salmonella typhi

Summary

Summary: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.

Top Publications

  1. Holt K, Baker S, Dongol S, Basnyat B, Adhikari N, Thorson S, et al. High-throughput bacterial SNP typing identifies distinct clusters of Salmonella Typhi causing typhoid in Nepalese children. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:144 pubmed publisher
    b>Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, which remains an important public health issue in many developing countries...
  2. Parry C, Thuy C, Dongol S, Karkey A, Vinh H, Chinh N, et al. Suitable disk antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints defining Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:5201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Screening for nalidixic acid resistance or ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin disk inhibition zone are suitable for detecting S. Typhi isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. ..
  3. Rondini S, Micoli F, Lanzilao L, Pisoni I, Di Cioccio V, Saul A, et al. Characterization of Citrobacter sp. line 328 as a source of Vi for a Vi-CRM(197) glycoconjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:763-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A vaccine is much needed for use in young children and the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health (NVGH) is developing a conjugate vaccine which targets S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide...
  4. Bermúdez Brito M, Muñoz Quezada S, Gómez Llorente C, Matencio E, Bernal M, Romero F, et al. Cell-free culture supernatant of Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 decreases pro-inflammatory cytokines in human dendritic cells challenged with Salmonella typhi through TLR activation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59370 pubmed publisher
    ..This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro-inflammatory pathways.
  5. Karkey A, Arjyal A, Anders K, Boni M, Dongol S, Koirala S, et al. The burden and characteristics of enteric fever at a healthcare facility in a densely populated area of Kathmandu. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13988 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are important for initiating a vaccination scheme and improvements in sanitation. We suggest any such intervention should be implemented throughout the LSMC area...
  6. Somily A. An imported enteric fever caused by a quinolone-resistant Salmonella Typhi. Ann Saudi Med. 2010;30:313-6 pubmed publisher
    ..indicate that nalidixic acid susceptibility correlates well with the clinical outcome of patients with Salmonella Typhi infection treated with quinolones...
  7. Khan M, Ochiai R, Clemens J. Population impact of Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:485-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The large-scale use of this vaccine can yield protective benefits to a larger population and can reduce the epidemiologic and economic burden of typhoid fever in endemic countries. ..
  8. Nagshetty K, Channappa S, Gaddad S. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi in India. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:70-3 pubmed
    ..Gulbarga region is often prone to enteric fever outbreaks and is an endemic region of typhoid fever. Enteric fever caused by Salmonella Typhi has not been adequately explored in this region.
  9. Keddy K, Sooka A, Letsoalo M, Hoyland G, Chaignat C, Morrissey A, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of typhoid fever rapid antibody tests for laboratory diagnosis at two sub-Saharan African sites. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:640-7 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate three commercial typhoid rapid antibody tests for Salmonella Typhi antibodies in patients suspected of having typhoid fever in Mpumalanga, South Africa, and Moshi, United Republic of Tanzania.

More Information

Publications84

  1. Charles R, Sheikh A, Krastins B, Harris J, Bhuiyan M, LaRocque R, et al. Characterization of anti-Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi antibody responses in bacteremic Bangladeshi patients by an immunoaffinity proteomics-based technology. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi-infected patients and detected anti-HlyE responses at the time of clinical presentation in patients but not in controls. These findings could assist in the development of improved diagnostic assays...
  2. Addiman S, Maimaris W, Thomas H, White G, Lawrence J, Balasegaram S. Public health management of Salmonella Typhi/Paratyphi case and contact screening: lessons from North London. Public Health. 2013;127:207-13 pubmed publisher
  3. Zhou L, Pollard A. A novel method of selective removal of human DNA improves PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in blood samples. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:164 pubmed publisher
    ..The intact Salmonella Typhi bacteria were collected from the specimen by centrifugation and the DNA extracted with QIAamp DNA mini kit...
  4. Du H, Sheng X, Zhang H, Zou X, Ni B, Xu S, et al. RpoE may promote flagellar gene expression in Salmonella enterica serovar typhi under hyperosmotic stress. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that RpoE promoted the expression of class-3 flagellar genes and it might be performed by initiating the expression of fliA in S. enterica serovar Typhi under hyperosmotic stress. ..
  5. Koirala K, Thanh D, Thapa S, Arjyal A, Karkey A, Dongol S, et al. Highly resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with a novel gyrA mutation raises questions about the long-term efficacy of older fluoroquinolones for treating typhoid fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:2761-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolation of this organism has serious implications for the long-term efficacy of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin for typhoid treatment...
  6. Garg R, Qadri A. Hemoglobin transforms anti-inflammatory Salmonella typhi virulence polysaccharide into a TLR-2 agonist. J Immunol. 2010;184:5980-7 pubmed publisher
    Vi capsular polysaccharide is a major virulence determinant of the human typhoid- causing pathogen Salmonella typhi; it is absent in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars...
  7. Chinni S, Raabe C, Zakaria R, Randau G, Hoe C, Zemann A, et al. Experimental identification and characterization of 97 novel npcRNA candidates in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:5893-908 pubmed publisher
    ..typhi Hfq protein, supporting an important role of Hfq in npcRNA networks. This study points to novel functional npcRNA candidates potentially involved in various regulatory roles including the pathogenicity of S. typhi. ..
  8. Wahid R, Simon R, Zafar S, Levine M, Sztein M. Live oral typhoid vaccine Ty21a induces cross-reactive humoral immune responses against Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B in humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas cross-reactive humoral immune responses to S. Paratyphi A or B antigens are demonstrable following Ty21a immunization, they cannot explain the efficacy data gleaned from controlled field trials...
  9. Janis C, Grant A, McKinley T, Morgan F, John V, Houghton J, et al. In vivo regulation of the Vi antigen in Salmonella and induction of immune responses with an in vivo-inducible promoter. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2481-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights that Vi is downregulated in vivo and provides proof of principle that it is possible to generate a live attenuated vaccine that induces Vi-specific antibodies after single oral administration. ..
  10. Baker S, Holt K, Clements A, Karkey A, Arjyal A, Boni M, et al. Combined high-resolution genotyping and geospatial analysis reveals modes of endemic urban typhoid fever transmission. Open Biol. 2011;1:110008 pubmed publisher
    Typhoid is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, human-restricted bacteria that are transmitted faeco-orally. Salmonella Typhi and S...
  11. Tran T, Nguyen T, Nguyen T, Ninh T, Tran N, Nguyen V, et al. A randomised trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the novel single oral dose typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 in healthy Vietnamese children. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11778 pubmed publisher
    ..endpoint was the proportion of subjects who showed a positive immune response to M01ZH09 in the Salmonella Typhi lipopolysaccharide (LPS) specific serum IgA and IgG ELISA...
  12. Harish B, Menezes G. Antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This review is based on published research from our centre and literature from elsewhere in the world. This brief review tries to summarize the history and recent trends in antimicrobial resistance in typhoidal salmonellae...
  13. Jansen A, Hall L, Clare S, Goulding D, Holt K, Grant A, et al. A Salmonella Typhimurium-Typhi genomic chimera: a model to study Vi polysaccharide capsule function in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002131 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of the Vi capsule also correlated with induction of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo, a factor that impacted on chemotaxis and the activation of immune cells in vitro. ..
  14. Hatta M, Sultan A, Pastoor R, Smits H. New flagellin gene for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from the East Indonesian archipelago. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:429-34 pubmed publisher
    Phase variation is a property unique of some Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains from Indonesia. Salmonella Typhi isolates from Indonesia have been described that in addition to the phase 1 Hd flagellin gene contain a second ..
  15. Sheikh A, Khanam F, Sayeed M, Rahman T, Pacek M, Hu Y, et al. Interferon-? and proliferation responses to Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi proteins in patients with S. Typhi Bacteremia in Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1193 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular immune responses are required to control and clear Salmonella infection. Despite this, there are limited data on cellular immune responses in humans infected with wild type S. Typhi...
  16. Song J, Willinger T, Rongvaux A, Eynon E, Stevens S, Manz M, et al. A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella typhi. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;8:369-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We expect that this mouse model will be a useful resource for understanding S. Typhi pathogenesis and for evaluating potential vaccine candidates against typhoid fever...
  17. Tien Y, Ushijima H, Mizuguchi M, Liang S, Chiou C. Use of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis in molecular subtyping of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:223-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Because seven of the 11 VNTRs are highly variable, the VNTR markers may only be useful in determining genetic relationships among very closely related isolates in short-term epidemiological studies and not for discerning S. Typhi clones...
  18. Karavolos M, Bulmer D, Spencer H, Rampioni G, Schmalen I, Baker S, et al. Salmonella Typhi sense host neuroendocrine stress hormones and release the toxin haemolysin E. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:252-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The hormone response is inhibited by the ?-blocker propranolol. We provide mechanistic insights into the basis of neuroendocrine hormone-mediated haemolysis by S. typhi, increasing our understanding of inter-kingdom signalling...
  19. Yu B, Yang M, Wong H, Watt R, Song E, Zheng B, et al. A method to generate recombinant Salmonella typhi Ty21a strains expressing multiple heterologous genes using an improved recombineering strategy. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;91:177-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have developed an efficient, robust, and versatile method that may be used to construct recombinant Ty21a antigen-expressing strains...
  20. Vendrell A, Gravisaco M, Pasetti M, Croci M, Colombo L, Rodriguez C, et al. A novel Salmonella Typhi-based immunotherapy promotes tumor killing via an antitumor Th1-type cellular immune response and neutrophil activation in a mouse model of breast cancer. Vaccine. 2011;29:728-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi vaccine strain as a cancer immunotherapeutic agent. By potentiating the host antitumor immune response, this approach could be a powerful adjunct tool for cancer therapy...
  21. Butler T. Treatment of typhoid fever in the 21st century: promises and shortcomings. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:959-63 pubmed publisher
  22. Liang L, Juarez S, Nga T, Dunstan S, Nakajima Sasaki R, Davies D, et al. Immune profiling with a Salmonella Typhi antigen microarray identifies new diagnostic biomarkers of human typhoid. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1043 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide an important resource for improved diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccine development against an important human pathogen. ..
  23. Wetter M, Goulding D, Pickard D, Kowarik M, Waechter C, Dougan G, et al. Molecular characterization of the viaB locus encoding the biosynthetic machinery for Vi capsule formation in Salmonella Typhi. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45609 pubmed publisher
    ..VexE mutant cells exported the Vi, but the CPS was not retained at the cell surface. The secreted polymer of a vexE mutant had different physical characteristics compared to the wild-type Vi...
  24. Kantele A, Pakkanen S, Siitonen A, Karttunen R, Kantele J. Live oral typhoid vaccine Salmonella Typhi Ty21a - a surrogate vaccine against non-typhoid salmonella?. Vaccine. 2012;30:7238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..against NTS in animal experiments, it appears conceivable that the oral whole-cell typhoid vaccine, Salmonella Typhi Ty21a (Vivotif(®)), which effectively elicits intestinal antibodies against O-antigens, could exhibit cross-..
  25. Meltzer E, Schwartz E. Enteric fever: a travel medicine oriented view. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:432-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to describe recent epidemiological trends and developments in diagnosis, treatment and prevention...
  26. Moreno Eutimio M, Tenorio Calvo A, Pastelin Palacios R, Perez Shibayama C, Gil Cruz C, López Santiago R, et al. Salmonella Typhi OmpS1 and OmpS2 porins are potent protective immunogens with adjuvant properties. Immunology. 2013;139:459-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data indicate that OmpS1 and OmpS2, despite being expressed at low levels under in vitro culture conditions, are potent protective immunogens with intrinsic adjuvant properties...
  27. Nga T, Karkey A, Dongol S, Thuy H, Dunstan S, Holt K, et al. The sensitivity of real-time PCR amplification targeting invasive Salmonella serovars in biological specimens. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:125 pubmed publisher
    ..Invasive Salmonella serovars, which cause enteric fever, can be commonly cultured from the blood of infected patients. Yet, the isolation of invasive Salmonella serovars from blood is protracted and potentially insensitive...
  28. Nandagopal B, Sankar S, Lingesan K, Appu K, Padmini B, Sridharan G, et al. Prevalence of Salmonella typhi among patients with febrile illness in rural and peri-urban populations of Vellore district, as determined by nested PCR targeting the flagellin gene. Mol Diagn Ther. 2010;14:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to investigate a molecular nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) technique to detect Salmonella typhi among patients with febrile illness in rural and peri-urban communities in Vellore district (Tamil Nadu, ..
  29. Parry C, Vinh H, Chinh N, Wain J, Campbell J, Hien T, et al. The influence of reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi on the clinical response to ofloxacin therapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1163 pubmed publisher
    ..Data from 540 patients randomised to ofloxacin treatment was analysed to identify an MIC of the infecting organism associated with treatment failure...
  30. Orsi R, Fernandes A, Bankova V, Sforcin J. The effects of Brazilian and Bulgarian propolis in vitro against Salmonella Typhi and their synergism with antibiotics acting on the ribosome. Nat Prod Res. 2012;26:430-7 pubmed publisher
    ..antibacterial action, as well as a synergistic effect with antibiotics acting on the ribosome, which points out a possible therapeutic strategy evaluating the use of propolis preparations for the treatment of Salmonella Typhi infection.
  31. Kumar Y, Sharma A, Mani K. Re-emergence of susceptibility to conventionally used drugs among strains of Salmonella Typhi in central west India. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:227-30 pubmed
    ..The present study investigates the re-emergence of sensitivity to conventionally used drugs among strains of S. Typhi in the central west part of India...
  32. Somily A, Adam M, Gad El Rab M, Morshed M, Shakoor Z. Detection of Salmonella typhi agglutinins in sera of patients with other febrile illnesses and healthy individuals. Ann Afr Med. 2011;10:41-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was performed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella agglutinins in patients with other febrile illnesses and healthy blood donors...
  33. Holt K, Dutta S, Manna B, Bhattacharya S, Bhaduri B, Pickard D, et al. High-resolution genotyping of the endemic Salmonella Typhi population during a Vi (typhoid) vaccination trial in Kolkata. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1490 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major health problem especially in developing countries. Vaccines against typhoid are commonly used by travelers but less so by residents of endemic areas...
  34. Libby S, Brehm M, Greiner D, Shultz L, McClelland M, Smith K, et al. Humanized nonobese diabetic-scid IL2rgammanull mice are susceptible to lethal Salmonella Typhi infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi in mice. The hu-SRC-SCID mouse provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain insights into S. Typhi pathogenesis and devise strategies for the prevention of typhoid fever...
  35. Gonzalez Escobedo G, Marshall J, Gunn J. Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi: understanding the carrier state. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In this Progress article, we explore recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which Salmonella spp.--predominantly S. Typhi--colonize and persist in the human gall bladder...
  36. Podda A, Saul A, Arora R, Bhutta Z, Sinha A, Gaind R, et al. Conjugate vaccines for enteric fever: proceedings of a meeting organized in New Delhi, India in 2009. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2010;4:404-11 pubmed
    ..Participants supported development of a Salmonella Typhi conjugate vaccine able to induce effective, long-lasting immunity in young children...
  37. Neil K, Sodha S, Lukwago L, O Tipo S, Mikoleit M, Simington S, et al. A large outbreak of typhoid fever associated with a high rate of intestinal perforation in Kasese District, Uganda, 2008-2009. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1091-9 pubmed publisher
    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) causes an estimated 22 million typhoid fever cases and 216 000 deaths annually worldwide...
  38. Mohammadi G, Valizadeh H, Barzegar Jalali M, Lotfipour F, Adibkia K, Milani M, et al. Development of azithromycin-PLGA nanoparticles: physicochemical characterization and antibacterial effect against Salmonella typhi. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2010;80:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was examined against gram-negative intra cellular microorganism Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial effect was investigated using serial dilution technique to achieve the minimum inhibitory ..
  39. Mian M, Pek E, Chenoweth M, Coombes B, Ashkar A. Humanized mice for Salmonella typhi infection: new tools for an old problem. Virulence. 2011;2:248-52 pubmed
    ..typhi research that may expedite detailed understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of this bacterial infection and investigations of new antimicrobials and vaccines for effective control...
  40. Parry C, Wijedoru L, Arjyal A, Baker S. The utility of diagnostic tests for enteric fever in endemic locations. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:711-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss the range of methods currently used for diagnosing enteric fever in endemic locations and we suggest new technologies which may improve enteric fever diagnostics over the coming years...
  41. Lunguya O, Phoba M, Mundeke S, Bonebe E, Mukadi P, Muyembe J, et al. The diagnosis of typhoid fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:348-55 pubmed publisher
    ..2% and 40.8% requested the Widal test for treatment follow-up and detection of chronic carriers respectively. Salmonella Typhi was recovered from the blood in 2...
  42. Forest C, Ferraro E, Sabbagh S, Daigle F. Intracellular survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in human macrophages is independent of Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-2. Microbiology. 2010;156:3689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi strain or by using human primary cells. Results were corroborated based on complete deletion of the SPI-2 T3SS. Surprisingly, the data suggest that the SPI-2 T3SS of S. Typhi is not required for survival in human macrophages...
  43. Sarhan M, Musa M, Zainuddin Z. Cloning, protein expression and display of synthetic multi-epitope mycobacterial antigens on Salmonella typhi Ty21a cell surface. Indian J Exp Biol. 2011;49:645-53 pubmed
    ..The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NAT column. VacII gene was displayed on the cell surface of Salmonella typhi Ty21a using N-terminal region of ice nucleation proteins (INP) as an anchoring motif...
  44. Song J, Gao X, Galan J. Structure and function of the Salmonella Typhi chimaeric A(2)B(5) typhoid toxin. Nature. 2013;499:350-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may lead to the development of potentially life-saving therapeutics against typhoid fever. ..
  45. Mathur R, Oh H, Zhang D, Park S, Seo J, Koblansky A, et al. A mouse model of Salmonella typhi infection. Cell. 2012;151:590-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi. Therefore, tlr11(-/-) mice represent a small-animal model for the study of the immune response to S. Typhi and for the development of vaccines against this important human pathogen...
  46. Hodak H, Galan J. A Salmonella Typhi homologue of bacteriophage muramidases controls typhoid toxin secretion. EMBO Rep. 2013;14:95-102 pubmed publisher
    Unlike other Salmonella, which can infect a broad range of hosts causing self-limiting infection, Salmonella Typhi is an exclusively human pathogen that causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening systemic disease...
  47. Micoli F, Rondini S, Pisoni I, Proietti D, Berti F, Costantino P, et al. Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. Vaccine. 2011;29:712-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly ..
  48. Du H, Wang M, Luo Z, Ni B, Wang F, Meng Y, et al. Coregulation of gene expression by sigma factors RpoE and RpoS in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi during hyperosmotic stress. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62:1483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore indicated crosstalk between sigma factors RpoE and RpoS in S. Typhi under hyperosmotic conditions and provides new insights into the regulatory networks of S. Typhi...
  49. Baghal S, Gargari S, Rasooli I. Production and immunogenicity of recombinant ferric enterobactin protein (FepA). Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14 Suppl 3:e166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we attempted to evaluate the immunogenicity of the membrane protein FepA, aiming at inhibition of iron uptake to protect invasion of the host by the bacterium...
  50. Devi K, Nisha S, Sakthivel R, Pandian S. Eugenol (an essential oil of clove) acts as an antibacterial agent against Salmonella typhi by disrupting the cellular membrane. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;130:107-15 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Salmonella typhi.
  51. Felix A, Pitt R. The pathogenic and immunogenic activities of Salmonella typhi in relation to its antigenic constituents. J Hyg (Lond). 1951;49:92-110 pubmed
  52. Trombert A, Berrocal L, Fuentes J, Mora G. S. Typhimurium sseJ gene decreases the S. Typhi cytotoxicity toward cultured epithelial cells. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:312 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi resulted in evident changes in the behaviour of bacteria in contact with eukaryotic cells, plausibly contributing to the S. Typhi adaptation to the systemic infection in humans...
  53. Wahid R, Pasetti M, Maciel M, Simon J, Tacket C, Levine M, et al. Oral priming with Salmonella Typhi vaccine strain CVD 909 followed by parenteral boost with the S. Typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine induces CD27+IgD-S. Typhi-specific IgA and IgG B memory cells in humans. Clin Immunol. 2011;138:187-200 pubmed publisher
    Attenuated live oral typhoid vaccine candidate CVD 909 constitutively expresses Salmonella Typhi capsular polysaccharide antigen (Vi)...
  54. Song Y, Roumagnac P, Weill F, Wain J, Dolecek C, Mazzoni C, et al. A multiplex single nucleotide polymorphism typing assay for detecting mutations that result in decreased fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1631-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones has become a major problem for the successful therapy of human infections caused by Salmonella enterica, especially the life-threatening typhoid and paratyphoid fevers...
  55. Shi H, Santander J, Brenneman K, Wanda S, Wang S, Senechal P, et al. Live recombinant Salmonella Typhi vaccines constructed to investigate the role of rpoS in eliciting immunity to a heterologous antigen. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11142 pubmed publisher
  56. Feasey N, Archer B, Heyderman R, Sooka A, Dennis B, Gordon M, et al. Typhoid fever and invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis, Malawi and South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1448-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Invasive nontyphoid salmonellosis showed a clear bimodal age distribution; the infection developed in women at a younger age than in men. Case frequency for typhoid fever was lower than for salmonellosis...
  57. Menezes G, Harish B, Khan M, Goessens W, Hays J. Antimicrobial resistance trends in blood culture positive Salmonella Typhi isolates from Pondicherry, India, 2005-2009. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This is most likely to be due to an increased use of ciprofloxacin as a first-line drug of choice over more traditional antimicrobial agents for the treatment of typhoid fever...
  58. Fadeel M, House B, Wasfy M, Klena J, Habashy E, Said M, et al. Evaluation of a newly developed ELISA against Widal, TUBEX-TF and Typhidot for typhoid fever surveillance. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:169-75 pubmed
    ..Rapid and accurate laboratory methods for diagnosis of this disease are needed for both patient care and surveillance situations...
  59. Kariuki S, Revathi G, Kiiru J, Mengo D, Mwituria J, Muyodi J, et al. Typhoid in Kenya is associated with a dominant multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi haplotype that is also widespread in Southeast Asia. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the emergence of this aggressive MDR haplotype, careful selection and monitoring of antibiotic usage will be required in Kenya, and potentially other regions of sub-Saharan Africa...
  60. Ley B, Thriemer K, Ame S, Mtove G, von Seidlein L, Amos B, et al. Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex®) for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:147 pubmed publisher
    ..A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera.
  61. Naheed A, Ram P, Brooks W, Hossain M, Parsons M, Talukder K, et al. Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14 Suppl 3:e93-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conducted blood culture surveillance to estimate the incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever among urban slum residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh...
  62. McArthur M, Sztein M. Heterogeneity of multifunctional IL-17A producing S. Typhi-specific CD8+ T cells in volunteers following Ty21a typhoid immunization. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38408 pubmed publisher
  63. Lunguya O, Lejon V, Phoba M, Bertrand S, Vanhoof R, Verhaegen J, et al. Salmonella typhi in the democratic republic of the congo: fluoroquinolone decreased susceptibility on the rise. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1921 pubmed publisher
    Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa...
  64. Nath G, Mauryal P, Gulati A, Singh T, Srivastava R, Kumar K, et al. Comparison of Vi serology and nested PCR in diagnosis of chronic typhoid carriers in two different study populations in typhoid endemic area of India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:636-40 pubmed
    ..Typhi specific immunosuppression could be speculated in females of 51-60 years as only 40% were positive by Vi serology against 100% by nested PCR. Vi serology may be recommended for community based detection of chronic typhoid carriers...
  65. Pickard D, Toribio A, Petty N, van Tonder A, Yu L, Goulding D, et al. A conserved acetyl esterase domain targets diverse bacteriophages to the Vi capsular receptor of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5746-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide a simple explanation and paradigm of how a diverse group of phages target a single key virulence antigen associated with this important human-restricted pathogen...
  66. Firoz Mian M, Pek E, Chenoweth M, Ashkar A. Humanized mice are susceptible to Salmonella typhi infection. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011;8:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest, for the first time, that humanized mice are susceptible to S. typhi challenge and that this model can be utilized to study the pathogenesis of S. typhi to develop novel therapeutic strategies...
  67. Lutterloh E, Likaka A, Sejvar J, Manda R, Naiene J, Monroe S, et al. Multidrug-resistant typhoid fever with neurologic findings on the Malawi-Mozambique border. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54:1100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated an outbreak of unexplained febrile illnesses with neurologic findings, determined to be typhoid fever, along the Malawi-Mozambique border...
  68. Holt K, Dolecek C, Chau T, Duy P, La T, Hoang N, et al. Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e929 pubmed publisher
    ..Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005...
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    ..Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is the cause of typhoid fever. It is a human-restricted pathogen, and few data exist on S. Typhi gene expression in humans...
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    Sacroiliitis caused by Salmonella typhi is rare. In India, unilateral sacroiliitis is usually caused by tuberculosis. We report a 22-year-old man who presented with a high-grade fever and positive blood culture for Salmonella typhi...
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    ..Twenty percent of bile samples contained a Gram-negative organism, with Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from 24 and 22 individuals, respectively...
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    Unlike other Salmonellae, the intracellular bacterial human pathogen Salmonella Typhi exhibits strict host specificity. The molecular bases for this restriction are unknown...
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    ..This will help to inform prevention policies in highly endemic countries...
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    Almost round-the-year occurrence of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A has been noticed in Rourkela since last 13 and five years respectively...