francisella in the absence of a recognizable TonB protein still requires energy generated by the proton motive force. Biometals. 2009;22:337-44 pubmed publisher
    The mechanism of iron transport in Francisella is still a puzzle since none of the sequenced Francisella strains appears to encode a TonB protein, the energy transducer of the proton motive force necessary to act on the bacterial outer ..
  85. Wang X, Ribeiro A, Guan Z, Raetz C. Identification of undecaprenyl phosphate-beta-D-galactosamine in Francisella novicida and its function in lipid A modification. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1162-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious pathogen that causes tularemia. Francisella lipid A contains an unusual galactosamine (GalN) unit, attached to its 1-phosphate moiety...
  86. Soto E, Bowles K, Fernandez D, Hawke J. Development of a real-time PCR assay for identification and quantification of the fish pathogen Francisella noatunensis subsp. orientalis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;89:199-207 pubmed publisher
    Members of the genus Francisella are small Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacteria that cause francisellosis in a wide variety of fish species worldwide. F. noatunensis subsp...
  87. Chou A, Kennett N, Nix E, Schmerk C, Nano F, Elkins K. Generation of protection against Francisella novicida in mice depends on the pathogenicity protein PdpA, but not PdpC or PdpD. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:816-27 pubmed publisher
    Previous results suggest that mutations in most genes in the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI) attenuate the bacterium...
  88. Okan N, Kasper D. The atypical lipopolysaccharide of Francisella. Carbohydr Res. 2013;378:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and structural characterizations of Francisella LPS have revealed substantial differences when compared to more commonly studied LPSs of the Enterobacteriaceae...