xenorhabdus

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Latreille P, Norton S, Goldman B, Henkhaus J, Miller N, Barbazuk B, et al. Optical mapping as a routine tool for bacterial genome sequence finishing. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:321 pubmed
    In sequencing the genomes of two Xenorhabdus species, we encountered a large number of sequence repeats and assembly anomalies that stalled finishing efforts. This included a stretch of about 12 Kb that is over 99...
  2. Park Y, Kim Y, Tunaz H, Stanley D. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, inhibits hemocytic phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in tobacco hornworms Manduca sexta. J Invertebr Pathol. 2004;86:65-71 pubmed
    The entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, induces immunodepression in target insects and finally leads to lethal septicemia of the infected hosts...
  3. Sicard M, Ferdy J, Pages S, Le Brun N, Godelle B, Boemare N, et al. When mutualists are pathogens: an experimental study of the symbioses between Steinernema (entomopathogenic nematodes) and Xenorhabdus (bacteria). J Evol Biol. 2004;17:985-93 pubmed
    ..between an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae) and its mutualistic native bacterium (Xenorhabdus nematophila)...
  4. Givaudan A, Lanois A. flhDC, the flagellar master operon of Xenorhabdus nematophilus: requirement for motility, lipolysis, extracellular hemolysis, and full virulence in insects. J Bacteriol. 2000;182:107-15 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus is a major insect pathogen symbiotically associated with nematodes of the family Steinernematidae...
  5. Herbert E, Goodrich Blair H. Friend and foe: the two faces of Xenorhabdus nematophila. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:634-46 pubmed
    ..such comparisons is to study a single organism that speaks both dialects, such as the gamma-proteobacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila. X...
  6. Yang J, Zeng H, Lin H, Yang X, Liu Z, Guo L, et al. An insecticidal protein from Xenorhabdus budapestensis that results in prophenoloxidase activation in the wax moth, Galleria mellonella. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;110:60-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Xenorhabdus budapestensis can produce a variety of proteins that help this bacterium and its mutualistic nematode vector kill the host insect. In this report, we purified one protein fraction from the intracellular extract of X...
  7. Nielsen Leroux C, Gaudriault S, Ramarao N, Lereclus D, Givaudan A. How the insect pathogen bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus occupy their hosts. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012;15:220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..their lepidopteran larval host: Bacillus thuringiensis and the nematode-associated bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus. The comparison reveals similarities in function and expression profiles for some genes, which suggest that ..
  8. Sicard M, Le Brun N, Pages S, Godelle B, Boemare N, Moulia C. Effect of native Xenorhabdus on the fitness of their Steinernema hosts: contrasting types of interaction. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:520-4 pubmed
    ..They are symbiotically associated with Enterobacteriaceae of the genus Xenorhabdus. These nematode-bacteria symbioses are extremely diversified and constitute an important new model in ecology ..
  9. Lee S, Stoilova McPhie S, Baxter L, Fulop V, Henderson J, Rodger A, et al. Structural characterisation of the insecticidal toxin XptA1, reveals a 1.15 MDa tetramer with a cage-like structure. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1558-68 pubmed
    ..biophysical characterisation and 3-D structural analysis of one of the toxin components, XptA1, from Xenorhabdus nematophila PMFI296 to a resolution of 23 A...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Vigneux F, Bashey F, Sicard M, Lively C. Low migration decreases interference competition among parasites and increases virulence. J Evol Biol. 2008;21:1245-51 pubmed publisher
    ..this idea by allowing an insect-parasitic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae) and its symbiotic bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) to evolve for 20 passages under two different migration treatments (low and high)...
  2. Fuchs S, Sachs C, Kegler C, Nollmann F, Karas M, Bode H. Neutral loss fragmentation pattern based screening for arginine-rich natural products in Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Anal Chem. 2012;84:6948-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The culture supernatants of 69 strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus were analyzed by MALDI-MS(2), and a database comprising MS(2) data from each strain was established...
  3. Jubelin G, Pages S, Lanois A, Boyer M, Gaudriault S, Ferdy J, et al. Studies of the dynamic expression of the Xenorhabdus FliAZ regulon reveal atypical iron-dependent regulation of the flagellin and haemolysin genes during insect infection. Environ Microbiol. 2011;13:1271-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila engages in complex interactions with invertebrates, through its symbiosis with soil nematodes and its pathogenicity to a broad range of insect larvae...
  4. Lengyel K, Lang E, Fodor A, Szállás E, Schumann P, Stackebrandt E. Description of four novel species of Xenorhabdus, family Enterobacteriaceae: Xenorhabdus budapestensis sp. nov., Xenorhabdus ehlersii sp. nov., Xenorhabdus innexi sp. nov., and Xenorhabdus szentirmaii sp. nov. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2005;28:115-22 pubmed
    The taxonomic affiliation was determined for four Xenorhabdus strains isolated from four Steinernema hosts from different countries. As compared to the five validly described Xenorhabdus species, i.e., X. nematophila, X. japonica, X...
  5. Sheets J, Hey T, Fencil K, Burton S, Ni W, Lang A, et al. Insecticidal toxin complex proteins from Xenorhabdus nematophilus: structure and pore formation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:22742-9 pubmed publisher
    Toxin complexes from Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus spp. bacteria represent novel insecticidal proteins. We purified a native toxin complex (toxin complex 1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus...
  6. Ogier J, Calteau A, Forst S, Goodrich Blair H, Roche D, Rouy Z, et al. Units of plasticity in bacterial genomes: new insight from the comparative genomics of two bacteria interacting with invertebrates, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:568 pubmed publisher
    ..plasticity units in bacterial genomes, by exhaustive description of the RGPs in two Photorhabdus and two Xenorhabdus strains, belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and interacting with invertebrates (insects and nematodes)...
  7. Gualtieri M, Aumelas A, Thaler J. Identification of a new antimicrobial lysine-rich cyclolipopeptide family from Xenorhabdus nematophila. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009;62:295-302 pubmed publisher
    Entomopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus are known to be symbiotically associated with soil dwelling nematodes of the Steinernematidae family...
  8. Ji D, Yi Y, Kang G, Choi Y, Kim P, Baek N, et al. Identification of an antibacterial compound, benzylideneacetone, from Xenorhabdus nematophila against major plant-pathogenic bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;239:241-8 pubmed
    An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is known to have potent antibiotic activities to maintain monoxenic condition in its insect host for effective pathogenesis and ultimately for optimal development of its nematode ..
  9. Bashey F, Young S, Hawlena H, Lively C. Spiteful interactions between sympatric natural isolates of Xenorhabdus bovienii benefit kin and reduce virulence. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Using five sympatric, field-collected genotypes of the insect pathogen Xenorhabdus bovienii, we experimentally demonstrate that bacteriocin production benefits kin within the host, and that it ..
  10. Brillard J, Ribeiro C, Boemare N, Brehelin M, Givaudan A. Two distinct hemolytic activities in Xenorhabdus nematophila are active against immunocompetent insect cells. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:2515-25 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp. are major insect bacterial pathogens symbiotically associated with nematodes...
  11. Sergeant M, Jarrett P, Ousley M, Morgan J. Interactions of insecticidal toxin gene products from Xenorhabdus nematophilus PMFI296. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:3344-9 pubmed
    Four genes on a genomic fragment from Xenorhabdus nematophilus PMFI296 were shown to be involved in insecticidal activity towards three commercially important insect species...
  12. Richards G, Goodrich Blair H. Masters of conquest and pillage: Xenorhabdus nematophila global regulators control transitions from virulence to nutrient acquisition. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1025-33 pubmed publisher
    ..For example, enteric bacteria in the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are pathogens of insects that also mutualistically associate with nematodes in the genera Heterorhabditis and ..
  13. Park Y, Herbert E, Cowles C, Cowles K, Menard M, Orchard S, et al. Clonal variation in Xenorhabdus nematophila virulence and suppression of Manduca sexta immunity. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:645-56 pubmed
    Virulence of the insect pathogen Xenorhabdus nematophila is attributed in part to its ability to suppress immunity. For example, X...
  14. An R, Sreevatsan S, Grewal P. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:433 pubmed publisher
    Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are Gram-negative, phylogenetically related, enterobacteria, forming mutualism with the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively...
  15. Snyder H, Stock S, Kim S, Flores Lara Y, Forst S. New insights into the colonization and release processes of Xenorhabdus nematophila and the morphology and ultrastructure of the bacterial receptacle of its nematode host, Steinernema carpocapsae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:5338-46 pubmed
    ..from epifluorescence, differential interference contrast, and transmission electron microscopy showing that Xenorhabdus nematophila colonizes a receptacle in the anterior intestine of the infective juvenile (IJ) stage of ..
  16. Brown S, Cao A, Dobson P, Hines E, Akhurst R, East P. Txp40, a ubiquitous insecticidal toxin protein from Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1653-62 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus are gram-negative bacteria that produce a range of proteins that are toxic to insects...
  17. Ehlers R. Mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes for plant protection. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;56:623-33 pubmed
    ..They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes...
  18. Cowles C, Goodrich Blair H. The Xenorhabdus nematophila nilABC genes confer the ability of Xenorhabdus spp. to colonize Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4121-8 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Steinernema genus of nematodes are colonized mutualistically by members of the Xenorhabdus genus of bacteria...
  19. Singh J, Banerjee N. Transcriptional analysis and functional characterization of a gene pair encoding iron-regulated xenocin and immunity proteins of Xenorhabdus nematophila. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:3877-85 pubmed publisher
    ..cluster encoding a bacteriocin, xenocin, and the cognate immunity protein in the insect-pathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila, which infects and kills larval stages of the common crop pest Helicoverpa armigera...
  20. Martens E, Russell F, Goodrich Blair H. Analysis of Xenorhabdus nematophila metabolic mutants yields insight into stages of Steinernema carpocapsae nematode intestinal colonization. Mol Microbiol. 2005;58:28-45 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila colonizes the intestinal tract of infective-juvenile (IJ) stage Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. During colonization, X...
  21. Park Y, Kim Y. Xenorhabdus nematophilus inhibits p-bromophenacyl bromide (BPB)-sensitive PLA2 of Spodoptera exigua. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2003;54:134-42 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophilus is a Gram-negative symbiotic bacterium of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae...
  22. Goodrich Blair H, Clarke D. Mutualism and pathogenesis in Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus: two roads to the same destination. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:260-8 pubmed
    Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus bacteria colonize the intestines of the infective soil-dwelling stage of entomophagous nematodes, Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively...
  23. Cowles K, Cowles C, Richards G, Martens E, Goodrich Blair H. The global regulator Lrp contributes to mutualism, pathogenesis and phenotypic variation in the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:1311-23 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila is a Gram-negative bacterium that leads both pathogenic and mutualistic lifestyles. In this study, we examine the role of Lrp, the leucine-responsive regulatory protein, in regulating both of these lifestyles...
  24. Giannoulis P, Brooks C, Dunphy G, Mandato C, Niven D, Zakarian R. Interaction of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobactericeae) and Bacillus subtilis (Bacillaceae) with the hemocytes of larval Malacosoma disstria (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;94:20-30 pubmed
    ..Incubating dead Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis with a mixture of serum-free granular cells and plasmatocytes in vitro ..
  25. Chaston J, Murfin K, Heath Heckman E, Goodrich Blair H. Previously unrecognized stages of species-specific colonization in the mutualism between Xenorhabdus bacteria and Steinernema nematodes. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:1545-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In the symbiosis between Steinernema nematodes and Xenorhabdus bacteria, previous investigations focused on bacterial colonization of the intestinal lumen (receptacle) of the ..
  26. Park D, Ciezki K, van der Hoeven R, Singh S, Reimer D, Bode H, et al. Genetic analysis of xenocoumacin antibiotic production in the mutualistic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:938-49 pubmed publisher
    Xenocoumacin 1 (Xcn1) and xenocoumacin 2 (Xcn2) are the major antimicrobial compounds produced by Xenorhabdus nematophila. To study the role of Xcn1 and Xcn2 in the life cycle of X...
  27. Lang G, Kalvelage T, Peters A, Wiese J, Imhoff J. Linear and cyclic peptides from the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus. J Nat Prod. 2008;71:1074-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A and B and xenematide, were isolated from a culture of the nematode-associated entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Their structures were elucidated using NMR, MS, and chemical derivatization methods...
  28. Tailliez P, Pages S, Ginibre N, Boemare N. New insight into diversity in the genus Xenorhabdus, including the description of ten novel species. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:2805-18 pubmed
    We investigated the diversity of a collection of 76 Xenorhabdus strains, isolated from at least 27 species of Steinernema nematodes and collected in 32 countries, using three complementary approaches: 16S rRNA gene sequencing, molecular ..
  29. Banerjee J, Singh J, Joshi M, Ghosh S, Banerjee N. The cytotoxic fimbrial structural subunit of Xenorhabdus nematophila is a pore-forming toxin. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:7957-62 pubmed
    We have purified a fimbrial shaft protein (MrxA) of Xenorhabdus nematophila. The soluble monomeric protein lysed larval hemocytes of Helicoverpa armigera...
  30. Wang Y, Fang X, An F, Wang G, Zhang X. Improvement of antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus bovienii by medium optimization using response surface methodology. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:98 pubmed publisher
    ..of secondary metabolites with antibiotic properties is a common characteristic to entomopathogenic bacteria Xenorhabdus spp...
  31. Brown S, Cao A, Hines E, Akhurst R, East P. A novel secreted protein toxin from the insect pathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:14595-601 pubmed
    The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is an insect pathogen that produces several proteins that enable it to kill insects. Screening of a cosmid library constructed from X...
  32. Kim Y, Ji D, Cho S, Park Y. Two groups of entomopathogenic bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, share an inhibitory action against phospholipase A2 to induce host immunodepression. J Invertebr Pathol. 2005;89:258-64 pubmed
    Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are two genera of entomopathogenic bacteria having a mutualistic relationship with their respective nematode hosts, Heterorhabditis and Steinernema...
  33. Lee M, Stock S. A multilocus approach to assessing co-evolutionary relationships between Steinernema spp. (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae). Syst Parasitol. 2010;77:1-12 pubmed publisher
    Nematodes of the genus Steinernema Travassos, 1927 (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) and their associated bacteria, Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria), are an emergent model of terrestrial animal-microbe symbiosis...
  34. Sergeant M, Baxter L, Jarrett P, Shaw E, Ousley M, Winstanley C, et al. Identification, typing, and insecticidal activity of Xenorhabdus isolates from entomopathogenic nematodes in United Kingdom soil and characterization of the xpt toxin loci. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5895-907 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus strains from entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from United Kingdom soils by using the insect bait entrapment method were characterized by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, four housekeeping genes (asd, ompR, recA, ..
  35. Tailliez P, Laroui C, Ginibre N, Paule A, Pages S, Boemare N. Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov.,. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010;60:1921-37 pubmed publisher
    ..from four genes (recA, gyrB, dnaN and gltX) to investigate the phylogeny of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus (entomopathogenic bacteria associated with nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, ..
  36. Massaoud M, Marokhazi J, Fodor A, Venekei I. Proteolytic enzyme production by strains of the insect pathogen xenorhabdus and characterization of an early-log-phase-secreted protease as a potential virulence factor. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6901-9 pubmed publisher
    As a comparison to a similar study on Photorhabdus strains, 15 Xenorhabdus bacterial strains and secondary phenotypic variants of two strains were screened for proteolytic activity by five detection methods...
  37. Herbert Tran E, Goodrich Blair H. CpxRA contributes to Xenorhabdus nematophila virulence through regulation of lrhA and modulation of insect immunity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:3998-4006 pubmed publisher
    The gammaproteobacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a blood pathogen of insects that requires the CpxRA signal transduction system for full virulence (E. E. Herbert et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:7826-7836, 2007)...
  38. Heungens K, Cowles C, Goodrich Blair H. Identification of Xenorhabdus nematophila genes required for mutualistic colonization of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes. Mol Microbiol. 2002;45:1337-53 pubmed
    One stage in the symbiotic interaction between the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila and its nematode host, Steinernema carpocapsae, involves the species-specific colonization of the nematode intestinal vesicle by the bacterium...
  39. Wang Y, Feng J, Zhang Q, Zhang X. Optimization of fermentation condition for antibiotic production by Xenorhabdus nematophila with response surface methodology. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:735-44 pubmed
    To evaluate the influence of environmental parameters on the production of antibiotics (xenocoumacins and nematophin) by Xenorhabdus nematophila and enhance the antibiotic activity.
  40. Ji D, Kim Y. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, inhibits the expression of an antibacterial peptide, cecropin, of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. J Insect Physiol. 2004;50:489-96 pubmed
    An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is known to depress hemocyte nodule formation of target insects by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis. This study analyzed the inhibitory effect of X...
  41. Morgan J, Sergeant M, Ellis D, Ousley M, Jarrett P. Sequence analysis of insecticidal genes from Xenorhabdus nematophilus PMFI296. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:2062-9 pubmed
    Three strains of Xenorhabdus nematophilus showed insecticidal activity when fed to Pieris brassicae (cabbage white butterfly) larvae. From one of these strains (X...
  42. Chapuis E, Emelianoff V, Paulmier V, Le Brun N, Pages S, Sicard M, et al. Manifold aspects of specificity in a nematode-bacterium mutualism. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:2104-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated this issue in symbiotic systems where nematodes (Steinernema) and bacteria (Xenorhabdus) reproduce in insects they have both contributed to kill...
  43. Park Y, Kim Y, Stanley D. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila inhibits phospholipases A2 from insect, prokaryote, and vertebrate sources. Naturwissenschaften. 2004;91:371-3 pubmed
    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, is a virulent insect pathogen...
  44. Emelianoff V, Chapuis E, Le Brun N, Chiral M, Moulia C, Ferdy J. A survival-reproduction trade-off in entomopathogenic nematodes mediated by their bacterial symbionts. Evolution. 2008;62:932-42 pubmed publisher
    ..the investment of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes (Rhabditidae) in their symbiotic association with Xenorhabdus bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae)...
  45. Orchard S, Goodrich Blair H. Identification and functional characterization of a Xenorhabdus nematophila oligopeptide permease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5621-7 pubmed
    The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a mutualist of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and a pathogen of insects. Presently, it is not known what nutrients the bacterium uses to thrive in these host environments...
  46. Martens E, Heungens K, Goodrich Blair H. Early colonization events in the mutualistic association between Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and Xenorhabdus nematophila bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:3147-54 pubmed
    The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila is a mutualist of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae...
  47. Marokhazi J, Waterfield N, LeGoff G, Feil E, Stabler R, Hinds J, et al. Using a DNA microarray to investigate the distribution of insect virulence factors in strains of photorhabdus bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4648-56 pubmed
    ..Using a DNA microarray and comparative genomics, we show that oral toxicity is associated with toxin complex genes tcaABC and that this locus can be mobilized or deleted within different strains...
  48. Emelianoff V, Sicard M, Le Brun N, Moulia C, Ferdy J. Effect of bacterial symbionts Xenorhabdus on mortality of infective juveniles of two Steinernema species. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:657-9 pubmed
    Steinernema species are entomopathogenic nematodes associated with Xenorhabdus bacteria...
  49. Cowles C, Goodrich Blair H. nilR is necessary for co-ordinate repression of Xenorhabdus nematophila mutualism genes. Mol Microbiol. 2006;62:760-71 pubmed
    The bacterial mutualist Xenorhabdus nematophila colonizes a specific region of its nematode host Steinernema carpocapsae. We previously reported the identification of a chromosomal locus encoding three X...
  50. Wang Y, Fang X, Li Y, Zhang X. Effects of constant and shifting dissolved oxygen concentration on the growth and antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus nematophila. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:7529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..oxygen (DO) control strategy on cell growth and the production of antibiotic (cyclo(2-Me-BABA-Gly)) by Xenorhabdus nematophila...
  51. Park Y, Kim Y, Putnam S, Stanley D. The bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophilus depresses nodulation reactions to infection by inhibiting eicosanoid biosynthesis in tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2003;52:71-80 pubmed
    The bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophilus, is a virulent insect pathogen...
  52. Isaacson P, Webster J. Antimicrobial activity of Xenorhabdus sp. RIO (Enterobacteriaceae), symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema riobrave (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2002;79:146-53 pubmed
    Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Steinernema riobrave soon showed (after 24 h) the typical growth of its Xenorhabdus sp. RIO symbiont and, in parallel, the growth of another Gram negative bacterial species in the body cavity...
  53. Richards G, Goodrich Blair H. Examination of Xenorhabdus nematophila lipases in pathogenic and mutualistic host interactions reveals a role for xlpA in nematode progeny production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:221-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila is a gammaproteobacterium and broad-host-range insect pathogen. It is also a symbiont of Steinernema carpocapsae, the nematode vector that transports the bacterium between insect hosts. X...
  54. Vivas E, Goodrich Blair H. Xenorhabdus nematophilus as a model for host-bacterium interactions: rpoS is necessary for mutualism with nematodes. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4687-93 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophilus, a gram-negative bacterium, is a mutualist of Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes and a pathogen of larval-stage insects...
  55. Lee M, Stock S. A multigene approach for assessing evolutionary relationships of Xenorhabdus spp. (gamma-Proteobacteria), the bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic Steinernema nematodes. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;104:67-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Xenorhabdus spp., are gram-negative bacterial symbionts of entomopathogenic nematodes in the genus Steinernema...
  56. Hawlena H, Bashey F, Mendes Soares H, Lively C. Spiteful Interactions in a natural population of the bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii. Am Nat. 2010;175:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we studied toxin production and among-strain inhibitions in a natural population of Xenorhabdus bovienii...
  57. Herbert E, Cowles K, Goodrich Blair H. CpxRA regulates mutualism and pathogenesis in Xenorhabdus nematophila. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:7826-36 pubmed
    ..maintenance, is involved in the pathogenic and mutualistic interactions of the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila...
  58. Caldas C, Cherqui A, Pereira A, Simoes N. Purification and characterization of an extracellular protease from Xenorhabdus nematophila involved in insect immunosuppression. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:1297-304 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila, a bacterium pathogenic for insects associated with the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, releases high quantities of proteases, which may participate in the virulence against insects...
  59. Richards G, Herbert E, Park Y, Goodrich Blair H. Xenorhabdus nematophila lrhA is necessary for motility, lipase activity, toxin expression, and virulence in Manduca sexta insects. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4870-9 pubmed publisher
    The gram-negative insect pathogen Xenorhabdus nematophila possesses potential virulence factors including an assortment of toxins, degradative enzymes, and regulators of these compounds...
  60. Tailliez P, Pages S, Edgington S, Tymo L, Buddie A. Description of Xenorhabdus magdalenensis sp. nov., the symbiotic bacterium associated with Steinernema australe. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2012;62:1761-5 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, this bacterial isolate was shown to belong to the genus Xenorhabdus, in agreement with the genus of its nematode host...
  61. Cowles C, Goodrich Blair H. Characterization of a lipoprotein, NilC, required by Xenorhabdus nematophila for mutualism with its nematode host. Mol Microbiol. 2004;54:464-77 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila is a gamma-proteobacterial mutualist of an insect-pathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae. X...
  62. Morales Soto N, Gaudriault S, Ogier J, Thappeta K, Forst S. Comparative analysis of P2-type remnant prophage loci in Xenorhabdus bovienii and Xenorhabdus nematophila required for xenorhabdicin production. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;333:69-76 pubmed publisher
    The xnp1 remnant P2-type prophage of Xenorhabdus nematophila produces xenorhabdicin that is active against closely related species. Xenorhabdicin had not been characterized previously in other Xenorhabdus species...
  63. Morales Soto N, Forst S. The xnp1 P2-like tail synthesis gene cluster encodes xenorhabdicin and is required for interspecies competition. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:3624-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila, the mutualistic bacterium of the nematode Steinernema carpocapsae, produces the R-type bacteriocin called xenorhabdicin, which is thought to confer a competitive advantage for growth in the insect host...
  64. Shrestha S, Kim Y. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, inhibits hemocyte phagocytosis of Spodoptera exigua by inhibiting phospholipase A(2). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;96:64-70 pubmed
    Phagocytosis is a hemocytic behavior against bacterial infection. An entomopathogenic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, inhibits immune responses of target insects and causes hemolymph septicemia. This study analyzed how X...
  65. Hawlena H, Bashey F, Lively C. The evolution of spite: population structure and bacteriocin-mediated antagonism in two natural populations of xenorhabdus bacteria. Evolution. 2010;64:3198-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results suggest that the bacteria are spatially structured, with mixing of genotypes and spiteful interactions at the boundaries between demes...
  66. Crawford J, Kontnik R, Clardy J. Regulating alternative lifestyles in entomopathogenic bacteria. Curr Biol. 2010;20:69-74 pubmed publisher
    Bacteria belonging to the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus participate in a trilateral symbiosis in which they enable their nematode hosts to parasitize insect larvae...
  67. Herbert Tran E, Andersen A, Goodrich Blair H. CpxRA influences Xenorhabdus nematophila colonization initiation and outgrowth in Steinernema carpocapsae nematodes through regulation of the nil locus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4007-14 pubmed publisher
    The gammaproteobacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila mutualistically colonizes an intestinal region of a soil-dwelling nematode and is a blood pathogen of insects. The X...
  68. Lanois A, Jubelin G, Givaudan A. FliZ, a flagellar regulator, is at the crossroads between motility, haemolysin expression and virulence in the insect pathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus. Mol Microbiol. 2008;68:516-33 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of FliZ in the regulation of flagellar and virulence genes in Xenorhabdus nematophila, an insect pathogen. The fliZ gene is the second gene in the fliAZ operon in X. nematophila...
  69. Park D, Forst S. Co-regulation of motility, exoenzyme and antibiotic production by the EnvZ-OmpR-FlhDC-FliA pathway in Xenorhabdus nematophila. Mol Microbiol. 2006;61:1397-412 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophila is an emerging model for both mutualism and pathogenicity in different invertebrate hosts. Here we conduct a mutant study of the EnvZ-OmpR two-component system and the flagella sigma factor, FliA (sigma28)...
  70. Sicard M, Tabart J, Boemare N, Thaler O, Moulia C. Effect of phenotypic variation in Xenorhabdus nematophila on its mutualistic relationship with the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. Parasitology. 2005;131:687-94 pubmed
    The entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae is mutualistically associated with the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila. Infective Juveniles (IJs) transport X...
  71. Mahar A, Munir M, Elawad S, Gowen S, Hague N. Microbial control of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) using bacteria (Xenorhabdus nematophila) and its metabolites from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae. J Zhejiang Univ Sci. 2004;5:1183-90 pubmed
    Cells and cell-free solutions of the culture filtrate of the bacterial symbiont, Xenorhabdus nematophila taken from the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae in aqueous broth suspensions were lethal to larvae of the ..
  72. Joo Lee P, Ahn J, Kim Y, Wook Kim S, Kim J, Park J, et al. Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel insecticidal gene (tccC1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:1110-6 pubmed
    We have identified and cloned a novel toxin gene (tccC1/xptB1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain isolated from Korea-specific entomophagous nematode Steinernema glaseri MK...
  73. Khandelwal P, Banerjee Bhatnagar N. Insecticidal activity associated with the outer membrane vesicles of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:2032-7 pubmed
    b>Xenorhabdus nematophilus secretes a large number of proteins into the culture supernatant as soluble proteins and also as large molecular complexes associated with the outer membrane. Transmission electron micrographs of X...
  74. Liu J, Berry R, Blouin M. Identification of symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) from the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis marelatus and Steinernema oregonense based on 16S rDNA sequence. J Invertebr Pathol. 2001;77:87-91 pubmed
    ..from the symbiotic bacteria of these two nematodes with sequence from previously described Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus species...
  75. Sicard M, Ramone H, Le Brun N, Pages S, Moulia C. Specialization of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci with its mutualistic Xenorhabdus symbiont. Naturwissenschaften. 2005;92:472-6 pubmed
    The level of specialization of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema scapterisci with its native Xenorhabdus symbiont was investigated by testing (1) the influence of non-native bacterial strains on nematode fitness within an insect-..