coxiella

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.

Top Publications

  1. Mediannikov O, Ivanov L, Nishikawa M, Saito R, Sidelnikov Y, Zdanovskaya N, et al. Molecular evidence of Coxiella-like microorganism harbored by Haemaphysalis concinnae ticks in the Russian Far East. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:226-8 pubmed
    ..Closest homology was found in Coxiella burnetii 16S rDNA...
  2. Mayer H, Radziejewska Lebrecht J, Schramek S. Chemical and immunochemical studies on lipopolysaccharides of Coxiella burnetii phase I and phase II. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1988;228:577-91 pubmed
    Lipopolysaccharides of Coxiella burnetii phase I and II were comparatively investigated by chemical and immunochemical methods...
  3. Liu L, Li L, Liu J, Hu Y, Liu Z, Guo L, et al. Coinfection of Dermacentor silvarum olenev (acari: ixodidae) by Coxiella-Like, Arsenophonus-like, and Rickettsia-like symbionts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:2450-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, we prove that Coxiella-like and Arsenophonus-like symbionts, with 95.6% and 96...
  4. Rehacek J, Urvolgyi J, Kocianova E, Sekeyova Z, Vavreková M, Kovacova E. Extensive examination of different tick species for infestation with Coxiella burnetii in Slovakia. Eur J Epidemiol. 1991;7:299-303 pubmed
    ..and Haemaphysalis inermis ticks collected in all 38 districts of Slovakia were screened for the presence of Coxiella burnettii. The proportion of ticks containing C. burnetii as indicated by the haemocyte test was less than 3%...
  5. Lamas C, Ramos R, Lopes G, Santos M, Golebiovski W, Weksler C, et al. Bartonella and Coxiella infective endocarditis in Brazil: molecular evidence from excised valves from a cardiac surgery referral center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1998 to 2009. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e65-6 pubmed publisher
    PCR was used to detect Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp in heart valves obtained during the period 1998-2009 from patients operated on for blood culture-negative endocarditis in a cardiac surgery hospital in Brazil...
  6. Raoult D, Vestris G, Enea M. Isolation of 16 strains of Coxiella burnetii from patients by using a sensitive centrifugation cell culture system and establishment of the strains in HEL cells. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:2482-4 pubmed
    Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, may be acute or chronic. Only a few strains of C. burnetii have been isolated due to the difficulty and hazard of isolation...
  7. Raoult D. Antibiotic susceptibility of rickettsia and treatment of rickettsioses. Eur J Epidemiol. 1989;5:432-5 pubmed
    The author describes the in vitro data for antibiotic susceptibility of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetti. Tetracyclines are still the first antibiotic choice in spotted fevers, typhus and Q fever...
  8. Werner M, Fournier P, Andersson R, Hogevik H, Raoult D. Bartonella and Coxiella antibodies in 334 prospectively studied episodes of infective endocarditis in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:724-7 pubmed
    Bartonella spp. have been identified as aetiological agents in culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Coxiella burnetii may cause chronic Q-fever with endocarditis, 334 blood samples collected from 329 patients (334 episodes) with ..
  9. Savinelli E, Mallavia L. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii plasmids to homologous chromosomal sequences present in a plasmidless endocarditis-causing isolate. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:523-33 pubmed
    b>Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of human Q fever and chronic endocarditis. Different plasmids have been found in C. burnetii isolates and a correlation between disease state and plasmid type has been established...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Hendrix L, Samuel J, Mallavia L. Identification and cloning of a 27-kDa Coxiella burnetii immunoreactive protein. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:534-40 pubmed
    Patients with acute Q fever develop Coxiella burnetii-specific antibody, and chronic disease patients often develop extremely high levels of C. burnetii-specific antibody...
  2. Scott G, Williams J, Stephenson E. Animal models in Q fever: pathological responses of inbred mice to phase I Coxiella burnetii. J Gen Microbiol. 1987;133:691-700 pubmed
    The susceptibility of inbred strains of mice to infection by phase I Coxiella burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, was investigated by evaluating morbidity, mortality, antibody production and in vitro proliferative responses of ..
  3. Williams J, Hoover T, Waag D, Banerjee Bhatnagar N, Bolt C, Scott G. Antigenic structure of Coxiella burnetii. A comparison of lipopolysaccharide and protein antigens as vaccines against Q fever. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:370-80 pubmed
    The antigenic structure of Coxiella burnetii is being investigated by identifying both external and internal cellular epitopes of the morphologic cell types...
  4. Heinzen R, Frazier M, Mallavia L. Nucleotide sequence of Coxiella burnetii superoxide dismutase. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:6437 pubmed
  5. Toman R, Garidel P, Andrä J, Slaba K, Hussein A, Koch M, et al. Physicochemical characterization of the endotoxins from Coxiella burnetii strain Priscilla in relation to their bioactivities. BMC Biochem. 2004;5:1 pubmed
    b>Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever found worldwide...
  6. McCaul T, Banerjee Bhatnagar N, Williams J. Antigenic differences between Coxiella burnetii cells revealed by postembedding immunoelectron microscopy and immunoblotting. Infect Immun. 1991;59:3243-53 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the antigenic structures of the morphologically distinct cells of the Coxiella burnetii developmental cycle...
  7. Reeves W, Loftis A, Priestley R, Wills W, Sanders F, Dasch G. Molecular and biological characterization of a novel Coxiella-like agent from Carios capensis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:343-5 pubmed
    The genus Coxiella is currently defined by a single monotypic species, Coxiella burnetii. Novel Coxiella spp. have been detected in ticks throughout the world...
  8. Klyachko O, Stein B, Grindle N, Clay K, Fuqua C. Localization and visualization of a coxiella-type symbiont within the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:6584-94 pubmed
    A Coxiella-type microbe occurs at 100% frequency in all Amblyomma americanum ticks thus far tested...
  9. Lee J, Park H, Jang W, Koh S, Park T, Kang S, et al. Identification of the Coxiella sp. detected from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Korea. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:125-30 pubmed
    Two Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks were found positive in PCR assay of com-1 gene to detect Coxiella burnetii DNA from 100 ticks...
  10. Raoult D, Toga B, Chaudet H, Chiche Portiche C. Rickettsial antibody in southern France: antibodies to Rickettsia conorii and Coxiella burnetii among urban, suburban and semi-rural blood donors. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81:80-1 pubmed
    ..This supports the view that in the south of France the highest prevalence of Mediterranean Spotted Fever is suburban. 5% of the sera had antibodies to Coxiella burnetti in this area, in which Q fever is endemic.
  11. Reeves W, Loftis A, Sanders F, Spinks M, Wills W, Denison A, et al. Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia in Carios capensis (Acari: Argasidae) from a brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) rookery in South Carolina, USA. Exp Appl Acarol. 2006;39:321-9 pubmed
    ..and screened 64 individual ticks, six pools of larvae, and an egg mass for DNA from Bartonella, Borrelia, Coxiella, and Rickettsia by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing...
  12. Hackstadt T. Steric hindrance of antibody binding to surface proteins of Coxiella burnetti by phase I lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 1988;56:802-7 pubmed
    The exposure of surface protein antigens on virulent phase I Coxiella burnetti was compared with that on avirulent phase II cells...
  13. Machado Ferreira E, Dietrich G, Hojgaard A, Levin M, Piesman J, Zeidner N, et al. Coxiella symbionts in the Cayenne tick Amblyomma cajennense. Microb Ecol. 2011;62:134-42 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Coxiella genus are intracellular bacteria that can infect a variety of animals including humans...
  14. Raoult D, Drancourt M, Vestris G. Bactericidal effect of doxycycline associated with lysosomotropic agents on Coxiella burnetii in P388D1 cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990;34:1512-4 pubmed
    There is no consistently reliable treatment for endocarditis resulting from chronic Coxiella burnetii infection, the causative agent of Q fever...
  15. Akesson A, Krauss H, Thiele H, Macellaro A, Schwan O, Norlander L. Isolation of Coxiella burnetii in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23:273-4 pubmed
    b>Coxiella burnetii was isolated from sheep placentas, which had been collected from farms harbouring humans seropositive to the organism. The isolation of these bacteria is the final evidence that Q fever is a domestic disease in Sweden.
  16. Bernasconi M, Casati S, Péter O, Piffaretti J. Rhipicephalus ticks infected with Rickettsia and Coxiella in Southern Switzerland (Canton Ticino). Infect Genet Evol. 2002;2:111-20 pubmed
    ..of various pathogens including Rickettsia conorii (the etiological agent of the Mediterranean spotted fever) and Coxiella burnetii (cause of the Query (Q) fever). R...
  17. Comer J, Paddock C, Childs J. Urban zoonoses caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:91-118 pubmed
    ..an increase in the occurrence and recognition of urban zoonoses caused by members of the genera Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia, all traditionally considered to be members of the family Rickettsiaceae...
  18. Heinzen R, Stiegler G, Whiting L, Schmitt S, Mallavia L, Frazier M. Use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis to differentiate Coxiella burnetii strains. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:504-13 pubmed
    ..When isolates of Coxiella burnetii were examined using this method, the restriction enzymes Not I and Sfi I gave the fewest and most easily ..
  19. Minnick M, Heinzen R, Frazier M, Mallavia L. Characterization and expression of the cbbE' gene of Coxiella burnetii. J Gen Microbiol. 1990;136:1099-107 pubmed
    A gene which is unique to the QpRS plasmid from chronic isolates of Coxiella burnetii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli...
  20. Vilcins I, Old J, Deane E. Molecular detection of Rickettsia, Coxiella and Rickettsiella DNA in three native Australian tick species. Exp Appl Acarol. 2009;49:229-42 pubmed publisher
    ..auruginans (n = 10), respectively. PCR screening and sequencing detected a species of Coxiella, sharing closest sequence identity to C. burnetii (>98%), in all B...
  21. Gummow B, Poerstamper N, Herr S. The incidence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in cattle in the Transvaal. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 1987;54:569-71 pubmed
    With the use of the complement fixation test, 8,900 cattle were tested for antibodies to Coxiella burnetii. These were randomly selected from 178 different farms in 37 districts in the Transvaal...
  22. Oda H, Yoshiie K. Isolation of a Coxiella burnetii strain that has low virulence for mice from a patient with acute Q fever. Microbiol Immunol. 1989;33:969-73 pubmed
    b>Coxiella burnetii was isolated from a patient with Q fever. It could not be determined whether this was an imported case or an indigenous one...
  23. Ruiz Beltrán R, Herrero Herrero J, Martín Sánchez A, Martín González J. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia typhi in Salamanca Province (Spain). Serosurvey in the human population. Eur J Epidemiol. 1990;6:293-9 pubmed
    ..province were subjected to indirect microimmunofluorescent test for antibodies against Rickettsia conorii, Coxiella burnetti, phase II, and Rickettsia typhi antigens. Titers greater than or equal to 1:40 to R...
  24. Izzo A, Marmion B, Hackstadt T. Analysis of the cells involved in the lymphoproliferative response to Coxiella burnetii antigens. Clin Exp Immunol. 1991;85:98-108 pubmed
    ..burnetii which represents a different biotype of Coxiella isolated from Q fever endocarditis; Q-vax is therefore likely to protect against endocarditis strains...
  25. Sinai A, Paul S, Rabinovitch M, Kaplan G, Joiner K. Coinfection of fibroblasts with Coxiella burnetti and Toxoplasma gondii: to each their own. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:727-36 pubmed
    ..host endosomal/lysosomal defenses are the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii and the bacterium Coxiella burnetti. While the intracellular replication of T...
  26. Dellacasagrande J, Capo C, Raoult D, Mege J. IFN-gamma-mediated control of Coxiella burnetii survival in monocytes: the role of cell apoptosis and TNF. J Immunol. 1999;162:2259-65 pubmed
    ..Monocytic THP-1 cells were infected with Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, and then treated with IFN-gamma. While C...
  27. Vodkin M, Williams J. A heat shock operon in Coxiella burnetti produces a major antigen homologous to a protein in both mycobacteria and Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:1227-34 pubmed
    A gene library from the DNA of Coxiella burnetii has been constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. A particular clone, pJB196, reacted strongly with Coxiella-specific antibodies elicited in a number of different species of animals...
  28. Hendrix L, Samuel J, Mallavia L. Differentiation of Coxiella burnetii isolates by analysis of restriction-endonuclease-digested DNA separated by SDS-PAGE. J Gen Microbiol. 1991;137:269-76 pubmed
    Thirty-two isolates of Coxiella burnetii collected from various hosts ranging from arthropods to man were compared by restriction endonuclease (RE) digestion patterns of chromosomal DNA using SDS-PAGE...
  29. Vishwanath S, Hackstadt T. Lipopolysaccharide phase variation determines the complement-mediated serum susceptibility of Coxiella burnetii. Infect Immun. 1988;56:40-4 pubmed
    Phase variation of Coxiella burnetii is due to variation of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a phenomenon analogous to smooth-to-rough LPS variation of gram-negative enteric bacteria...
  30. Khavkin T, Tabibzadeh S. Histologic, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic study of infectious process in mouse lung after intranasal challenge with Coxiella burnetii. Infect Immun. 1988;56:1792-9 pubmed
    A histologic, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopic study of the intracellular parasitism of Coxiella burnetii (the Q fever agent) in mouse lungs after intranasal challenge was undertaken...
  31. Jasinskas A, Zhong J, Barbour A. Highly prevalent Coxiella sp. bacterium in the tick vector Amblyomma americanum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:334-6 pubmed
    Laboratory-reared and field-collected Amblyomma americanum ticks were hosts of a Coxiella sp. and a Rickettsia sp. While the Coxiella sp. was detected in 50 of 50 field-collected ticks, the Rickettsia sp. was absent from 32% of ticks...
  32. Raoult D, Yeaman M, Baca O. Susceptibility of Coxiella burnetii to pefloxacin and ofloxacin in ovo and in persistently infected L929 cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33:621-3 pubmed
    ..antibiotic treatment of chronic Q fever endocarditis justifies the further evaluation of the susceptibility of Coxiella burnetii to the modern quinolone antibiotics...
  33. Reeves W. Molecular evidence for a novel Coxiella from Argas monolakensis (Acari: Argasidae) from Mono Lake, California, USA. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;44:57-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thirty adult A. monolakensis were tested by PCR for DNA from Rickettsia or Coxiella. Amplicons from a Coxiella sp. that were divergent from Coxiella burnetii were detected in 16/30 A. monolakensis...
  34. Frazier M, Mallavia L, Samuel J, Baca O. DNA probes for the identification of Coxiella burnetti strains. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:445-58 pubmed
    Isolation of Coxiella Burnetii in the standard laboratory setting is hazardous; therefore most diagnoses are based on retrospective detection of a rising antibody titer to C. burnetti...
  35. Almeida A, Marcili A, Leite R, Nieri Bastos F, Domingues L, Martins J, et al. Coxiella symbiont in the tick Ornithodoros rostratus (Acari: Argasidae). Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:203-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, all tested ticks (100%) yielded PCR products for 3 Coxiella genes (16S rRNA, pyrG, cap)...
  36. Clark I. Resistance to Babesia spp. and Plasmodium sp. in mice pretreated with an extract of Coxiella burnetii. Infect Immun. 1979;24:319-25 pubmed
    Mice injected intravenously with a commercially available extract of Coxiella burnetii prepared for use as the antigen in the complement fixation diagnostic test for Q fever were subsequently resistant to infection with Babesia microti, ..
  37. Torina A, Naranjo V, Pennisi M, Patania T, Vitale F, Laricchiuta P, et al. Serologic and molecular characterization of tickborne pathogens in lions (Panthera leo) from the Fasano Safari Park, Italy. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:591-3 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to characterize Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Coxiella burnetii infections in 10 lions from the Fasano Safari Park in Italy by serology, polymerase chain reaction, and ..
  38. Donahue J, Thompson H. Effects of temperature upon the cell-free translation system from Coxiella burnetii. Can J Microbiol. 1987;33:642-6 pubmed
    The rate and extent of coliphage Q beta RNA translation by cell-free extracts prepared from Coxiella burnetii were studied...
  39. Titcomb G, Allan B, Ainsworth T, Henson L, Hedlund T, Pringle R, et al. Interacting effects of wildlife loss and climate on ticks and tick-borne disease. Proc Biol Sci. 2017;284: pubmed publisher
    ..experimentally tested this hypothesis by measuring tick abundance and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens (Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp...
  40. Durupt S, Puget M, Lega J, Durieu I, Reynaud Q. Coxiella burnetii infection (Q fever) mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus: two cases. Lupus. 2017;:961203317747721 pubmed publisher
    ..We report two cases of atypical Q fever with a clinical presentation highly suggestive of an inflammatory systemic disease with positivity of autoimmune antibodies, mimicking systemic lupus erythematosus...
  41. Filioussis G, Theodoridis A, Papadopoulos D, Gelasakis A, Vouraki S, Bramis G, et al. Serological prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goats and ewes diagnosed with adverse pregnancy outcomes in Greece. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2017;24:702-705 pubmed publisher
    lt;i>Coxiella burnetii</i> is an obligatory intracellular bacterial pathogen causing the zoonotic disease Q fever. The most common reservoirs of <i>C. burnetii</i> are wild mammals, birds and ticks...
  42. Clark I, Chaudhri G. Tumor necrosis factor in malaria-induced abortion. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988;39:246-9 pubmed
    ..A small dose of TNF also caused fetal death in 16 day pregnant mice that had received an intravenous injection of Coxiella burneti extract 9-10 days earlier...
  43. Muramatsu Y, Maruyama M, Yanase T, Ueno H, Morita C. Improved method for preparation of samples for the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Coxiella burnetii in milk using immunomagnetic separation. Vet Microbiol. 1996;51:179-85 pubmed
    Immunomagnetic separation (IMS) improved the detection of Coxiella burnetii in cow's milk by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IMS represents a novel approach to the isolation of microorganism from milk...
  44. Flores Ramírez G, Danchenko M, Quevedo Diaz M, Skultety L. Reliable tool for detection of novel Coxiella burnetii antigens, using immobilized human polyclonal antibodies. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1047:84-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is the etiological agent of a Q fever-the re-emerging disease with considerable economic impact. Due to many similar symptoms with commonly occurring infections, its clinical diagnosis is very difficult...
  45. Fernández Guerrero M, Muelas J, Aguado J, Renedo G, Fraile J, Soriano F, et al. Q fever endocarditis on porcine bioprosthetic valves. Clinicopathologic features and microbiologic findings in three patients treated with doxycycline, cotrimoxazole, and valve replacement. Ann Intern Med. 1988;108:209-13 pubmed
    ..High-phase I-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers against Coxiella burnetii were found. C...
  46. Rehacek J, Sutáková G. Interaction between Dermacentor reticulatus cells and Coxiella burnetii in vivo. Acta Virol. 1989;33:465-73 pubmed
    By electron microscopy the distribution of Coxiella burnetii was followed in females of Dermacentor reticulatus injected intracoelomally in a dose of about 10(3) EID50 per tick...
  47. Maor Y, Sternik L, Orlov B, Rahav G, Keller N, Raanani E, et al. Coxiella burnetii Endocarditis and Aortic Vascular Graft Infection: An Underrecognized Disease. Ann Thorac Surg. 2016;101:141-5 pubmed publisher
    Q fever is considered endemic worldwide, and endocarditis, or aortic vascular infection, or both caused by Coxiella burnetii can be a fatal disease. The importance of surgical intervention has not yet been defined...
  48. Mallavia L. Genetics of rickettsiae. Eur J Epidemiol. 1991;7:213-21 pubmed
    ..quintana by electroporation is an important first step in this direction. The ability to introduce genetic material is necessary to address questions that cannot be resolved by studying rickettsial gene expression in E. coli. ..
  49. Clay K, Hartley M, Russell P, Norville I. Use of axenic media to determine antibiotic efficacy against coxiella burnetii. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2018;51:806-808 pubmed publisher
    The traditional methods of measuring minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against Coxiella burnetii are time-consuming and technically difficult. The discovery of axenic media for C...
  50. Sandoz K, Beare P, Cockrell D, Heinzen R. Complementation of Arginine Auxotrophy for Genetic Transformation of Coxiella burnetii by Use of a Defined Axenic Medium. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016;82:3042-51 pubmed publisher
    Host cell-free (axenic) culture of Coxiella burnetii in acidified citrate cysteine medium-2 (ACCM-2) has provided important opportunities for investigating the biology of this naturally obligate intracellular pathogen and enabled the ..
  51. Qiu J, Luo Z. Legionella and Coxiella effectors: strength in diversity and activity. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017;15:591-605 pubmed publisher
    Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii are two evolutionarily related intracellular pathogens that use the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system to translocate effectors into host cells...
  52. Gemayel G, Mootoosamy P, Murith N, Kalangos A. Embolization of a Large Rapidly Growing Aortic Pseudo-Aneurysm Not Amenable to Open or Endovascular Repair. Ann Vasc Surg. 2016;33:230.e15-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was then put on doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine to target Coxiella burnetii...
  53. Samuel J, Frazier M, Mallavia L. Stability of plasmid sequences in an acute Q-fever strain of Coxiella burnetii. J Gen Microbiol. 1988;134:1795-1805 pubmed
    The rickettsial pathogen Coxiella burnetii undergoes a variation in which virulent isolates (phase 1) become avirulent (phase 2) after repeated passage in a non-immunologically competent host...
  54. Yeaman M, Baca O. Mechanisms that may account for differential antibiotic susceptibilities among Coxiella burnetii isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991;35:948-54 pubmed
    The Nine Mile, S Q217, and Priscilla isolates, representative of the three major genetic groups of Coxiella burnetii, are known to differ in their susceptibilities to antibiotics...
  55. Blondeau J, Williams J, Marrie T. The immune response to phase I and phase II Coxiella burnetii antigens as measured by western immunoblotting. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:187-202 pubmed
    ..chronic Q fever from acute Q fever, we first examined serum samples from individuals who had no antibodies to Coxiella burnetii by either the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test or by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
  56. Blondeau J, Yates L, Martin R, Marrie T, Ukoli P, Thomas A. Q fever in Sokoto, Nigeria. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990;590:281-2 pubmed
    There is very little information available about the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Africa. We obtained blood from 75 Nigerians hospitalized in Sokoto for a variety of acute medical conditions...
  57. Soubrane C, Bellorini M, Granier J, Haddad G, Bachet J, Le Besnerais P, et al. [Q fever infectious endocarditis. Apropos of a new case]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1989;82:265-8 pubmed
    We report a case of Coxiella burnetii endocarditis in a 42-year old man presenting with a long-known cardiac murmur and an infectious syndrome of several months duration...
  58. Lukacova M, Brezina R, Schramek S, Pastorek J. Chemical composition of phase I Coxiella burnetii soluble antigen prepared by trichloroacetic acid extraction. Acta Virol. 1989;33:75-80 pubmed
    Optimal conditions of extraction (time and temperature) by trichloroacetic acid of soluble antigen from phase I Coxiella burnetii (TCAE), possessing protective properties and used as a chemovaccine against Q fever in men, were studied...
  59. Noseda A, Liesnard C, Goffin Y, Thys J. Q fever endocarditis: relapse five years after successful valve replacement for a first unrecognized episode. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 1988;29:360-3 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to phase 2 and phase 1 antigens of Coxiella burneti were detected and a diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis was made...
  60. Debrunner M, Steiner A, Greminger P. [Febrile state, headache and arthralgia]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1991;80:620-3 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis of an acute Q fever was made by demonstration of antibodies against C. burnetii. Following therapy with doxycycline, the patient became afebrile within 48 hours...
  61. Schmeer N, Muller P, Langel J, Krauss H, Frost J, Wieda J. Q fever vaccines for animals. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987;267:79-88 pubmed
    ..In field trials Coxiella (C...
  62. Sienko D, Bartlett P, McGee H, Wentworth B, Herndon J, Hall W. Q fever. A call to heighten our index of suspicion. Arch Intern Med. 1988;148:609-12 pubmed
    ..Q fever should be considered more often in the differential diagnosis of patients with compatible illness, especially those with frequent animal contact...
  63. Izzo A, Marmion B, Worswick D. Markers of cell-mediated immunity after vaccination with an inactivated, whole-cell Q fever vaccine. J Infect Dis. 1988;157:781-9 pubmed
    ..Cell-mediated immunity to Coxiella burnetii antigens, as measured by an index of lymphoproliferative responses (LSI) of peripheral blood mononuclear ..
  64. Webster J, Macdonald D. Parasites of wild brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) on UK farms. Parasitology. 1995;111 ( Pt 3):247-55 pubmed
    ..g. Cryptosporidium, Pasteurella, Listeria, Yersinia, Coxiella and Hantavirus) have rarely or never been previously investigated for wild rats...
  65. Spitalska E, Kocianova E. Tick-borne microorganisms in southwestern Slovakia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:196-200 pubmed
  66. Chidiac C, Mouton Y. Quinolones in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by intracellular pathogens. Infection. 1991;19 Suppl 7:S365-71 pubmed
    ..Considering the in vitro and experimental studies, quinolones should play an important role in the treatment of LRTI caused by intracellular pathogens, and prospective controlled studies are strongly recommended...
  67. Bacellar F, Dawson J, Silveira C, Filipe A. Antibodies against Rickettsiaceae in dogs of Setúbal, Portugal. Cent Eur J Public Health. 1995;3:100-2 pubmed
    ..Two other members of the family Rickettsiaceae, Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia typhi, were included in the serosurvey. Of the 104 dogs tested, 85.6% had antibodies to R...
  68. Cooper A, Layton R, Owens L, Ketheesan N, Govan B. Evidence for the classification of a crayfish pathogen as a member of the genus Coxiella. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2007;45:558-63 pubmed
    The study aimed to provide characterization of a potential new species of Coxiella, identified following a series of outbreaks of disease in Australian native freshwater crayfish.
  69. Akesson A, Macellaro A, Tull P, Williams J, Norlander L. Epidemiology of Q fever in Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991;23:153-7 pubmed
    ..whether or not a potential risk group for obtaining Q fever in Sweden was seropositive to the causative agent Coxiella burnetii...