shigella dysenteriae

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is extremely pathogenic and causes severe dysentery. Infection with this organism often leads to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium.

Top Publications

  1. Moorthy G, Murali M, Devaraj S. Protective role of lactobacilli in Shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats. Nutrition. 2007;23:424-33 pubmed
    ..The present study evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation during Shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats.
  2. Herold S, Karch H, Schmidt H. Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages--genomes in motion. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;294:115-21 pubmed
    ..Stx are mainly produced by Escherichia coli isolated from human and non-human sources, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, and sporadically, by Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Shigella flexneri...
  3. Burkhard K, Wilks A. Characterization of the outer membrane receptor ShuA from the heme uptake system of Shigella dysenteriae. Substrate specificity and identification of the heme protein ligands. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15126-36 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae, like many bacterial pathogens, has evolved outer membrane receptor-mediated pathways for the uptake and utilization of heme as an iron source...
  4. Murphy E, Payne S. RyhB, an iron-responsive small RNA molecule, regulates Shigella dysenteriae virulence. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3470-7 pubmed
    ..We show that the sRNA RyhB suppresses several virulence-associated phenotypes of Shigella dysenteriae, a causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. The virulence genes repressed by S...
  5. Moorthy G, Murali M, Devaraj S. Lactobacilli facilitate maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity during Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection in rats. Nutrition. 2009;25:350-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently we reported the protective role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus during Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. Nevertheless, investigations on the membrane-stabilizing effect of L. rhamnosus and L...
  6. Sadorge C, Ndiaye A, Beveridge N, Frazer S, Giemza R, Jolly N, et al. Phase 1 clinical trial of live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type-1 DeltaicsA Deltaent Deltafep DeltastxA:HgR oral vaccine SC599 in healthy human adult volunteers. Vaccine. 2008;26:978-87 pubmed publisher
    Twenty-eight adults received between 10(2) and 10(8)colony forming units of live Shigella dysenteriae type-1 vaccine SC599, attenuated by deletion of invasion (icsA), iron chelation (ent, fep) and shiga toxin A-subunit (stxA) genes, ..
  7. Ray A, Chatterjee N, Bhattacharya S, Biswas T. Porin of Shigella dysenteriae enhances mRNA levels for Toll-like receptor 2 and MyD88, up-regulates CD80 of murine macrophage, and induces the release of interleukin-12. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;39:213-9 pubmed
    ..convalescing from shigellosis reacted strongly and specifically with the 38,000 Da monomer of porin of Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Since human, the only natural host of S...
  8. McDonough M, Butterton J. Spontaneous tandem amplification and deletion of the shiga toxin operon in Shigella dysenteriae 1. Mol Microbiol. 1999;34:1058-69 pubmed
    Only one species of Shigella, Shigella dysenteriae 1, has been demonstrated to produce Shiga toxin (Stx). Stx is closely related to the toxins produced by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)...
  9. Mark Taylor C. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae type 1-induced haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..form is that induced by shigatoxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and, in some tropical regions, by Shigella dysenteriae type 1...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Kabishev A, Lukyanov E, Bayev A. The primary structure of the operons coding for Shigella dysenteriae toxin and temperature phage H30 shiga-like toxin. Gene. 1988;67:213-21 pubmed
    Nucleotide(nt) sequences were determined for the toxin (SHT) operon present in the chromosome of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and for the shiga-like toxin (SLT) operon found in the lambdoid phage H30 genome...
  2. Raja S, Murali M, Roopa K, Devaraj S. Imperatorin a furocoumarin inhibits periplasmic Cu-Zn SOD of Shigella dysenteriae their by modulates its resistance towards phagocytosis during host pathogen interaction. Biomed Pharmacother. 2011;65:560-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella dysenteriae continues to be a major health problem, which leads to death, due to diarrhoea and dysentery, predominantly in children below the age of 5...
  3. McKenzie R, Venkatesan M, Wolf M, Islam D, Grahek S, Jones A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of WRSd1, a live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2008;26:3291-6 pubmed publisher
    Among Shigella serotypes Shigella dysenteriae type 1 produces the most severe disease, including cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome and pandemic outbreaks. WRSd1 is a live S...
  4. Talukder K, Khajanchi B, Islam M, Islam Z, Dutta D, Rahman M, et al. Fluoroquinolone resistance linked to both gyrA and parC mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region of Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Curr Microbiol. 2006;52:108-11 pubmed
    ..In fluoroquinolone-resistant strains, double mutations (Ser83-->Leu, Asp87-->Asn or Gly) and a single mutation (Ser80-->Ile) were detected in the QRDRs of gyrA and parC, respectively. ..
  5. Venkatesan M, Hartman A, Newland J, Ivanova V, Hale T, McDonough M, et al. Construction, characterization, and animal testing of WRSd1, a Shigella dysenteriae 1 vaccine. Infect Immun. 2002;70:2950-8 pubmed
    WRSd1 is a Shigella dysenteriae 1 vaccine containing deletions of the virG(icsA) gene required for intercellular spreading and a 20-kb chromosomal region encompassing the Shiga toxin genes (stxAB). WRSd1 was constructed from S...
  6. El Gendy A, Mansour A, Weiner M, Pimentel G, Armstrong A, Young S, et al. Genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance in Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella boydii strains isolated from children aged <5 years in Egypt. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:299-310 pubmed publisher
    Diversity within Shigella dysenteriae (n=40) and Shigella boydii (n=30) isolates from children living in Egypt aged <5 years was investigated...
  7. Pieper R, Zhang Q, Parmar P, Huang S, Clark D, Alami H, et al. The Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 proteome, profiled in the host intestinal environment, reveals major metabolic modifications and increased expression of invasive proteins. Proteomics. 2009;9:5029-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery...
  8. Ries A, Wells J, Olivola D, Ntakibirora M, Nyandwi S, Ntibakivayo M, et al. Epidemic Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in Burundi: panresistance and implications for prevention. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:1035-41 pubmed
    An epidemic of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infections has affected Africa since 1979. Reported dysentery cases increase sharply in Burundi during September through December...
  9. Matsushita S, Noguchi Y, Yanagawa Y, Igarashi H, Ueda Y, Hashimoto S, et al. [Shigella dysenteriae strains possessing a new serovar (204/96) isolated from imported diarrheal cases in Japan]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1998;72:499-503 pubmed
    ..These strains had the typical biochemical characteristics of Shigella dysenteriae, and were biochemically identical...
  10. Subekti D, Oyofo B, Tjaniadi P, Corwin A, Larasati W, Putri M, et al. Shigella spp. surveillance in Indonesia: the emergence or reemergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:137-40 pubmed
    ..S. dysenteriae has reemerged in Bali, Kalimantan, and Batam and was detected in Jakarta after a hiatus of 15 years. ..
  11. Mazumder R, Salam M, Ali M, Bhattacharya M. Reactive arthritis associated with Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res. 1997;15:21-4 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causes the most severe form of bacillary dysentery. The spectrum of illness ranges from mild watery diarrhoea to severe bloody diarrhoea...
  12. Sur D, Niyogi S, Sur S, Datta K, Takeda Y, Nair G, et al. Multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1: forerunners of a new epidemic strain in eastern India?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:404-5 pubmed
  13. Radhakrishnan P, Halagowder D, Devaraj S. Altered expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC in response to Shigella infection, an in vivo study. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1770:884-9 pubmed
    ..This in vivo study brings new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of Shigellosis and new potential therapeutic targets for Shigellosis. ..
  14. Engels D, Madaras T, Nyandwi S, Murray J. Epidemic dysentery caused by Shigella dysenteriae type 1: a sentinel site surveillance of antimicrobial resistance patterns in Burundi. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:787-91 pubmed
    ..the results of a nationwide, health-centre based, sentinel site survey to check the drug resistance of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the causal organism of such epidemics. Shigella spp...
  15. Talukder K, Mondol A, Islam M, Islam Z, Dutta D, Khajanchi B, et al. A novel serovar of Shigella dysenteriae from patients with diarrhoea in Bangladesh. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:654-8 pubmed
    ..All were nonlactose fermenters, with an identical biochemical pattern typical of Shigella dysenteriae. They were classified as invasive since they harboured the 140 MDa invasive plasmid, were able to bind ..
  16. Guerin P, Brasher C, Baron E, Mic D, Grimont F, Ryan M, et al. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 in west Africa: intervention strategy for an outbreak in Sierra Leone. Lancet. 2003;362:705-6 pubmed
    ..b>Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1) was isolated in the early cases...
  17. Raja S, Murali M, Devaraj S. Differential expression of ompC and ompF in multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri by aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos, altering its susceptibility toward beta-lactam antibiotics. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;61:321-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study exemplifies the susceptibility of beta-lactam-resistant Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri toward beta-lactam antibiotics, when grown in the presence of aqueous extract of A...
  18. Dutta S, Iida K, Takade A, Meno Y, Nair G, Yoshida S. Release of Shiga toxin by membrane vesicles in Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 strains and in vitro effects of antimicrobials on toxin production and release. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:965-9 pubmed
    Effects of various antimicrobials on in vitro Shiga toxin production and release by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 was investigated in this study with particular reference to the role of outer membrane vesicles in toxin release by the ..
  19. Paquet C, Leborgne P, Sasse A, Varaine F. [An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 dysentery in a refugee camp in Rwanda]. Sante. 1995;5:181-4 pubmed
    ..We describe the outbreak of dysentery due to Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1) that developed in Nzangwa, a camp hosting some 20,000 Burundese refugees...
  20. Ray A, Karmakar P, Biswas T. Up-regulation of CD80-CD86 and IgA on mouse peritoneal B-1 cells by porin of Shigella dysenteriae is Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 dependent. Mol Immunol. 2004;41:1167-75 pubmed
    Porin of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 increased the mRNA levels for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR6 by 1.5- and 2...
  21. Dutta S, Ghosh A, Ghosh K, Dutta D, Bhattacharya S, Nair G, et al. Newly emerged multiple-antibiotic-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains in and around Kolkata, India, are clonal. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5833-4 pubmed
  22. Dutta S, Kawamura Y, Ezaki T, Nair G, Iida K, Yoshida S. Alteration in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV in Quinolone-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 clinical isolates from Kolkata, India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005;49:1660-1 pubmed
  23. Willer E, Lima R, Giugliano L. In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins. BMC Microbiol. 2004;4:18 pubmed
    ..The aim of this work was to determine the effect of human milk proteins on the colonization potential of Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei...
  24. Raja S, Murali M, Devaraj H, Devaraj S. Differential expression of gastric MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells: TFF3-wired IL1 ?/Akt crosstalk-induced mucosal immune response against Shigella dysenteriae infection. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:703-13 pubmed publisher
    ..significantly to investigations of its role in colonic mucosa infected with the bacterial pathogen Shigella dysenteriae. Here we show that S...
  25. von Seidlein L, Kim D, Ali M, Lee H, Wang X, Thiem V, et al. A multicentre study of Shigella diarrhoea in six Asian countries: disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e353 pubmed
    ..We conducted a prospective, population-based study in six Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the current disease burden, clinical manifestations, and microbiology of shigellosis in Asia...
  26. Wilks A. The ShuS protein of Shigella dysenteriae is a heme-sequestering protein that also binds DNA. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;387:137-42 pubmed
    The ability of Shigella dysenteriae to utilize heme as an iron source is dependent on the iron-regulated expression of a number of genes including the outermembrane receptor ShuA and the cytoplasmic protein ShuS...
  27. Shipley S, Panda A, Khan A, Kriel E, Maciel M, Livio S, et al. A challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Comp Med. 2010;60:54-61 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae type 1 can cause devastating pandemics with high case fatality rates; a vaccine for Shigella is unavailable currently. Because of the risks associated with performing challenge studies with wild-type S...
  28. Wu T, Grassel C, Levine M, Barry E. Live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type 1 vaccine strains overexpressing shiga toxin B subunit. Infect Immun. 2011;79:4912-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (S...
  29. Saeed A, Abd H, Edvinsson B, Sandström G. Acanthamoeba castellanii an environmental host for Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei. Arch Microbiol. 2009;191:83-8 pubmed publisher
    The interaction between Shigella dysenteriae or Shigella sonnei and Acanthamoeba castellanii was studied by viable counts, gentamicin assay and electron microscopy...
  30. Cobessi D, Meksem A, Brillet K. Structure of the heme/hemoglobin outer membrane receptor ShuA from Shigella dysenteriae: heme binding by an induced fit mechanism. Proteins. 2010;78:286-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural comparisons with HasR suggest its conformational change upon the heme binding for interacting with TonB. The signaling of the heme binding could involve a hydrogen bond network going from His86 to the TonB-box...
  31. Barman S, Saha D, Ramamurthy T, Koley H. Development of a new guinea-pig model of shigellosis. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2011;62:304-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, guinea-pigs were discretely infected with virulent Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and Shigella flexneri type 2a into the cecocolic junction after ligation of the distal cecum...
  32. Lee T, Makino K, Shinagawa H, Amemura M, Nakata A. Phosphate regulon in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae: comparison of the phoB-phoR operons of Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Bacteriol. 1989;171:6593-9 pubmed
    The structure and function of the phoB and phoR genes of Shigella dysenteriae strains and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are involved in regulation of the phosphate regulon, were analyzed...
  33. Naheed A, Kalluri P, Talukder K, Faruque A, Khatun F, Nair G, et al. Fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 in northeastern Bangladesh. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:607-8 pubmed
  34. Islam M, Hossain M, Khan S, Khan M, Sack R, Albert M, et al. Survival of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 on fomites. J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;19:177-82 pubmed
    ..The present study was carried out to detect VBNC Shigella dysenteriae type 1 on various fomites by direct viable counting, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and fluorescent ..
  35. Walker J, Verma N. Cloning and characterisation of the aroA and aroD genes of Shigella dysenteriae type 1. Microbiol Immunol. 1997;41:809-13 pubmed
    The aroA and aroD genes from Shigella dysenteriae type 1, encoding 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate synthase and 3-dehydroquinase, respectively, were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
  36. Kweon M. Shigellosis: the current status of vaccine development. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:313-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Owing to the wide range of Shigella serotypes and subtypes, there is a need for a multivalent vaccine representing prevalent species and serotypes...
  37. Zhao G, Perepelov A, Senchenkova S, Shashkov A, Feng L, Li X, et al. Structural relation of the antigenic polysaccharides of Escherichia coli O40, Shigella dysenteriae type 9, and E. coli K47. Carbohydr Res. 2007;342:1275-9 pubmed
    O-polysaccharides were isolated from the lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli O40 and Shigella dysenteriae type 9 and studied by chemical analyses along with (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy...
  38. Faruque S, Khan R, Kamruzzaman M, Yamasaki S, Ahmad Q, Azim T, et al. Isolation of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and S. flexneri strains from surface waters in Bangladesh: comparative molecular analysis of environmental Shigella isolates versus clinical strains. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:3908-13 pubmed
    ..Shigella isolates were positive for the chromosomal multicopy invasion-associated gene ipaH and all Shigella dysenteriae type 1 isolates were positive for the stx1 gene in addition to ipaH...
  39. Taneja N, Nato F, Dartevelle S, Sire J, Garin B, Thi Phuong L, et al. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24830 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients...
  40. Launay O, Sadorge C, Jolly N, Poirier B, Bechet S, Van Der Vliet D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of SC599, an oral live attenuated Shigella dysenteriae type-1 vaccine in healthy volunteers: results of a Phase 2, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Vaccine. 2009;27:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    SC599 vaccine is a live Shigella dysenteriae 1 strain attenuated by deletion of invasion [icsA], iron chelation [ent, fep] and shiga toxin A subunit [stxA] genes...
  41. Biswas A, Banerjee P, Biswas T. Porin of Shigella dysenteriae directly promotes toll-like receptor 2-mediated CD4+ T cell survival and effector function. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:3076-85 pubmed publisher
    Porin of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 up-regulated Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 on CD3-stimulated CD4(+) T cells but could not induce the expression of other TLRs...
  42. Fraser M, Chernaia M, Kozlov Y, James M. Crystal structure of the holotoxin from Shigella dysenteriae at 2.5 A resolution. Nat Struct Biol. 1994;1:59-64 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae is the pathogen responsible for the severe form of dysentery in humans. It produces Shiga toxin, the prototype of a family of closely related bacterial protein toxins...
  43. Kozlov Y, Chernaia M, Fraser M, James M. Purification and crystallization of Shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae. J Mol Biol. 1993;232:704-6 pubmed
    The protein toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae consists of one enzymatically active A subunit of 293 amino acid residues and five B subunits of 69 amino acid residues that are involved with cell attachment...
  44. O Loughlin E, Robins Browne R. Effect of Shiga toxin and Shiga-like toxins on eukaryotic cells. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:493-507 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae and Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) elaborate the AB holotoxins, Shiga or Shiga-like toxins (Stx). Stx play a major role in the pathogenesis of haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uremic syndrome...
  45. Prere M, Chandler M, Fayet O. Transposition in Shigella dysenteriae: isolation and analysis of IS911, a new member of the IS3 group of insertion sequences. J Bacteriol. 1990;172:4090-9 pubmed
    Twenty-nine clear-plaque mutants of bacteriophage lambda were isolated from a Shigella dysenteriae lysogen...
  46. Sudha P, Devaraj H, Devaraj N. Adherence of Shigella dysenteriae 1 to human colonic mucin. Curr Microbiol. 2001;42:381-7 pubmed
    ..Although invasion is the ultimate event, a preceding step is adherence. Shigella dysenteriae 1 preferentially adhered to colonic mucin and not to small intestinal mucin...
  47. Hens D, Niyogi S, Kumar R. Epidemic strain Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 Dt66 encodes several drug resistances by chromosome. Arch Med Res. 2005;36:399-403 pubmed
    Multiple antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 were isolated from an epidemic in West Bengal, India (1984). During the past two decades, much attention was given to reevaluation of treatment recommendations...
  48. Islam D, Veress B, Bardhan P, Lindberg A, Christensson B. Quantitative assessment of IgG and IgA subclass producing cells in rectal mucosa during shigellosis. J Clin Pathol. 1997;50:513-20 pubmed
  49. Guerin P, Grais R, Rottingen J, Valleron A. Using European travellers as an early alert to detect emerging pathogens in countries with limited laboratory resources. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:8 pubmed
    ..We present the results of a case study using reported cases of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Sd1) in European travellers to detect "events" of Sd1, related to either epidemic ..
  50. Pazhani G, Sarkar B, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya S, Takeda Y, Niyogi S. Clonal multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains associated with epidemic and sporadic dysenteries in eastern India. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:681-4 pubmed
    Multidrug-resistant strains of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 were implicated in three outbreaks and sporadic cases of dysentery in eastern India in 2002 and 2003...
  51. Ohtsubo H, Nyman K, Doroszkiewicz W, Ohtsubo E. Multiple copies of iso-insertion sequences of IS1 in Shigella dysenteriae chromosome. Nature. 1981;292:640-3 pubmed
  52. Dutta D, Bhattacharya M, Dutta S, Datta A, Sarkar D, Bhandari B, et al. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causing sporadic outbreak in and around Kolkata, India. J Health Popul Nutr. 2003;21:79-80 pubmed
  53. Talukder K, Khajanchi B, Islam M, Dutta D, Islam Z, Safa A, et al. Genetic relatedness of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated in south Asia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004;54:730-4 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relationships of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains isolated from south Asia, and S. dysenteriae 1 strains associated with epidemics in 1978, 1984 and 1994.
  54. Feng L, Perepelov A, Zhao G, Shevelev S, Wang Q, Senchenkova S, et al. Structural and genetic evidence that the Escherichia coli O148 O antigen is the precursor of the Shigella dysenteriae type 1 O antigen and identification of a glucosyltransferase gene. Microbiology. 2007;153:139-47 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is the most virulent serotype of Shigella. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O148 is pathogenic and can cause diarrhoea. The following structure was established for the tetrasaccharide repeating unit of the E...
  55. Burkhard K, Wilks A. Functional characterization of the Shigella dysenteriae heme ABC transporter. Biochemistry. 2008;47:7977-9 pubmed publisher
    The heme ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ShuUV, of Shigella dysenteriae has been incorporated into proteoliposomes...
  56. Vokes S, Reeves S, Torres A, Payne S. The aerobactin iron transport system genes in Shigella flexneri are present within a pathogenicity island. Mol Microbiol. 1999;33:63-73 pubmed
    ..coli. Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strains do not produce aerobactin but do contain sequences downstream of selC that are homologous to ..
  57. Strockbine N, Jackson M, Sung L, Holmes R, O Brien A. Cloning and sequencing of the genes for Shiga toxin from Shigella dysenteriae type 1. J Bacteriol. 1988;170:1116-22 pubmed
    The structural genes for Shiga toxin, designated stx A and stx B, were cloned from Shigella dysenteriae type 1 3818T, and a nucleotide sequence analysis was performed...
  58. Faruque A, Teka T, Fuchs G. Shigellosis in children: a clinico-epidemiological comparison between Shigella dysenteriae type I and Shigella flexneri. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1998;18:197-201 pubmed
    ..the clinical and epidemiological features of 390 children under 5 years of age infected with either Shigella dysenteriae type I or Shigella flexneri attending a diarrhoea treatment centre from 1993 to 1995 in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
  59. Eakanunkul S, Lukat Rodgers G, Sumithran S, Ghosh A, Rodgers K, Dawson J, et al. Characterization of the periplasmic heme-binding protein shut from the heme uptake system of Shigella dysenteriae. Biochemistry. 2005;44:13179-91 pubmed
    ..spectroscopic and mutational study of the first purified periplasmic heme-binding protein (PBP), ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae. On the basis of sequence identity, the ShuT protein is most closely related to the class of PBPs typified ..
  60. Prakash R, Bharathi Raja S, Devaraj H, Devaraj S. Up-regulation of MUC2 and IL-1? expression in human colonic epithelial cells by Shigella and its interaction with mucins. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27046 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it was of interest to investigate the relationship between host (mucin) and pathogen interaction, including Shigella induced expression of MUC2 and IL-1? during shigellosis...
  61. Cherla R, Lee S, Tesh V. Shiga toxins and apoptosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;228:159-66 pubmed
    The enteric pathogens Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause bloody diarrheal diseases that may progress to life-threatening extraintestinal complications. Although the S...
  62. Tominaga A. The site-specific recombinase encoded by pinD in Shigella dysenteriae is due to the presence of a defective Mu prophage. Microbiology. 1997;143 ( Pt 6):2057-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report a site-specific recombinase (pinD) gene of Shigella dysenteriae was cloned and sequenced. pinD mediated inversion of five known segments at the same extent in E. coli...
  63. Feng L, Tao J, Guo H, Xu J, Li Y, Rezwan F, et al. Structure of the Shigella dysenteriae 7 O antigen gene cluster and identification of its antigen specific genes. Microb Pathog. 2004;36:109-15 pubmed
    Shigella strains are human pathogens. The O antigen gene cluster of Shigella dysenteriae O7 was sequenced and analyzed...
  64. Dutta S, Dutta S, Dutta P, Matsushita S, Bhattacharya S, Yoshida S. Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, Kolkata, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1471-4 pubmed
    Since July 2002, bacteriologically confirmed shigellosis cases have increased, and multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 strains have reemerged in patients hospitalized with diarrhea in Kolkata, India...
  65. Houdouin V, Doit C, Mariani P, Brahimi N, Loirat C, Bourrillon A, et al. A pediatric cluster of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 diarrhea with hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2 families from France. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:e96-9 pubmed
    We report a cluster of pediatric diarrhea due to Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 involving 11 children in France, including the index case, who had returned from Senegal. Child-to-child transmission was documented by ribotyping...
  66. Guerin P, Brasher C, Baron E, Mic D, Grimont F, Ryan M, et al. Case management of a multidrug-resistant Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 outbreak in a crisis context in Sierra Leone, 1999-2000. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:635-43 pubmed
    ..b>Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 was isolated from the early cases. The overall attack rate was 7...
  67. Klena J, Schnaitman C. Function of the rfb gene cluster and the rfe gene in the synthesis of O antigen by Shigella dysenteriae 1. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:393-402 pubmed
    A plasmid that included both an 8.9 kb chromosomal DNA insert containing genes from the rfb cluster of Shigella dysenteriae 1 and a smaller insert containing the rfp gene from a S...
  68. Mills M, Payne S. Genetics and regulation of heme iron transport in Shigella dysenteriae and detection of an analogous system in Escherichia coli O157:H7. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3004-9 pubmed
    Shigella species can use heme as the sole source of iron. In this work, the heme utilization locus of Shigella dysenteriae was cloned and characterized. A cosmid bank of S...
  69. Taylor D, Trofa A, Sadoff J, Chu C, Bryla D, Shiloach J, et al. Synthesis, characterization, and clinical evaluation of conjugate vaccines composed of the O-specific polysaccharides of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, Shigella flexneri type 2a, and Shigella sonnei (Plesiomonas shigelloides) bound to bacterial toxoids. Infect Immun. 1993;61:3678-87 pubmed
    ..Y. Chu, and R. Schneerson, Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:346-361, 1992). The O-specific polysaccharides (O-SPs) of Shigella dysenteriae type 1, S. flexneri type 2a, and S. sonnei were covalently bound to carrier proteins...
  70. Diallo A, Diop M, Gueye M, Etard J. [Investigation of a shigellosis outbreak in a rural zone of Senegal]. Sante. 2001;11:217-9 pubmed
    ..The identification of the SD1 serotype confirmed its involvement in the outbreak of shigellosis. The exact role of S. flexneri in shigellosis epidemics should be further studied...
  71. Bennish M, Khan W, Begum M, Bridges E, Ahmed S, Saha D, et al. Low risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome after early effective antimicrobial therapy for Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection in Bangladesh. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:356-62 pubmed
    ..b>Shigella dysenteriae type 1 also expresses Stx...
  72. Shrivastava H, Devaraj S, Nair B. A Schiff base complex of chromium(III): an efficient inhibitor for the pathogenic and invasive potential of Shigella dysenteriae. J Inorg Biochem. 2004;98:387-92 pubmed
    ..Cr(salen)(OH(2))(2)](+), was found to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae. The chromium(III) complex was found to cure (remove) the invasive plasmid and thereby render the microbe ..
  73. Emch M, Ali M, Yunus M. Risk areas and neighborhood-level risk factors for Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri. Health Place. 2008;14:96-105 pubmed
    ..1 million deaths in the developing world. Two species of the causative agent, Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri, are responsible for acute diarrheal illness...
  74. Wyckoff E, Lopreato G, Tipton K, Payne S. Shigella dysenteriae ShuS promotes utilization of heme as an iron source and protects against heme toxicity. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:5658-64 pubmed
    b>Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, a major cause of bacillary dysentery in humans, can use heme as a source of iron...