shigella

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).

Top Publications

  1. Peng J, Yang J, Jin Q. The molecular evolutionary history of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:147-52 pubmed publisher
    Shigellosis, which caused by Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), was still a threat to public health. Compelling evidence indicates that Shigella species and EIEC are derived from multiple origins of E...
  2. Sims G, Kim S. Whole-genome phylogeny of Escherichia coli/Shigella group by feature frequency profiles (FFPs). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8329-34 pubmed publisher
    A whole-genome phylogeny of the Escherichia coli/Shigella group was constructed by using the feature frequency profile (FFP) method...
  3. Soofi S, Habib M, von Seidlein L, Khan M, Muhammad S, Bhutto N, et al. A comparison of disease caused by Shigella and Campylobacter species: 24 months community based surveillance in 4 slums of Karachi, Pakistan. J Infect Public Health. 2011;4:12-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We report country specific results for Shigella diarrhea that were derived from a multicenter study conducted in six Asian countries...
  4. Haukka K, Siitonen A. Emerging resistance to newer antimicrobial agents among Shigella isolated from Finnish foreign travellers. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:476-82 pubmed
    In Finland, most cases of shigellosis are related to travel abroad. Antimicrobial drug resistance of 1814 Shigella strains isolated from Finnish patients during 1990-2005 was studied using discs of 12 antimicrobial agents...
  5. Carneiro L, Travassos L, Soares F, Tattoli I, Magalhaes J, Bozza M, et al. Shigella induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in nonmyleoid cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:123-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella rapidly kills myeloid cells via a caspase-1 inflammasome-dependent cell death mechanism...
  6. Handa Y, Suzuki M, Ohya K, Iwai H, Ishijima N, Koleske A, et al. Shigella IpgB1 promotes bacterial entry through the ELMO-Dock180 machinery. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:121-8 pubmed
    b>Shigella use a special mechanism to invade epithelial cells called 'the trigger mechanism of entry', which allows epithelial cells to trap several bacteria simultaneously...
  7. Mounier J, Boncompain G, Senerovic L, Lagache T, Chretien F, Perez F, et al. Shigella effector IpaB-induced cholesterol relocation disrupts the Golgi complex and recycling network to inhibit host cell secretion. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:381-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella infection causes destruction of the human colonic epithelial barrier. The Golgi network and recycling endosomes are essential for maintaining epithelial barrier function...
  8. Roy S, Thanasekaran K, Dutta Roy A, Sehgal S. Distribution of Shigella enterotoxin genes and secreted autotransporter toxin gene among diverse species and serotypes of shigella isolated from Andaman Islands, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1694-8 pubmed
    We studied the prevalence and distribution of the newly described genes for Shigella enterotoxins (ShET1 and ShET2, encoded by set and sen genes) and secreted auto-transporter toxin (encoded by sat gene) in clinical isolates from the ..
  9. Ashida H, Ogawa M, Kim M, Suzuki S, Sanada T, Punginelli C, et al. Shigella deploy multiple countermeasures against host innate immune responses. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we highlight current topics concerning Shigella's tactics that interfere with the innate immune systems.

More Information

Publications97

  1. Skippington E, Ragan M. Within-species lateral genetic transfer and the evolution of transcriptional regulation in Escherichia coli and Shigella. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:532 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the relationship between units of lateral transfer and recombination within the Escherichia coli - Shigella clade and the topological properties of genes in the E. coli transcriptional regulatory network (TRN)...
  2. Suzuki T, Yoshikawa Y, Ashida H, Iwai H, Toyotome T, Matsui H, et al. High vaccine efficacy against shigellosis of recombinant noninvasive Shigella mutant that expresses Yersinia invasin. J Immunol. 2006;177:4709-17 pubmed
    Live attenuated Shigella vaccines elicit protective immune responses, but involve a potential risk of inducing a strong inflammatory reaction...
  3. Wong M, Reddy V, Hanson H, Johnson K, Tsoi B, Cokes C, et al. Antimicrobial resistance trends of Shigella serotypes in New York City, 2006-2009. Microb Drug Resist. 2010;16:155-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of increasing antimicrobial resistance to Shigella, empiric treatment options are decreasing...
  4. Ram P, Crump J, Gupta S, Miller M, Mintz E. Part II. Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Shigella infections in low and medium human development index countries, 1984-2005. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:577-603 pubmed
    The global incidence of Shigella infection has been estimated at 80-165 million episodes annually, with 99% of episodes occurring in the developing world...
  5. Lehmacher A, Bockem hl J. L-Sorbose utilization by virulent Escherichia coli and Shigella: different metabolic adaptation of pathotypes. Int J Med Microbiol. 2007;297:245-54 pubmed publisher
    The frequency of L-Sorbose utilization differs significantly between pathotypes of Escherichia coli and Shigella from 93% to 0%. Among 266 strains tested, this frequency increased in the order Shigella, enterotoxigenic E...
  6. Nandy S, Mitra U, Rajendran K, Dutta P, Dutta S. Subtype prevalence, plasmid profiles and growing fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella from Kolkata, India (2001-2007): a hospital-based study. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:1499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..We report isolation frequency, plasmid profiles and antimicrobial resistance of Shigella subtypes in Kolkata, India, from a prospective hospital-based study...
  7. Gordienko E, Kazanov M, Gelfand M. Evolution of pan-genomes of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella enterica. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:2786-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed multiple genomes of Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., and Salmonella enterica...
  8. Rahman M, Sultana M, Khan S, Birkeland N. Serological cross-reactivity of environmental isolates of Enterobacter, Escherichia, Stenotrophomonas, and Aerococcus with Shigella spp.-specific antisera. Curr Microbiol. 2007;54:63-7 pubmed
    Using protocols designed for the isolation of Shigella from environmental freshwater samples from different regions of Bangladesh, 11 bacterial strains giving rise to Shigella-like colonies on selective agar plates and showing serological ..
  9. Peng J, Zhang X, Yang J, Wang J, Yang E, Bin W, et al. The use of comparative genomic hybridization to characterize genome dynamics and diversity among the serotypes of Shigella. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:218 pubmed
    Compelling evidence indicates that Shigella species, the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery, as well as enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, are derived from multiple origins of Escherichia coli and form a single pathovar...
  10. Levine M, Kotloff K, Barry E, Pasetti M, Sztein M. Clinical trials of Shigella vaccines: two steps forward and one step back on a long, hard road. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:540-53 pubmed
    More than 50 years of research has yielded numerous Shigella vaccine candidates that have exemplified both the promise of vaccine-induced prevention of shigellosis and the impediments to developing a safe and effective vaccine for ..
  11. Barry E, Pasetti M, Sztein M, Fasano A, Kotloff K, Levine M. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10:245-55 pubmed publisher
    Renewed awareness of the substantial morbidity and mortality that Shigella infection causes among young children in developing countries, combined with technological innovations in vaccinology, has led to the development of novel vaccine ..
  12. Paz I, Sachse M, Dupont N, Mounier J, Cederfur C, Enninga J, et al. Galectin-3, a marker for vacuole lysis by invasive pathogens. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:530-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella bacteria invade macrophages and epithelial cells and following internalization lyse the phagosome and escape to the cytoplasm...
  13. Sire J, Macondo E, Perrier Gros Claude J, Siby T, Bahsoun I, Seck A, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Shigella species isolated in Dakar, Senegal (2004-2006). Jpn J Infect Dis. 2008;61:307-9 pubmed
    ..study was carried out in Dakar, Senegal, to update information about the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella spp. isolated from stool specimens...
  14. Yismaw G, Negeri C, Kassu A. A five-year antimicrobial resistance pattern of Shigella isolated from stools in the Gondar University hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Trop Doct. 2008;38:43-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In the last two decades Shigella isolates have become increasingly resistant to many commonly used drugs...
  15. Ranallo R, BarNoy S, Thakkar S, Urick T, Venkatesan M. Developing live Shigella vaccines using lambda Red recombineering. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2006;47:462-9 pubmed
    Live attenuated Shigella vaccines have shown promise in inducing protective immune responses in human clinical trials and as carriers of heterologous antigens from other mucosal pathogens...
  16. Silva T, Nogueira P, Magalhães G, Grava A, Silva L, Orlandi P. Characterization of Shigella spp. by antimicrobial resistance and PCR detection of ipa genes in an infantile population from Porto Velho (Western Amazon region), Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:731-3 pubmed
    The incidence of Shigella spp. was assessed in 877 infants from the public hospital in Rondônia (Western Amazon region, Brazil) where Shigella represents the fourth cause of diarrhea...
  17. Asrat D. Shigella and Salmonella serogroups and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns in Ethiopia. East Mediterr Health J. 2008;14:760-7 pubmed
    In this study, the serogroup and susceptibility patterns of Shigella and Salmonella spp. isolated from stool cultures were determined using standard laboratory procedures. Among the 76 Shigella isolates serogroup B (Sh...
  18. Chisti M, Faruque A, Khan W, Das S, Zabed M, Salam M. Characteristics of children with Shigella encephalopathy: experience from a large urban diarrhea treatment center in Bangladesh. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:444-7 pubmed publisher
    ..this unmatched case-control design, children of both sexes, aged 0 to 15 years having positive stool culture for Shigella from 1997 to 2006 were studied...
  19. Dunn J, Valdivia R. Uncivil engineers: Chlamydia, Salmonella and Shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1219-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Like the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella, Chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin ..
  20. Suh Yah C. Plasmid-encoded multidrug resistance: A case study of Salmonella and Shigella from enteric diarrhea sources among humans. Biol Res. 2010;43:141-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in mind, the current study investigates the occurrence of plasmid-encoded multidrug resistances in Salmonella and Shigella from diarrheal cases among humans...
  21. Bastos F, Loureiro E. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella spp. isolated in the State of Pará, Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:607-10 pubmed
    b>Shigella spp. are Gram-negative, nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae and are responsible for shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an important cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality...
  22. Miller M, Sentz J, Rabaa M, Mintz E. Global epidemiology of infections due to Shigella, Salmonella serotype Typhi, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:433-5 pubmed
  23. Gomez Duarte O, Bai J, Newell E. Detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Vibrio cholerae, and Campylobacter spp. enteropathogens by 3-reaction multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;63:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..coli diarrheogenic strains, including Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, and Vibrio cholerae...
  24. Willenbrock H, Hallin P, Wassenaar T, Ussery D. Characterization of probiotic Escherichia coli isolates with a novel pan-genome microarray. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R267 pubmed
    ..Using 32 Escherichia coli and Shigella genome sequences we estimate the pan- and core genome of the species...
  25. Ogawa M, Yoshikawa Y, Kobayashi T, Mimuro H, Fukumatsu M, Kiga K, et al. A Tecpr1-dependent selective autophagy pathway targets bacterial pathogens. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:376-89 pubmed publisher
    ..conserved Tectonin domain-containing protein, Tecpr1, as an Atg5 binding partner that colocalized with Atg5 at Shigella-containing phagophores...
  26. Wyckoff E, Boulette M, Payne S. Genetics and environmental regulation of Shigella iron transport systems. Biometals. 2009;22:43-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella spp. have transport systems for both ferric and ferrous iron. The iron can be taken up as free iron or complexed to a variety of carriers...
  27. Das S, Ahmed S, Ferdous F, Farzana F, Chisti M, Leung D, et al. Changing emergence of Shigella sero-groups in Bangladesh: observation from four different diarrheal disease hospitals. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62029 pubmed publisher
    Shigellosis continues to be a public health challenge for developing countries, including Bangladesh. The aim of the study is to demonstrate recent changes in Shigella sero-groups and their geographical diversity.
  28. Germane K, Ohi R, Goldberg M, Spiller B. Structural and functional studies indicate that Shigella VirA is not a protease and does not directly destabilize microtubules. Biochemistry. 2008;47:10241-3 pubmed publisher
    VirA, an essential virulence factor in Shigella disease pathogenesis, is involved in the uptake, motility, and cell-to-cell spread of Shigella organisms within the human host...
  29. Zhu Y, Yang H, Liu Y, Hu L, Cheng J, Ye Y, et al. Detection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants and the emergence of multidrug resistance in clinical isolates of Shigella in SiXian area, China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;75:327-9 pubmed publisher
    A total of 123 Shigella isolates were collected from SiXian area in Anhui, China. Screening was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants...
  30. Wang L, Li Y, Mustaphai A. Rapid and simultaneous quantitation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella in ground beef by multiplex real-time PCR and immunomagnetic separation. J Food Prot. 2007;70:1366-72 pubmed
    ..a multiplex real-time PCR for the simultaneous quantitation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella. Genomic DNA for the real-time PCR was extracted by the boiling method...
  31. Kosek M, Yori P, Olortegui M. Shigellosis update: advancing antibiotic resistance, investment empowered vaccine development, and green bananas. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:475-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella is the principal cause of clinical dysentery and an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children in impoverished regions...
  32. Pourakbari B, Mamishi S, Mashoori N, Mahboobi N, Ashtiani M, Afsharpaiman S, et al. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella species isolated in Children Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2001-2006. Braz J Infect Dis. 2010;14:153-7 pubmed
    ..From 15,255 stool samples, 682 (4.5%) were positive for Shigella species. The most common species of Shigella were S. flexneri (48%) and S. sonnei (45%); other results were S...
  33. Pavlovic M, Luze A, Konrad R, Berger A, Sing A, Busch U, et al. Development of a duplex real-time PCR for differentiation between E. coli and Shigella spp. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:1245-51 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR test for differentiation between Shigella spp. and E. coli, in particular enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC).
  34. Farshad S, Sheikhi R, Japoni A, Basiri E, Alborzi A. Characterization of Shigella strains in Iran by plasmid profile analysis and PCR amplification of ipa genes. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2879-83 pubmed
    To characterize Shigella clinical strains, we studied 82 Shigella strains recovered from 719 stool samples of patients with bloody diarrhea in Shiraz, Iran, over the period from April to October 2003...
  35. Boveé L, Whelan J, Sonder G, van Dam A, van den Hoek A. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:347 pubmed publisher
    Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare...
  36. Ashtiani M, Monajemzadeh M, Kashi L. Trends in antimicrobial resistance of fecal Shigella and Salmonella isolates in Tehran, Iran. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2009;52:52-5 pubmed
    ..The present study was therefore undertaken to report resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in 2487 stool culture isolates in a tertiary care hospital between 1996 and 2000 and 2001 and 2005...
  37. Peng J, Yang J, Jin Q. An integrated approach for finding overlooked genes in Shigella. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18509 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to improve genome annotation, we aimed to identify novel sRNAs and sORFs in Shigella, the principal etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery.
  38. Shiferaw B, Solghan S, Palmer A, Joyce K, Barzilay E, Krueger A, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella isolates in Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) sites, 2000-2010. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 5:S458-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of shigellosis with appropriate antimicrobial agents shortens duration of illness and bacterial shedding, but resistance to commonly used agents is increasing...
  39. Mensa L, Marco F, Vila J, Gascon J, Ruiz J. Quinolone resistance among Shigella spp. isolated from travellers returning from India. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:279-81 pubmed
    Among 200 isolates of Shigella from patients with travellers' diarrhoea, 12 isolates (four isolated in 1995-2000 and eight in 2001-2004) exhibited quinolone resistance. Nine of these isolates originated from India...
  40. Zhang R, Zhou H, Cai J, Zhang J, Chen G, Nasu M, et al. Serotypes and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase types of clinical isolates of Shigella spp. from the Zhejiang province of China. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;69:98-104 pubmed publisher
    To understand the distribution of the serotypes of Shigella spp...
  41. Tattoli I, Sorbara M, Vuckovic D, Ling A, Soares F, Carneiro L, et al. Amino acid starvation induced by invasive bacterial pathogens triggers an innate host defense program. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;11:563-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that infection of epithelial cells with Shigella and Salmonella triggers acute intracellular amino acid (AA) starvation due to host membrane damage...
  42. Mokhtari W, Nsaibia S, Majouri D, Ben Hassen A, Gharbi A, Aouni M. Detection and characterization of Shigella species isolated from food and human stool samples in Nabeul, Tunisia, by molecular methods and culture techniques. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:209-22 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to isolate Shigella spp...
  43. Shao Y, Zhu S, Jin C, Chen F. Development of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification-RFLP (mLAMP-RFLP) to detect Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in milk. Int J Food Microbiol. 2011;148:75-9 pubmed publisher
    ..amplification-RFLP (mLAMP-RFLP) was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of Salmonella strains and Shigella strains in milk...
  44. Herwana E, Surjawidjaja J, Salim O, Indriani N, Bukitwetan P, Lesmana M. Shigella-associated diarrhea in children in South Jakarta, Indonesia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:418-25 pubmed
    A surveillance of Shigella infections was conducted on 612 children aged 0-12 years-old presenting with diarrhea to Mampang and Tebet Community Health Centers in South Jakarta, Indonesia, during February 2005 through September 2007...
  45. Brewer M, Xiong N, Anderson K, Carlson S. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine. Am J Vet Res. 2013;74:1078-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines...
  46. Marteyn B, Gazi A, Sansonetti P. Shigella: a model of virulence regulation in vivo. Gut Microbes. 2012;3:104-20 pubmed publisher
    Much is known about the molecular effectors of pathogenicity of gram-negative enteric pathogens, among which Shigella can be considered a model...
  47. Keddy K, Sooka A, Crowther Gibson P, Quan V, Meiring S, Cohen C, et al. Systemic shigellosis in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of systemic shigellosis in South Africa, where rates of HIV infection are high...
  48. Lindstedt B, Brandal L, Aas L, Vardund T, Kapperud G. Study of polymorphic variable-number of tandem repeats loci in the ECOR collection and in a set of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella isolates for use in a genotyping assay. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;69:197-205 pubmed
    ..A set of 61 pathogenic isolates of both E. coli and Shigella spp. was then tested with the same set of VNTR loci, and revealed 54 distinct genotypes...
  49. Ashida H, Ogawa M, Mimuro H, Sasakawa C. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;337:231-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery...
  50. Maheux A, Picard F, Boissinot M, Bissonnette L, Paradis S, Bergeron M. Analytical comparison of nine PCR primer sets designed to detect the presence of Escherichia coli/Shigella in water samples. Water Res. 2009;43:3019-28 pubmed publisher
    The analytical performance of 9 different PCR primer sets designed to detect Escherichia coli and Shigella in water has been evaluated in terms of ubiquity, specificity, and analytical detection limit...
  51. Hosseini M, Ranjbar R, Ghasemi H, Jalalian H. The prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Shigella sp. recovered from patients admitted to Bouali Hospital, Tehran, Iran during 1999-2001. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:2778-80 pubmed
    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of serotypes and antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from patients admitted to Bouali hospital, Tehran, Iran during 1999 to 2001...
  52. Gassama Sow A, Aidara Kane A, Barraud O, Gatet M, Denis F, Ploy M. High prevalence of trimethoprim-resistance cassettes in class 1 and 2 integrons in Senegalese Shigella spp isolates. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:207-12 pubmed
    ..Shigellae are noteworthy for their multiple drug resistance, having gradually acquired resistance to most widely use and inexpensive antimicrobial drugs...
  53. Brandal L, Lindstedt B, Aas L, Stavnes T, Lassen J, Kapperud G. Octaplex PCR and fluorescence-based capillary electrophoresis for identification of human diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. J Microbiol Methods. 2007;68:331-41 pubmed
    ..in a single reaction, was developed to identify the five main pathotypes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. The virulence genes selected for each category were Stx1, Stx2, and eaeA for enterohemorrhagic E...
  54. Skippington E, Ragan M. Phylogeny rather than ecology or lifestyle biases the construction of Escherichia coli-Shigella genetic exchange communities. Open Biol. 2012;2:120112 pubmed publisher
    ..using a graph-based abstraction of inferred genetic-exchange relationships among 27 Escherichia coli and Shigella genomes. We show that although barriers to inter-phylogenetic group lateral transfer are low, E...
  55. Hu L, Li J, Ye Y, Li X. Mutations in the GyrA subunit of DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV in clinical strains of fluoroquinolone-resistant Shigella in Anhui, China. J Microbiol. 2007;45:168-70 pubmed
    In this research 26 Shigella isolates were examined by PCR and direct nucleotide sequencing for genetic alterations in the quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs)...
  56. Gorgé O, Lopez S, Hilaire V, Lisanti O, Ramisse V, Vergnaud G. Selection and validation of a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis panel for typing Shigella spp. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1026-36 pubmed publisher
    The Shigella genus has historically been separated into four species, based on biochemical assays. The classification within each species relies on serotyping...
  57. van den Beld M, Reubsaet F. Differentiation between Shigella, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and noninvasive Escherichia coli. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:899-904 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella causes bacillary dysentery and is classified into four species based on their antigen characteristics...
  58. Ashida H, Ogawa M, Mimuro H, Kobayashi T, Sanada T, Sasakawa C. Shigella are versatile mucosal pathogens that circumvent the host innate immune system. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011;23:448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review current topics on host defense mechanisms against bacterial infection and the countermeasures that Shigella use to evade the innate immune system.
  59. Kuo C, Su L, Perera J, Carlos C, Tan B, Kumarasinghe G, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolates in eight Asian countries, 2001-2004. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2008;41:107-11 pubmed
    ..Because of increasing trends towards drug resistance, this study was undertaken to monitor local resistance patterns of Shigella isolates from 8 Asian countries.
  60. Hsu B, Wu S, Huang S, Tseng Y, Ji D, Chen J, et al. Differentiation and identification of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in environmental waters by a molecular method and biochemical test. Water Res. 2010;44:949-55 pubmed publisher
    Both Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are important human pathogens that are responsible for the majority of cases of endemic bacillary dysentery...
  61. Sasakawa C. A new paradigm of bacteria-gut interplay brought through the study of Shigella. Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci. 2010;86:229-43 pubmed
    ..b>Shigella species (abbreviated here as Shigella), the causative agent of bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), are highly ..
  62. Mandomando I, Jaintilal D, Pons M, Valles X, Espasa M, Mensa L, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance in Shigella and Salmonella isolates from children under five years of age with diarrhea in rural Mozambique. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:2450-4 pubmed publisher
    The antimicrobial susceptibility and mechanisms of resistance of 109 Shigella and 40 Salmonella isolates from children with diarrhea in southern Mozambique were assessed...
  63. Coimbra R, Artiguenave F, Jacques L, Oliveira G. MST (molecular serotyping tool): a program for computer-assisted molecular identification of Escherichia coli and Shigella O antigens. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1921-3 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli and Shigella O antigens can be inferred using the rfb-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) molecular test...
  64. Kodati V, Govindan S, Movva S, Ponnala S, Hasan Q. Role of Shigella infection in endometriosis: a novel hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2008;70:239-43 pubmed
    ..BLAST search results revealed sequence homology to shigella bacterial DNA leading us to hypothesize that infection may be playing a role in the etiology of endometriosis...
  65. Mehata S, Duan G. Molecular mechanism of multi-drug resistance in Shigella isolates from rural China. Nepal Med Coll J. 2011;13:27-9 pubmed
    ..Present study assess the patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility and mutations in marA genes of Shigella isolates and its association...
  66. Folster J, Pecic G, Bowen A, Rickert R, Carattoli A, Whichard J. Decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin among Shigella isolates in the United States, 2006 to 2009. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1758-60 pubmed publisher
    We characterized 20 Shigella isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Most patients (80%) from whom a travel history was obtained reported travel to South or Southeast Asia...
  67. Yamazaki Y, Fukasawa A. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction method discriminating Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. Arch Microbiol. 2011;193:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, 1,023- and 605-bp products were obtained when DNA of Shigella sonnei was used, and a 605-bp product was obtained when DNA of Shigella ?exneri was used...
  68. Liu B, Knirel Y, Feng L, Perepelov A, Senchenkova S, Wang Q, et al. Structure and genetics of Shigella O antigens. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2008;32:627-53 pubmed publisher
    This review covers the O antigens of the 46 serotypes of Shigella, but those of most Shigella flexneri are variants of one basic structure, leaving 34 Shigella distinct O antigens to review, together with their gene clusters...
  69. Eftekhari N, Bakhshi B, Pourshafie M, Zarbakhsh B, Rahbar M, Hajia M, et al. Genetic diversity of Shigella spp. and their integron content. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2013;10:237-42 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and resistance gene content of class 1 and 2 integrons among Shigella spp. and to study the genetic diversity of isolates using the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method.
  70. Phalipon A, Sansonetti P. Shigella's ways of manipulating the host intestinal innate and adaptive immune system: a tool box for survival?. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007;85:119-29 pubmed
    b>Shigella, a Gram-negative invasive enteropathogenic bacterium, causes the rupture, invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. This complex and aggressive process accounts for the symptoms of bacillary dysentery...
  71. Dubois V, Parizano M, Arpin C, Coulange L, Bezian M, Quentin C. High genetic stability of integrons in clinical isolates of Shigella spp. of worldwide origin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:1333-40 pubmed
    Over a 12-year period, 68 Shigella strains (31 S. sonnei, 30 S. flexneri, 4 S. dysenteriae, and 3 S...
  72. Onyango D, Wandili S, Kakai R, Waindi E. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella from fish harvested from the Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:99-104 pubmed
    ..Human infections caused by pathogens transmitted from fish are quite common. The aim of this study was to isolate enteric pathogenic bacteria from fish that might be transmitted to humans after the handling or consumption of such fish...
  73. Mamatha B, Pusapati B, Rituparna C. Changing patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella serotypes isolated from children with acute diarrhea in Manipal, South India, a 5 year study. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38:863-6 pubmed
    This study was carried out to determine the current pattern of Shigella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance in children with acute gastroenteritis in Manipal, South India...
  74. Hien B, Scheutz F, Cam P, Serichantalergs O, Huong T, Thu T, et al. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella strains isolated from children in a hospital case-control study in Hanoi, Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:996-1004 pubmed publisher
    This case-control study detected and characterized Shigella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) types among Vietnamese children less than 5 years old. In 249 children with diarrhea and 124 controls, Shigella spp...
  75. Romero S, Grompone G, Carayol N, Mounier J, Guadagnini S, Prevost M, et al. ATP-mediated Erk1/2 activation stimulates bacterial capture by filopodia, which precedes Shigella invasion of epithelial cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:508-19 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans, invades epithelial cells, using a type III secretory system (T3SS) to inject bacterial effectors into host cells and remodel the actin cytoskeleton...
  76. Everley R, Mott T, Wyatt S, Toney D, Croley T. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of Escherichia coli and Shigella species. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2008;19:1621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..LC/QTOF MS) utilizing electrospray ionization was employed to monitor protein expression in Escherichia coli and Shigella organisms. Comparison with MALDI/TOF-MS revealed more proteins, particularly above 15 kDa...
  77. Warren B, Parish M, Schneider K. Shigella as a foodborne pathogen and current methods for detection in food. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46:551-67 pubmed
    b>Shigella, the causative agent of shigellosis or "bacillary dysentery," has been increasingly involved in foodborne outbreaks...
  78. Schroeder G, Hilbi H. Molecular pathogenesis of Shigella spp.: controlling host cell signaling, invasion, and death by type III secretion. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2008;21:134-56 pubmed publisher
    b>Shigella spp. are gram-negative pathogenic bacteria that evolved from harmless enterobacterial relatives and may cause devastating diarrhea upon ingestion...
  79. Lindsay B, Ochieng J, Ikumapayi U, Toure A, Ahmed D, Li S, et al. Quantitative PCR for detection of Shigella improves ascertainment of Shigella burden in children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low-income countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1740-6 pubmed publisher
    Estimates of the prevalence of Shigella spp. are limited by the suboptimal sensitivity of current diagnostic and surveillance methods...
  80. Tattoli I, Carneiro L, Jehanno M, Magalhaes J, Shu Y, Philpott D, et al. NLRX1 is a mitochondrial NOD-like receptor that amplifies NF-kappaB and JNK pathways by inducing reactive oxygen species production. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, NLRX1 synergistically potentiated ROS production induced by tumour necrosis factor alpha, Shigella infection and double-stranded RNA, resulting in amplified NF-kappaB-dependent and JUN amino-terminal kinases-..
  81. Chattopadhyay S, Weissman S, Minin V, Russo T, Dykhuizen D, Sokurenko E. High frequency of hotspot mutations in core genes of Escherichia coli due to short-term positive selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12412-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hotspot mutations at the highest rate, whereas the highest total number of mutated genes has been found among Shigella isolates, suggesting the pathoadaptive nature of such mutations...
  82. Balbi K, Rocha E, Feil E. The temporal dynamics of slightly deleterious mutations in Escherichia coli and Shigella spp. Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:345-55 pubmed publisher
    The Shigella are recently emerged clones of Escherichia coli, which have independently adopted an intracellular pathogenic lifestyle...
  83. Kaminski R, Turbyfill K, Chao C, Ching W, Oaks E. Mucosal adjuvanticity of a Shigella invasin complex with dna-based vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:574-86 pubmed publisher
    ..study, a mucosal adjuvant consisting of an invasin protein-lipopolysaccharide complex (Invaplex) isolated from Shigella spp. was evaluated as an adjuvant for DNA-based vaccines...
  84. Ghosh M, Wahi S, Kumar M, Ganguli A. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella spp. in some raw street vended Indian foods. Int J Environ Health Res. 2007;17:151-6 pubmed
    ..coriander sauce, of ready-to-eat salads and coconut slices collected were analysed for Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella spp...
  85. Nguyen N, Ha V, Tran N, Stabler R, Pham D, Le T, et al. The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e702 pubmed publisher
    ..Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges...
  86. Goel N, Wattal C, Kaul D, Khanna V. Emergence of ceftriaxone resistant Shigella. Indian J Pediatr. 2013;80:70-1 pubmed publisher
    ..There is rapid emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. resulting in poor reliability of first line antibiotics like quinolones, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin...
  87. Stelling J, Yih W, Galas M, Kulldorff M, Pichel M, Terragno R, et al. Automated use of WHONET and SaTScan to detect outbreaks of Shigella spp. using antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:873-83 pubmed publisher
    ..of antimicrobial resistance, we applied the system to the detection of local and regional outbreaks of Shigella spp...
  88. Yang J, Nie H, Chen L, Zhang X, Yang F, Xu X, et al. Revisiting the molecular evolutionary history of Shigella spp. J Mol Evol. 2007;64:71-9 pubmed publisher
    The theory that Shigella is derived from multiple independent origins of Escherichia coli (Pupo et al...