shigella flexneri

Summary

Summary: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.

Top Publications

  1. Foster R, Carlin N, Majcher M, Tabor H, Ng L, Widmalm G. Structural elucidation of the O-antigen of the Shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893: structural and serological similarities with S. flexneri provisional serotype Y394 (1c). Carbohydr Res. 2011;346:872-6 pubmed publisher
    The structure of the repeating unit of the O-antigen polysaccharide from Shigella flexneri provisional serotype 88-893 has been determined...
  2. Mostowy S, Sancho Shimizu V, Hamon M, Simeone R, Brosch R, Johansen T, et al. p62 and NDP52 proteins target intracytosolic Shigella and Listeria to different autophagy pathways. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:26987-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a new molecular framework to understand the emerging complexity of autophagy and its ability to achieve specific clearance of intracytosolic bacteria. ..
  3. Coron E, Flamant M, Aubert P, Wedel T, Pedron T, Letessier E, et al. Characterisation of early mucosal and neuronal lesions following Shigella flexneri infection in human colon. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4713 pubmed publisher
    ..However, early effect of Shigella flexneri (S...
  4. Hodgkinson J, Horsley A, Stabat D, Simon M, Johnson S, da Fonseca P, et al. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the Shigella T3SS transmembrane regions reveals 12-fold symmetry and novel features throughout. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:477-85 pubmed publisher
  5. Simon J, Maciel M, Weld E, Wahid R, Pasetti M, Picking W, et al. Antigen-specific IgA B memory cell responses to Shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates. Clin Immunol. 2011;139:185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..the induction of antigen-specific IgA memory B cells (B(M)) in volunteers who received live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccines. Subjects ingested a single oral dose of 10(7), 10(8) or 10(9) CFU of S...
  6. Salgado Pabon W, Celli S, Arena E, Nothelfer K, Roux P, Sellge G, et al. Shigella impairs T lymphocyte dynamics in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:4458-63 pubmed publisher
    The Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri is responsible for the endemic form of bacillary dysentery, an acute rectocolitis in humans. S...
  7. Raja S, Murali M, Devaraj S. Differential expression of ompC and ompF in multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri by aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos, altering its susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotics. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;61:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study exemplifies the susceptibility of beta-lactam-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri toward beta-lactam antibiotics, when grown in the presence of aqueous extract of A...
  8. Fu H, Liu L, Peng J, Leng W, Yang J, Jin Q. Transcriptional profile of the Shigella flexneri response to an alkaloid: berberine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2010;303:169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the potential effects of berberine on Shigella flexneri, a whole-genome DNA microarray was constructed and a transcriptome analysis of the cellular responses of S...
  9. Ramiscal R, Tang S, Korres H, Verma N. Structural and functional divergence of the newly identified GtrIc from its Gtr family of conserved Shigella flexneri serotype-converting glucosyltransferases. Mol Membr Biol. 2010;27:114-22 pubmed publisher
    ..and O-acetyltransferase (Oac) are integral membrane proteins embedded within the cytoplasmic membrane of Shigella flexneri. Gtrs and Oac are responsible for unidirectional host serotype conversion by altering the epitopic ..

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Sperandio B, Regnault B, Guo J, Zhang Z, Stanley S, Sansonetti P, et al. Virulent Shigella flexneri subverts the host innate immune response through manipulation of antimicrobial peptide gene expression. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1121-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that upon infection of polarized human intestinal cells in vitro, virulent Shigella flexneri suppress transcription of several genes encoding antimicrobial cationic peptides, particularly the human ..
  2. Fisher C, Davies N, Wyckoff E, Feng Z, Oaks E, Payne S. Genetics and virulence association of the Shigella flexneri sit iron transport system. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1992-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The islands contain numerous insertion elements and sequences with homology to bacteriophage genes. The Shigella flexneri sit genes can be lost as a result of deletion within the island...
  3. Tribble D, Kaminski R, Cantrell J, Nelson M, Porter C, Baqar S, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a Shigella flexneri 2a Invaplex 50 intranasal vaccine in adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2010;28:6076-85 pubmed publisher
    Shigellosis is a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide prompting vaccine development. The Shigella flexneri Invaplex 50 is a macromolecular complex containing IpaB, IpaC, and LPS, formulated from an aqueous extract of virulent Shigella ..
  4. Wang J, Knirel Y, Lan R, Senchenkova S, Luo X, Perepelov A, et al. Identification of an O-acyltransferase gene (oacB) that mediates 3- and 4-O-acetylation of rhamnose III in Shigella flexneri O antigens. J Bacteriol. 2014;196:1525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Most O antigens of Shigella flexneri, a cause of shigellosis, share a backbone composed of ?2)-?-l-Rhap(III)-(1?2)-?-l-Rhap(II)-(1?3)-?-l-Rhap(I)-..
  5. Xia S, Xu B, Huang L, Zhao J, Ran L, Zhang J, et al. Prevalence and characterization of human Shigella infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection of ..
  6. Mostowy S, Bonazzi M, Hamon M, Tham T, Mallet A, Lelek M, et al. Entrapment of intracytosolic bacteria by septin cage-like structures. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:433-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that septin cages entrap bacteria targeted to autophagy. Together, these results reveal an unsuspected mechanism of host defense that restricts dissemination of invasive pathogens. ..
  7. Zurawski D, Mumy K, Badea L, Prentice J, Hartland E, McCormick B, et al. The NleE/OspZ family of effector proteins is required for polymorphonuclear transepithelial migration, a characteristic shared by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri infections. Infect Immun. 2008;76:369-79 pubmed
    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shigella flexneri are human host-specific pathogens that infect intestinal epithelial cells...
  8. Ray K, Bobard A, Danckaert A, Paz Haftel I, Clair C, Ehsani S, et al. Tracking the dynamic interplay between bacterial and host factors during pathogen-induced vacuole rupture in real time. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This revealed that the enteroinvasive pathogen Shigella flexneri escapes rapidly, in less than 10 min, from the vacuole...
  9. Farfan M, Toro C, Barry E, Nataro J. Shigella enterotoxin-2 is a type III effector that participates in Shigella-induced interleukin 8 secretion by epithelial cells. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;61:332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that ShET-2 secretion into the extracellular space requires the T3SS in Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T and a ShET-2-TEM fusion was translocated into epithelial cells in a T3SS-dependent manner...
  10. Pore D, Mahata N, Chakrabarti M. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Shigella flexneri 2a links innate and adaptive immunity in a TLR2-dependent manner and involvement of IL-12 and nitric oxide. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12589-601 pubmed publisher
    We determine that OmpA of Shigella flexneri 2a is recognized by TLR2 and consequently mediates the release of proinflammatory cytokines and activates NF-?B in HEK 293 cells transfected with TLR2...
  11. Onodera N, Ryu J, Durbic T, Nislow C, Archibald J, Rohde J. Genome sequence of Shigella flexneri serotype 5a strain M90T Sm. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3022 pubmed publisher
    ..von Seidlein et al., PLoS Med. 3:e353, 2006). We sequenced the genome of Shigella flexneri strain M90T Sm (serotype 5a) and compared it to the published genome sequence of S...
  12. Carter J, Blondel C, Zaldivar M, Alvarez S, Marolda C, Valvano M, et al. O-antigen modal chain length in Shigella flexneri 2a is growth-regulated through RfaH-mediated transcriptional control of the wzy gene. Microbiology. 2007;153:3499-507 pubmed
    b>Shigella flexneri 2a 2457T produces lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with two O-antigen (OAg) chain lengths: a short (S-OAg) controlled by WzzB and a very long (VL-OAg) determined by Wzz(pHS-2)...
  13. Fujiyama R, Nishi J, Imuta N, Tokuda K, Manago K, Kawano Y. The shf gene of a Shigella flexneri homologue on the virulent plasmid pAA2 of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli 042 is required for firm biofilm formation. Curr Microbiol. 2008;56:474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..93% identical to a similar cluster located in Shigella flexneri. The function of the first ORF Shf protein is not known, but the closest well-characterized homologue is the ..
  14. Bu X, Zhu L, Liu X, Zhao G, Feng E, Zhang J, et al. [HtpG protein of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T evokes inflammatory response in mice]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2008;48:905-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the HtpG protein of Shigella flexneri 2a strain 2457T might be involved in the immunopathogenesis.
  15. Dupont N, Lacas Gervais S, Bertout J, Paz I, Freche B, Van Nhieu G, et al. Shigella phagocytic vacuolar membrane remnants participate in the cellular response to pathogen invasion and are regulated by autophagy. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:137-49 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular pathogens like Shigella flexneri enter host cells by phagocytosis. Once inside, the pathogen breaks the vacuolar membrane for cytosolic access. The fate and function of the vacuolar membrane remnants are not clear...
  16. Rathinavelan T, Zhang L, Picking W, Weis D, De Guzman R, Im W. A repulsive electrostatic mechanism for protein export through the type III secretion apparatus. Biophys J. 2010;98:452-61 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the export mechanisms of MxiH needle protein through the needle of Shigella flexneri, an essential step during needle assembly, we have performed steered molecular dynamics simulations in ..
  17. Sun Q, Lan R, Wang J, Xia S, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype Yv in China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70238 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is the major cause of bacterial shigellosis in developing countries. S...
  18. Suzuki T, Franchi L, Toma C, Ashida H, Ogawa M, Yoshikawa Y, et al. Differential regulation of caspase-1 activation, pyroptosis, and autophagy via Ipaf and ASC in Shigella-infected macrophages. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e111 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the absence of Ipaf or caspase-1, but not ASC, regulates pyroptosis and the induction of autophagy in Shigella-infected macrophages, providing a novel function for NLR proteins in bacterial-host interactions. ..
  19. Hurt J, McQuade T, Emanuele A, Larsen M, Garcia G. High-throughput screening of the virulence regulator VirF: a novel antibacterial target for shigellosis. J Biomol Screen. 2010;15:379-87 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is a human enteropathogen that infects about 165 million people and claims more than 1 million lives per year worldwide...
  20. May K, Morona R. Mutagenesis of the Shigella flexneri autotransporter IcsA reveals novel functional regions involved in IcsA biogenesis and recruitment of host neural Wiscott-Aldrich syndrome protein. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4666-76 pubmed publisher
    The IcsA (VirG) protein of Shigella flexneri is a polarly localized, outer membrane protein that is essential for virulence...
  21. Castellanos M, Harrison D, Smith J, Labahn S, Levy K, Wing H. VirB alleviates H-NS repression of the icsP promoter in Shigella flexneri from sites more than one kilobase upstream of the transcription start site. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4047-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that an inverted repeat located between positions -1144 and -1130 relative to the icsP transcription start site is necessary for VirB-dependent derepression. The atypical location of this cis-acting site is discussed. ..
  22. Bhattacharya D, Purushottaman S, Bhattacharjee H, Thamizhmani R, Sudharama S, Manimunda S, et al. Rapid emergence of third-generation cephalosporin resistance in Shigella sp. isolated in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Microb Drug Resist. 2011;17:329-32 pubmed publisher
    ..various Shigella species, we found that Shigella dysenteriae (40%) is currently more resistant, followed by Shigella flexneri (14%), than the other Shigella species in these islands of India, especially to the third-generation ..
  23. Dragoi A, Talman A, Agaisse H. Bruton's tyrosine kinase regulates Shigella flexneri dissemination in HT-29 intestinal cells. Infect Immun. 2013;81:598-607 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is a Gram-negative intracellular pathogen that infects the intestinal epithelium and utilizes actin-based motility to spread from cell to cell. S...
  24. Botteaux A, Sani M, Kayath C, Boekema E, Allaoui A. Spa32 interaction with the inner-membrane Spa40 component of the type III secretion system of Shigella flexneri is required for the control of the needle length by a molecular tape measure mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 2008;70:1515-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data clearly demonstrate that shortening Spa32 affects the length of the needle in a comparable manner to the spa32 mutant, indicating that the control of needle length does not require a molecular ruler mechanism. ..
  25. Stagg R, Cam P, Verma N. Identification of newly recognized serotype 1c as the most prevalent Shigella flexneri serotype in northern rural Vietnam. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1134-40 pubmed
    We investigated the identity of 37 Shigella flexneri strains that had previously been isolated from northern rural Vietnam (Son Tay Province) and described as untypable...
  26. Carter J, Jimenez J, Zaldivar M, Alvarez S, Marolda C, Valvano M, et al. The cellular level of O-antigen polymerase Wzy determines chain length regulation by WzzB and WzzpHS-2 in Shigella flexneri 2a. Microbiology. 2009;155:3260-9 pubmed publisher
    The lipopolysaccharide O antigen of Shigella flexneri 2a has two preferred chain lengths, a short (S-OAg) composed of an average of 17 repeated units and a very long (VL-OAg) of about 90 repeated units...
  27. Papadopoulos M, Morona R. Mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking suggest that Wzz dimer stability and oligomerization affect lipopolysaccharide O-antigen modal chain length control. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:3385-93 pubmed publisher
    In Shigella flexneri, the polysaccharide copolymerase (PCP) protein Wzz(SF) confers a modal length of 10 to 17 repeat units (RUs) to the O-antigen (Oag) component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
  28. Zurawski D, Mumy K, Faherty C, McCormick B, Maurelli A. Shigella flexneri type III secretion system effectors OspB and OspF target the nucleus to downregulate the host inflammatory response via interactions with retinoblastoma protein. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:350-68 pubmed publisher
    OspF, OspG and IpaH(9.8) are type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors of Shigella flexneri that downregulate the host innate immune response...
  29. Epler C, Dickenson N, Olive A, Picking W, Picking W. Liposomes recruit IpaC to the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus needle as a final step in secretion induction. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2754-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri contact with enterocytes induces a burst of protein secretion via its type III secretion apparatus (TTSA) as an initial step in cellular invasion...
  30. Dong N, Zhu Y, Lu Q, Hu L, Zheng Y, Shao F. Structurally distinct bacterial TBC-like GAPs link Arf GTPase to Rab1 inactivation to counteract host defenses. Cell. 2012;150:1029-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discover that bacterial effectors including VirA from nonvacuole Shigella flexneri and EspG from extracellular Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) harbor TBC-like dual-finger motifs and ..
  31. Ramel D, Lagarrigue F, Pons V, Mounier J, Dupuis Coronas S, Chicanne G, et al. Shigella flexneri infection generates the lipid PI5P to alter endocytosis and prevent termination of EGFR signaling. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Shigella flexneri, a bacterium that causes dysentery, injects IpgD, a phosphoinositide phosphatase that generates the lipid ..
  32. Perepelov A, L vov V, Liu B, Senchenkova S, Shekht M, Shashkov A, et al. A similarity in the O-acetylation pattern of the O-antigens of Shigellaflexneri types 1a, 1b, and 2a. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:687-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri type 2a is the first, and type 1b is the second, most prevalent isolates from patients with shigellosis in Russia. The O-specific polysaccharides (OPSs, O-antigens) of S...
  33. Heindl J, Saran I, Yi C, Lesser C, Goldberg M. Requirement for formin-induced actin polymerization during spread of Shigella flexneri. Infect Immun. 2010;78:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The movement of the enteric pathogen Shigella flexneri, both within the cell body and from cell to cell, depends on actin polymerization...
  34. Deane J, Roversi P, King C, Johnson S, Lea S. Structures of the Shigella flexneri type 3 secretion system protein MxiC reveal conformational variability amongst homologues. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite weak sequence homology between proteins of this family, the crystal structures of Shigella flexneri MxiC we present here confirm the conservation of domain topology with the homologue from Yersinia sp...
  35. Pore D, Chowdhury P, Mahata N, Pal A, Yamasaki S, Mahalanabis D, et al. Purification and characterization of an immunogenic outer membrane protein of Shigella flexneri 2a. Vaccine. 2009;27:5855-64 pubmed publisher
    In the present study we purified 34 kDa major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Shigella flexneri 2a for the first time, which was cross-reactive and antigenically conserved among Shigella spp...
  36. Pore D, Mahata N, Pal A, Chakrabarti M. 34 kDa MOMP of Shigella flexneri promotes TLR2 mediated macrophage activation with the engagement of NF-kappaB and p38 MAP kinase signaling. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1739-46 pubmed publisher
    The 34 kDa major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Shigella flexneri 2a induces combinatorial expression of TLR2 and TLR6 on peritoneal macrophages of BALB/c mice...
  37. Simpson N, Audry L, Enninga J. Tracking the secretion of fluorescently labeled type III effectors from single bacteria in real time. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;619:241-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the entero-invasive pathogen Shigella flexneri for assay development, we have also successfully adapted our approach and developed procedures for T3S ..
  38. Sperandio B, Fischer N, Joncquel Chevalier Curt M, Rossez Y, Roux P, Robbe Masselot C, et al. Virulent Shigella flexneri affects secretion, expression, and glycosylation of gel-forming mucins in mucus-producing cells. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3632-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, our objective was to investigate how the bacterial enteropathogen Shigella flexneri, which causes bacillary dysentery, copes with the mucin defense barrier...
  39. Botteaux A, Sory M, Biskri L, Parsot C, Allaoui A. MxiC is secreted by and controls the substrate specificity of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion apparatus. Mol Microbiol. 2009;71:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the function of MxiC, the member of the YopN/InvE/SepL family in the Shigella flexneri T3S system...
  40. Kasper C, Sorg I, Schmutz C, Tschon T, Wischnewski H, Kim M, et al. Cell-cell propagation of NF-?B transcription factor and MAP kinase activation amplifies innate immunity against bacterial infection. Immunity. 2010;33:804-16 pubmed publisher
    The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri uses multiple secreted effector proteins to downregulate interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression in infected epithelial cells. Yet, massive IL-8 secretion is observed in Shigellosis...
  41. Qiu S, Wang Z, Chen C, Liu N, Jia L, Liu W, et al. Emergence of a novel Shigella flexneri serotype 4s strain that evolved from a serotype X variant in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1148-50 pubmed publisher
    This paper describes the first isolation of a new Shigella flexneri serotype, designated 4s, in Beijing, China. Genotypic and phenotypic profiling suggests that this isolate is a clone of the S...
  42. Taneja N, Mewara A, Kumar A, Verma G, Sharma M. Cephalosporin-resistant Shigella flexneri over 9 years (2001-09) in India. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:1347-53 pubmed publisher
    To determine the pattern and antimicrobial resistance genes of cephalosporin resistance in Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae over 9 years.
  43. Pilonieta M, Munson G. The chaperone IpgC copurifies with the virulence regulator MxiE. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:2249-51 pubmed publisher
    The expression of a subset of Shigella flexneri virulence genes is dependent upon a cytoplasmic chaperone, IpgC, and an activator from the AraC/XylS family, MxiE...
  44. Giangrossi M, Prosseda G, Tran C, Brandi A, Colonna B, Falconi M. A novel antisense RNA regulates at transcriptional level the virulence gene icsA of Shigella flexneri. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:3362-75 pubmed publisher
    The virulence gene icsA of Shigella flexneri encodes an invasion protein crucial for host colonization by pathogenic bacteria...
  45. Bishai E, Sidhu G, Li W, Dhillon J, Bohil A, Cheney R, et al. Myosin-X facilitates Shigella-induced membrane protrusions and cell-to-cell spread. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:353-367 pubmed publisher
    The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri forms membrane protrusions to spread from cell to cell. As protrusions form, myosin-X (Myo10) localizes to Shigella...
  46. Mostowy S, Boucontet L, Mazon Moya M, Sirianni A, Boudinot P, Hollinshead M, et al. The zebrafish as a new model for the in vivo study of Shigella flexneri interaction with phagocytes and bacterial autophagy. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003588 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have characterized the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Shigella flexneri, a paradigm for bacterial autophagy, and have used this model to study Shigella-phagocyte interactions in ..
  47. Jakhetia R, Talukder K, Verma N. Isolation, characterization and comparative genomics of bacteriophage SfIV: a novel serotype converting phage from Shigella flexneri. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:677 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is the major cause of shigellosis in the developing countries. The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide is one of the key virulence determinants required for the pathogenesis of S. flexneri...
  48. Choi S, Jeon Y, Lee J, Choi B, Moon S, von Seidlein L, et al. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of Shigella flexneri isolates collected in Asian countries. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1460-6 pubmed
    ..scheme used previously for phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli was applied to 107 clinical isolates of Shigella flexneri. DNA sequencing of 3423 bp throughout seven housekeeping genes identified eight new allele types and ten new ..
  49. Nigro G, Fazio L, Martino M, Rossi G, Tattoli I, Liparoti V, et al. Muramylpeptide shedding modulates cell sensing of Shigella flexneri. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:682-95 pubmed
    ..Our findings support the idea that muramylpeptides released by pathogens during infection could modulate the immune response through Nod proteins and thereby influence the outcome of disease...
  50. Demers J, Sgourakis N, Gupta R, Loquet A, Giller K, Riedel D, et al. The common structural architecture of Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium type three secretion needles. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003245 pubmed publisher
    ..Second, a model of the Shigella flexneri needle was generated from a high-resolution 7.7-Å cryo-electron microscopy density map...
  51. Rallabhandi P, Awomoyi A, Thomas K, Phalipon A, Fujimoto Y, Fukase K, et al. Differential activation of human TLR4 by Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide: combined effects of lipid A acylation state and TLR4 polymorphisms on signaling. J Immunol. 2008;180:1139-47 pubmed
    ..wild-type or polymorphic TLR4 were stimulated with Escherichia coli (predominantly hexaacylated lipid A) or Shigella flexneri 2a (a mixture of hexaacylated, pentaacylated, and predominantly tetraacylated lipid A) LPS, or hexaacylated ..
  52. Farfán M, Garay T, Prado C, Filliol I, Ulloa M, Toro C. A new multiplex PCR for differential identification of Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei and detection of Shigella virulence determinants. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..flexneri and S. sonnei. The technique was sensitive, reproducible, specific and simple to perform, providing a new tool with the potential to be employed for epidemiological and diagnostic purposes...
  53. Barman S, Chatterjee S, Chowdhury G, Ramamurthy T, Niyogi S, Kumar R, et al. Plasmid-mediated streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole resistance in Shigella flexneri 3a. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36:348-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated a clinical strain of Shigella flexneri 3a with multiple drug resistance...
  54. Navarro Garcia F, Gutierrez Jimenez J, Garcia Tovar C, Castro L, Salazar Gonzalez H, Cordova V. Pic, an autotransporter protein secreted by different pathogens in the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a potent mucus secretagogue. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4101-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Other pathogens harboring the pic gene, such as Shigella flexneri and uropathogenic E...
  55. Vorontsov I, Minasov G, Brunzelle J, Shuvalova L, Kiryukhina O, Collart F, et al. Crystal structure of an apo form of Shigella flexneri ArsH protein with an NADPH-dependent FMN reductase activity. Protein Sci. 2007;16:2483-90 pubmed
    ..Presented here are the first crystal structure of an ArsH protein from Shigella flexneri refined at 1...
  56. Zhu J, Duan G, Yang H, Fan Q, Xi Y. Atypical class 1 integron coexists with class 1 and class 2 integrons in multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri isolates from China. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:802-6 pubmed publisher
    The antimicrobial resistance and the character of integrons were determined in 58 Shigella flexneri strains isolated from China. All isolates were multi-drug resistant and found to carry integrons of class 1 (94...
  57. Camacho A, de Souza J, Sánchez Gómez S, Pardo Ros M, Irache J, Gamazo C. Mucosal immunization with Shigella flexneri outer membrane vesicles induced protection in mice. Vaccine. 2011;29:8222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the protection conferred by a new vaccine containing outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Shigella flexneri with an adjuvant based on nanoparticles in an experimental model of shigellosis in mice...
  58. Barta M, Dickenson N, Patil M, Keightley A, Wyckoff G, Picking W, et al. The structures of coiled-coil domains from type III secretion system translocators reveal homology to pore-forming toxins. J Mol Biol. 2012;417:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Shigella flexneri uses its T3SS to invade human intestinal cells to cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) that is ..
  59. Perepelov A, Shekht M, Liu B, Shevelev S, Ledov V, Senchenkova S, et al. Shigella flexneri O-antigens revisited: final elucidation of the O-acetylation profiles and a survey of the O-antigen structure diversity. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2012;66:201-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is an important human pathogen causing shigellosis. Strains of S. flexneri are serologically heterogeneous and, based on O-antigens, are currently classified into 14 types...
  60. Stensrud K, Adam P, La Mar C, Olive A, Lushington G, Sudharsan R, et al. Deoxycholate interacts with IpaD of Shigella flexneri in inducing the recruitment of IpaB to the type III secretion apparatus needle tip. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18646-54 pubmed publisher
    Type III secretion (TTS) is an essential virulence function for Shigella flexneri that delivers effector proteins that are responsible for bacterial invasion of intestinal epithelial cells...
  61. Müller J, Barbirz S, Heinle K, Freiberg A, Seckler R, Heinemann U. An intersubunit active site between supercoiled parallel beta helices in the trimeric tailspike endorhamnosidase of Shigella flexneri Phage Sf6. Structure. 2008;16:766-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Sf6 TSP may serve as an example for the evolution of different host specificities on a similar general architecture...
  62. Ye C, Lan R, Xia S, Zhang J, Sun Q, Zhang S, et al. Emergence of a new multidrug-resistant serotype X variant in an epidemic clone of Shigella flexneri. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:419-26 pubmed publisher
    Shigella spp. are the causative agent of shigellosis with Shigella flexneri serotype 2a being the most prevalent in developing countries. Epidemiological surveillance in China found that a new serotype of S...
  63. Riddle M, Kaminski R, Williams C, Porter C, Baqar S, Kordis A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an intranasal Shigella flexneri 2a Invaplex 50 vaccine. Vaccine. 2011;29:7009-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide 50 is a nasally delivered subunit vaccine consisting of a macromolecular complex composed of LPS, IpaB, IpaC and IpaD...
  64. Bergounioux J, Elisee R, Prunier A, Donnadieu F, Sperandio B, Sansonetti P, et al. Calpain activation by the Shigella flexneri effector VirA regulates key steps in the formation and life of the bacterium's epithelial niche. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:240-52 pubmed publisher
    The enteropathogen Shigella flexneri invades epithelial cells, leading to inflammation and tissue destruction...
  65. Ramadoss N, Zhou X, Keiler K. tmRNA is essential in Shigella flexneri. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57537 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that tmRNA, a key component of the trans-translation pathway, is essential for viability in Shigella flexneri. tmRNA was previously shown to be dispensable in the closely related species Escherichia coli, because E...
  66. Zenk S, Stabat D, Hodgkinson J, Veenendaal A, Johnson S, Blocker A. Identification of minor inner-membrane components of the Shigella type III secretion system 'needle complex'. Microbiology. 2007;153:2405-15 pubmed
    ..MxiM is a 'pilotin'-type protein for the outer-membrane 'secretin' ring formed of MxiD. As expected, it localized to the outer rim of the upper ring of NCs, validating the other findings...
  67. Jennison A, Verma N. The acid-resistance pathways of Shigella flexneri 2457T. Microbiology. 2007;153:2593-602 pubmed
    The stationary-phase acid-resistance pathways of Shigella flexneri 2457T have not previously been studied...
  68. Pazhani G, Niyogi S, Singh A, Sen B, Taneja N, Kundu M, et al. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella species isolated from epidemic and endemic cases of shigellosis in India. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:856-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluoroquinolone-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shigella flexneri type 2a emerged in India during 2002 and 2003, respectively...
  69. Lunelli M, Lokareddy R, Zychlinsky A, Kolbe M. IpaB-IpgC interaction defines binding motif for type III secretion translocator. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show how translocators are chaperoned and may allow the design of inhibitors of enterobacterial diseases...
  70. Zhao G, Zhan X, Dou W. A disposable immunosensor for Shigella flexneri based on multiwalled carbon nanotube/sodium alginate composite electrode. Anal Biochem. 2011;408:53-8 pubmed publisher
    A novel Shigella flexneri immunosensor based on horseradish peroxidase-labeled antibodies to S. flexneri (HRP-anti-S...
  71. Theillet F, Simenel C, Guerreiro C, Phalipon A, Mulard L, Delepierre M. Effects of backbone substitutions on the conformational behavior of Shigella flexneri O-antigens: implications for vaccine strategy. Glycobiology. 2011;21:109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..is the major target of the serotype-specific protective humoral response elicited upon host infection by Shigella flexneri, the main causal agent of the endemic form of bacillary dysentery. The O-Ag repeat units (RUs) of 12 S...
  72. Martinez Argudo I, Blocker A. The Shigella T3SS needle transmits a signal for MxiC release, which controls secretion of effectors. Mol Microbiol. 2010;78:1365-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the needle controls MxiC release. Therefore, for the first time, our data allow us to propose a model of secretion activation that goes from the tip complex to cytoplasmic MxiC via the needle...
  73. Burnaevskiy N, Fox T, Plymire D, Ertelt J, Weigele B, Selyunin A, et al. Proteolytic elimination of N-myristoyl modifications by the Shigella virulence factor IpaJ. Nature. 2013;496:106-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of protein demyristoylation catalysed by invasion plasmid antigen J (IpaJ), a previously uncharacterized Shigella flexneri type III effector protein with cysteine protease activity...
  74. FERNANDEZ M, Regnault B, Mulet C, Tanguy M, Jay P, Sansonetti P, et al. Maturation of paneth cells induces the refractory state of newborn mice to Shigella infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:4924-30 pubmed
  75. Wei C, Peng J, Xiong Z, Yang J, Wang J, Jin Q. Subproteomic tools to increase genome annotation complexity. Proteomics. 2008;8:4209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Using Shigella flexneri as a model, we validate 163 annotated ORFs and 51 hypothetical or putative transcripts at the protein level, ..
  76. Theillet F, Saul F, Vulliez Le Normand B, Hoos S, Felici F, Weintraub A, et al. Structural mimicry of O-antigen by a peptide revealed in a complex with an antibody raised against Shigella flexneri serotype 2a. J Mol Biol. 2009;388:839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..this question using the anti-lipopolysaccharide monoclonal antibody F22-4, which was raised against Shigella flexneri serotype 2a and shown to protect against homologous infection in a mouse model...
  77. Al Hasani K, Navarro Garcia F, Huerta J, Sakellaris H, Adler B. The immunogenic SigA enterotoxin of Shigella flexneri 2a binds to HEp-2 cells and induces fodrin redistribution in intoxicated epithelial cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8223 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also demonstrated that SigA is cytopathic for HEp-2 cells and plays a role in the intestinal fluid accumulation associated with S. flexneri infections...
  78. Shen D, Saurya S, Wagner C, Nishioka H, Blocker A. Domains of the Shigella flexneri type III secretion system IpaB protein involved in secretion regulation. Infect Immun. 2010;78:4999-5010 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that removal of either of these regions leads to an inability to block secretion prior to reception of the activation signal and/or a defect in host cell sensing...
  79. Fujii T, Cheung M, Blanco A, Kato T, Blocker A, Namba K. Structure of a type III secretion needle at 7-Å resolution provides insights into its assembly and signaling mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:4461-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The needle of Shigella flexneri is approximately 50-nm long and 7-nm thick and is made by the helical assembly of one protein, MxiH...
  80. May K, Grabowicz M, Polyak S, Morona R. Self-association of the Shigella flexneri IcsA autotransporter protein. Microbiology. 2012;158:1874-83 pubmed publisher
    The IcsA autotransporter protein is a major virulence factor of the human intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri. IcsA is distributed at the poles in the outer membrane (OM) of S...
  81. Schnupf P, Sansonetti P. Quantitative RT-PCR profiling of the rabbit immune response: assessment of acute Shigella flexneri infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36446 pubmed publisher
    ..was used to analyze the rabbit innate immune response to infection with the human gastrointestinal pathogen Shigella flexneri. Beyond the known inflammatory mediators, we identified IL-22, IL-17A and IL-17F as highly upregulated ..
  82. Teh M, Tran E, Morona R. Absence of O antigen suppresses Shigella flexneri IcsA autochaperone region mutations. Microbiology. 2012;158:2835-50 pubmed publisher
    The Shigella flexneri IcsA (VirG) protein is a polarly distributed autotransporter protein...
  83. Schroeder G, Jann N, Hilbi H. Intracellular type III secretion by cytoplasmic Shigella flexneri promotes caspase-1-dependent macrophage cell death. Microbiology. 2007;153:2862-76 pubmed publisher
    The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri triggers pro-inflammatory apoptotic cell death in macrophages, which is crucial for the onset of an acute inflammatory diarrhoea termed bacillary dysentery...
  84. Purins L, Van den Bosch L, Richardson V, Morona R. Coiled-coil regions play a role in the function of the Shigella flexneri O-antigen chain length regulator WzzpHS2. Microbiology. 2008;154:1104-16 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of the length of the O-antigen (Oag) chain attached to LPS in Shigella flexneri is important for virulence and is dependent on the inner-membrane protein Wzz...
  85. Martinić M, Hoare A, Contreras I, Alvarez S. Contribution of the lipopolysaccharide to resistance of Shigella flexneri 2a to extreme acidity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25557 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is endemic in most underdeveloped countries, causing diarrheal disease and dysentery among young children. In order to reach its target site, the colon, Shigella must overcome the acid environment of the stomach...
  86. Hoare A, Bravo D, Martinić M, Valvano M, Contreras I, Alvarez S. The normal chain length distribution of the O antigen is required for the interaction of Shigella flexneri 2a with polarized Caco-2 cells. Biol Res. 2012;45:21-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery in humans. Essential to the establishment of the disease is the invasion of the colonic epithelial cells...
  87. Sun Q, Knirel Y, Lan R, Wang J, Senchenkova S, Jin D, et al. A novel plasmid-encoded serotype conversion mechanism through addition of phosphoethanolamine to the O-antigen of Shigella flexneri. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46095 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery in developing countries. S. flexneri is divided into at least 16 serotypes based on the combination of antigenic determinants present in the O-antigen...
  88. Fu H, Leng W, Wang J, Zhang W, Peng J, Wang L, et al. Transcriptional profile induced by furazolidone treatment of Shigella flexneri. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;77:657-67 pubmed
    b>Shigella flexneri is a facultative intracellular pathogen responsible for endemic shigellosis especially in developing countries. Furazolidone, a nitrofuran derivative, is very effective against the infection with S. flexneri...
  89. Perepelov A, L vov V, Liu B, Senchenkova S, Shekht M, Shashkov A, et al. A new ethanolamine phosphate-containing variant of the O-antigen of Shigella flexneri type 4a. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1588-91 pubmed publisher
    The O-specific polysaccharide (O-antigen) structure of a Shigella flexneri type 4a strain from the Dysentery Reference Laboratory (London, UK) was elucidated in 1978 and its characteristic feature was found to be alpha-D-glucosylation of ..
  90. Kesika P, Karutha Pandian S, Balamurugan K. Analysis of Shigella flexneri-mediated infections in model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Scand J Infect Dis. 2011;43:286-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery and generates a significant global disease burden...
  91. Barman S, Saha D, Ramamurthy T, Koley H. Development of a new guinea-pig model of shigellosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;62:304-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, guinea-pigs were discretely infected with virulent Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shigella flexneri type 2a into the cecocolic junction after ligation of the distal cecum...
  92. Qiu S, Xu X, Wang Y, Yang G, Wang Z, Wang H, et al. Emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c isolates from China. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:E95-8 pubmed publisher
    We report here on the first identification of Shigella flexneri subserotype 1c in China. We also report the emergence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporins in this subserotype 1c for the first time...