photorhabdus

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.

Top Publications

  1. Blackburn M, Domek J, Gelman D, Hu J. The broadly insecticidal Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex a (Tca): activity against the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. J Insect Sci. 2005;5:32 pubmed
    ..a (Tca), a high molecular weight insecticidal protein complex produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, has been found to be orally toxic to both the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, ..
  2. ffrench Constant R, Waterfield N, Burland V, Perna N, Daborn P, Bowen D, et al. A genomic sample sequence of the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens W14: potential implications for virulence. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000;66:3310-29 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a pathogenic bacterium that lives in the guts of insect-pathogenic nematodes...
  3. Weissfeld A, Halliday R, Simmons D, Trevino E, Vance P, O Hara C, et al. Photorhabdus asymbiotica, a pathogen emerging on two continents that proves that there is no substitute for a well-trained clinical microbiologist. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4152-5 pubmed
    ..Both wound and blood cultures grew Photorhabdus asymbiotica, an enteric gram-negative rod that was initially misidentified by the hospital's rapid ..
  4. Easom C, Clarke D. Motility is required for the competitive fitness of entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens during insect infection. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:168 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus are motile members of the family Enterobactericeae that are pathogenic to insect larvae whilst also maintaining a mutualistic interaction with entomophagous nematodes of the family Heterorhabditiae...
  5. Williamson V, Kaya H. Sequence of a symbiont. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1294-5 pubmed
  6. Qiu X, Han R, Yan X, Liu M, Cao L, Yoshiga T, et al. Identification and characterization of a novel gene involved in the trans-specific nematicidal activity of Photorhabdus luminescens LN2. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4221-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. akhurstii LN2 from Heterorhabditis indica LN2 showed nematicidal activity against axenic Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 infective juveniles (IJs)...
  7. Pinheiro V, Ellar D. Expression and insecticidal activity of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex proteins. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:2372-80 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex (Tc) has been characterized as a potent three-component insecticidal protein complex. Homologues of genes encoding P...
  8. Gaudriault S, Duchaud E, Lanois A, Canoy A, Bourot S, DeRose R, et al. Whole-genome comparison between Photorhabdus strains to identify genomic regions involved in the specificity of nematode interaction. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:809-14 pubmed
    The bacterium Photorhabdus establishes a highly specific association with Heterorhabditis, its nematode host...
  9. Hu K, Li J, Li B, Webster J, Chen G. A novel antimicrobial epoxide isolated from larval Galleria mellonella infected by the nematode symbiont, Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae). Bioorg Med Chem. 2006;14:4677-81 pubmed
    ..identified from larval Galleria mellonella infected by a symbiotically associated bacterium-nematode complex (Photorhabdus luminescens C9-Heterorhabditis megidis 90)...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Ciche T, Sternberg P. Postembryonic RNAi in Heterorhabditis bacteriophora: a nematode insect parasite and host for insect pathogenic symbionts. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:101 pubmed
    ..H. bacteriophora nematodes are mutually associated with the insect pathogen, Photorhabdus luminescens...
  2. Ffrench Constant R, Eleftherianos I, Reynolds S. A nematode symbiont sheds light on invertebrate immunity. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:514-7 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus bacteria live in a 'symbiosis of pathogens' with nematodes that invade and kill insects...
  3. Ciche T, Kim K, Kaufmann Daszczuk B, Nguyen K, Hall D. Cell Invasion and Matricide during Photorhabdus luminescens Transmission by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Nematodes. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:2275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..One such model is the transmission of the insect-pathogenic bacterial symbionts Photorhabdus spp. by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infective juvenile (IJ)-stage nematodes...
  4. Peat S, Ffrench Constant R, Waterfield N, Marokhazi J, Fodor A, Adams B. A robust phylogenetic framework for the bacterial genus Photorhabdus and its use in studying the evolution and maintenance of bioluminescence: a case for 16S, gyrB, and glnA. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2010;57:728-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus spp., the only known bioluminescent terrestrial bacteria are well known for their symbiotic association with heterorhabditid nematodes...
  5. Nielsen Leroux C, Gaudriault S, Ramarao N, Lereclus D, Givaudan A. How the insect pathogen bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus occupy their hosts. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2012;15:220-31 pubmed publisher
    ..process in their lepidopteran larval host: Bacillus thuringiensis and the nematode-associated bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus...
  6. Waterfield N, Kamita S, Hammock B, ffrench Constant R. The Photorhabdus Pir toxins are similar to a developmentally regulated insect protein but show no juvenile hormone esterase activity. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;245:47-52 pubmed
    The genome of the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens strain TT01 contains numerous genes predicting toxins and proteases. Within the P...
  7. ffrench Constant R, Bowen D. Novel insecticidal toxins from nematode-symbiotic bacteria. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57:828-33 pubmed
    ..Here we review the cloning of four insecticidal toxin complex (tc) encoding genes from a different bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens and of similar gene sequences from Xenorhabdus nematophilus...
  8. Gendlina I, Held K, Bartra S, Gallis B, Doneanu C, Goodlett D, et al. Identification and type III-dependent secretion of the Yersinia pestis insecticidal-like proteins. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:1214-27 pubmed
    ..pestis contains a cluster of genes with homology to insecticidal toxin encoding genes of the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens. Here we demonstrate that Y. pestis KIM strains produced the encoded proteins...
  9. Ferreira T, Van Reenen C, Endo A, Tailliez P, Pages S, Sproer C, et al. Photorhabdus heterorhabditis sp. nov., a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis zealandica. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2014;64:1540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..data and phenotypic traits showed that strains SF41T, SF783 and Q614 belong to the same species of the genus Photorhabdus with Photorhabdus temperata subsp...
  10. Liu J, Berry R, Blouin M. Identification of symbiotic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus) from the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis marelatus and Steinernema oregonense based on 16S rDNA sequence. J Invertebr Pathol. 2001;77:87-91 pubmed
    ..16S rRNA sequences from the symbiotic bacteria of these two nematodes with sequence from previously described Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus species...
  11. Zhao R, Han R, Qiu X, Yan X, Cao L, Liu X. Cloning and heterologous expression of insecticidal-protein-encoding genes from Photorhabdus luminescens TT01 in Enterobacter cloacae for termite control. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:7219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..containing genes (tcdA1 and tcdB1) encoding orally insecticidal proteins from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens subsp...
  12. Blackburn M, Martin P, Kuhar D, Farrar R, Gundersen Rindal D. The occurrence of photorhabdus-like toxin complexes in Bacillus thuringiensis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18122 pubmed publisher
    ..operon encoding an insecticidal toxin complex (Tca) similar to that first described from the entomopathogen Photorhabdus luminescens...
  13. Ogier J, Calteau A, Forst S, Goodrich Blair H, Roche D, Rouy Z, et al. Units of plasticity in bacterial genomes: new insight from the comparative genomics of two bacteria interacting with invertebrates, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:568 pubmed publisher
    ..RGPFinder, we investigated plasticity units in bacterial genomes, by exhaustive description of the RGPs in two Photorhabdus and two Xenorhabdus strains, belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and interacting with invertebrates (insects ..
  14. Watson R, Joyce S, Spencer G, Clarke D. The exbD gene of Photorhabdus temperata is required for full virulence in insects and symbiosis with the nematode Heterorhabditis. Mol Microbiol. 2005;56:763-73 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus are bacteria found colonizing the gut of a specialized stage of the nematode Heterorhabditis, called the infective juvenile (IJ). The IJ is a free-living stage of the nematode that seeks out and infects insect larvae...
  15. Lang A, Schmidt G, Schlosser A, Hey T, Larrinua I, Sheets J, et al. Photorhabdus luminescens toxins ADP-ribosylate actin and RhoA to force actin clustering. Science. 2010;327:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is mutualistically associated with entomopathogenetic nematodes...
  16. Waterfield N, Dowling A, Sharma S, Daborn P, Potter U, ffrench Constant R. Oral toxicity of Photorhabdus luminescens W14 toxin complexes in Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001;67:5017-24 pubmed
    Previous attempts to express the toxin complex genes of Photorhabdus luminescens W14 in Escherichia coli have failed to reconstitute their oral toxicity to the model insect Manduca sexta...
  17. Gerrard J, Waterfield N, Vohra R, ffrench Constant R. Human infection with Photorhabdus asymbiotica: an emerging bacterial pathogen. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:229-37 pubmed
    The three currently recognised Photorhabdus species are bioluminescent bacteria that are pathogenic to insects. P. luminescens and P. temperata form a symbiotic relationship with nematodes that infect insects. P...
  18. Duchaud E, Rusniok C, Frangeul L, Buchrieser C, Givaudan A, Taourit S, et al. The genome sequence of the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Nat Biotechnol. 2003;21:1307-13 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a symbiont of nematodes and a broad-spectrum insect pathogen. The complete genome sequence of strain TT01 is 5,688,987 base pairs (bp) long and contains 4,839 predicted protein-coding genes...
  19. Krin E, Chakroun N, Turlin E, Givaudan A, Gaboriau F, Bonne I, et al. Pleiotropic role of quorum-sensing autoinducer 2 in Photorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:6439-51 pubmed
    ..In this work, we compared by global expression profiling the wild-type entomopathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens subsp...
  20. Vlisidou I, Eleftherianos I, Dorus S, Yang G, Ffrench Constant R, Reynolds S, et al. The KdpD/KdpE two-component system of Photorhabdus asymbiotica promotes bacterial survival within M. sexta hemocytes. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;105:352-62 pubmed publisher
    ..we report that the two-component KdpD/KdpE sensor kinase/response regulator of the insect and human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) is sufficient to allow a harmless laboratory strain of E...
  21. Marokhazi J, Waterfield N, LeGoff G, Feil E, Stabler R, Hinds J, et al. Using a DNA microarray to investigate the distribution of insect virulence factors in strains of photorhabdus bacteria. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:4648-56 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus is an insect-pathogenic bacterium in which oral toxicity to insects is found in two distinct taxonomic groups...
  22. Dowling A, Daborn P, Waterfield N, Wang P, Streuli C, ffrench Constant R. The insecticidal toxin Makes caterpillars floppy (Mcf) promotes apoptosis in mammalian cells. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:345-53 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus bacteria produce a number of toxins to kill their insect hosts. The expression of one of these, Makes caterpillars floppy (Mcf), is sufficient to allow Escherichia coli to persist within and kill caterpillars...
  23. Wang Y, Bilgrami A, Shapiro Ilan D, Gaugler R. Stability of entomopathogenic bacteria, Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens, during in vitro culture. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;34:73-81 pubmed
    The entomopathogenic nematode-bacteria complexes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora/Photorhabdus luminescens and Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila are mass produced for use as biological insecticides...
  24. Peel M, Alfredson D, Gerrard J, Davis J, Robson J, McDougall R, et al. Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of strains of Photorhabdus luminescens from infected humans in Australia. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3647-53 pubmed
    We describe the isolation of Photorhabdus (Xenorhabdus) luminescens from four Australian patients: two with multiple skin lesions, one with bacteremia only, and one with disseminated infection...
  25. Costa S, Girard P, Brehelin M, Zumbihl R. The emerging human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica is a facultative intracellular bacterium and induces apoptosis of macrophage-like cells. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1022-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus species are gram-negative entomopathogenic bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Among the different members of the genus, one species, Photorhabdus asymbiotica, is a pathogen of both insects and humans...
  26. Lango L, Clarke D. A metabolic switch is involved in lifestyle decisions in Photorhabdus luminescens. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:1394-405 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a species of Gram-negative bacteria that is pathogenic to insects while also maintaining a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. P...
  27. Gerrard J, McNevin S, Alfredson D, Forgan Smith R, Fraser N. Photorhabdus species: bioluminescent bacteria as emerging human pathogens?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:251-4 pubmed
    We report two Australian patients with soft tissue infections due to Photorhabdus species. Recognized as important insect pathogens, Photorhabdus spp. are bioluminescent gram-negative bacilli...
  28. Westerlund Karlsson A, Saviranta P, Karp M. Generation of thermostable monomeric luciferases from Photorhabdus luminescens. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:1072-6 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli expressing wild-type Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase was found to produce eight times more light than the corresponding Vibrio harveyi ..
  29. Yang G, Hernández Rodríguez C, Beeton M, Wilkinson P, Ffrench Constant R, Waterfield N. Pdl1 is a putative lipase that enhances Photorhabdus toxin complex secretion. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002692 pubmed publisher
    The Toxin Complex (TC) is a large multi-subunit toxin first characterized in the insect pathogens Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, but now seen in a range of pathogens, including those of humans...
  30. Clarke D. Photorhabdus: a model for the analysis of pathogenicity and mutualism. Cell Microbiol. 2008;10:2159-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus are entomopathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. In addition to killing insects Photorhabdus also have a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditidiae...
  31. Gatsogiannis C, Lang A, Meusch D, Pfaumann V, Hofnagel O, Benz R, et al. A syringe-like injection mechanism in Photorhabdus luminescens toxins. Nature. 2013;495:520-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is an insect pathogenic bacterium that is symbiotic with entomopathogenic nematodes. On invasion of insect larvae, P...
  32. Theodore C, King J, You J, Cichewicz R. Production of cytotoxic glidobactins/luminmycins by Photorhabdus asymbiotica in liquid media and live crickets. J Nat Prod. 2012;75:2007-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus asymbiotica engages in a two-part life cycle that requires adaptation to both symbiotic and pathogenic phases. The genome of P...
  33. Brachmann A, Joyce S, Jenke Kodama H, Schwär G, Clarke D, Bode H. A type II polyketide synthase is responsible for anthraquinone biosynthesis in Photorhabdus luminescens. Chembiochem. 2007;8:1721-8 pubmed
    ..gene cluster responsible for the production of anthraquinones (AQs) from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens...
  34. Derzelle S, Turlin E, Duchaud E, Pages S, Kunst F, Givaudan A, et al. The PhoP-PhoQ two-component regulatory system of Photorhabdus luminescens is essential for virulence in insects. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:1270-9 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a symbiont of entomopathogenic nematodes...
  35. Gerrard J, Joyce S, Clarke D, Ffrench Constant R, Nimmo G, Looke D, et al. Nematode symbiont for Photorhabdus asymbiotica. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1562-4 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus asymbiotica is an emerging bacterial pathogen that causes locally invasive soft tissue and disseminated bacteremic infections in the United States and Australia...
  36. Easom C, Joyce S, Clarke D. Identification of genes involved in the mutualistic colonization of the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora by the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:45 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus are Gram negative entomopathogenic bacteria that also have a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis...
  37. Münch A, Stingl L, Jung K, Heermann R. Photorhabdus luminescens genes induced upon insect infection. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:229 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a Gram-negative luminescent enterobacterium and a symbiote to soil nematodes belonging to the species Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. P.luminescens is simultaneously highly pathogenic to insects...
  38. Somvanshi V, Sloup R, Crawford J, Martin A, Heidt A, Kim K, et al. A single promoter inversion switches Photorhabdus between pathogenic and mutualistic states. Science. 2012;337:88-93 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria have a variable life history in which they alternate between pathogens to a wide variety ..
  39. Bennett H, Clarke D. The pbgPE operon in Photorhabdus luminescens is required for pathogenicity and symbiosis. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:77-84 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus is a genus of gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae that is pathogenic to insect larvae while also maintaining a mutualistic relationship with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis, where the bacteria occupy the gut of the ..
  40. Lang A, Schmidt G, Sheets J, Aktories K. Targeting of the actin cytoskeleton by insecticidal toxins from Photorhabdus luminescens. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2011;383:227-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens produces several types of protein toxins, which are essential for participation in a trilateral symbiosis with nematodes and insects...
  41. Derzelle S, Duchaud E, Kunst F, Danchin A, Bertin P. Identification, characterization, and regulation of a cluster of genes involved in carbapenem biosynthesis in Photorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:3780-9 pubmed
    The luminescent entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens produces several yet-uncharacterized broad-spectrum antibiotics...
  42. Wilkinson P, Waterfield N, Crossman L, Corton C, Sanchez Contreras M, Vlisidou I, et al. Comparative genomics of the emerging human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica with the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:302 pubmed publisher
    The Gram-negative bacterium Photorhabdus asymbiotica (Pa) has been recovered from human infections in both North America and Australia...
  43. Au C, Dean P, Reynolds S, ffrench Constant R. Effect of the insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus on insect phagocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2004;6:89-95 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus are insect pathogenic bacteria that replicate within the insect haemocoel following release from their entomopathogenic nematode symbionts...
  44. Waterfield N, Bowen D, Fetherston J, Perry R, ffrench Constant R. The tc genes of Photorhabdus: a growing family. Trends Microbiol. 2001;9:185-91 pubmed
    The toxin complex (tc) genes of Photorhabdus encode insecticidal, high molecular weight Tc toxins...
  45. Mahren S, Schnell H, Braun V. Occurrence and regulation of the ferric citrate transport system in Escherichia coli B, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Photorhabdus luminescens. Arch Microbiol. 2005;184:175-86 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae. E. coli B, Photorhabdus luminescens and one of three Klebsiella pneumoniae strains had a functional FecIRA regulatory system as in E...
  46. Tailliez P, Laroui C, Ginibre N, Paule A, Pages S, Boemare N. Phylogeny of Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus based on universally conserved protein-coding sequences and implications for the taxonomy of these two genera. Proposal of new taxa: X. vietnamensis sp. nov., P. luminescens subsp. caribbeanensis subsp. nov.,. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2010;60:1921-37 pubmed publisher
    ..concatenated sequences from four genes (recA, gyrB, dnaN and gltX) to investigate the phylogeny of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus (entomopathogenic bacteria associated with nematodes of the genera Heterorhabditis and ..
  47. Kondakova A, Kirsheva N, Shashkov A, Shaikhutdinova R, Arbatsky N, Ivanov S, et al. Structure of the O-polysaccharide of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii containing D-glycero-D-manno-heptose and 3,6-dideoxy-3-formamido-D-glucose. Carbohydr Res. 2012;351:134-7 pubmed publisher
    The O-polysaccharide from the lipopolysaccharide of a symbiotic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens subsp...
  48. Ciche T, Ensign J. For the insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens, which end of a nematode is out?. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:1890-7 pubmed
    The nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is the vector for transmitting the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens between insect larvae. The dauer juvenile (DJ) stage nematode selectively retains P...
  49. Ciche T, Bintrim S, Horswill A, Ensign J. A Phosphopantetheinyl transferase homolog is essential for Photorhabdus luminescens to support growth and reproduction of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:3117-26 pubmed
    The bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens is a symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The nematode requires the bacterium for infection of insect larvae and as a substrate for growth and reproduction...
  50. O Neill K, Roche D, Clarke D, Dowds B. The ner gene of Photorhabdus: effects on primary-form-specific phenotypes and outer membrane protein composition. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:3096-105 pubmed
    The nematode-bacterium complex of Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus is pathogenic to insect larvae...
  51. Waterfield N, Ciche T, Clarke D. Photorhabdus and a host of hosts. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009;63:557-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae that lives in a mutualistic association with a Heterorhabditis nematode worm...
  52. Chavez C, Jubelin G, Courties G, Gomard A, Ginibre N, Pages S, et al. The cyclomodulin Cif of Photorhabdus luminescens inhibits insect cell proliferation and triggers host cell death by apoptosis. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:1208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the first direct functional analysis of Cif(Pl), from the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, in its insect host. The cif(Pl) gene was expressed in P. luminescens cultures in vitro...
  53. Brown S, Cao A, Dobson P, Hines E, Akhurst R, East P. Txp40, a ubiquitous insecticidal toxin protein from Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1653-62 pubmed
    Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus are gram-negative bacteria that produce a range of proteins that are toxic to insects...
  54. Hallem E, Rengarajan M, Ciche T, Sternberg P. Nematodes, bacteria, and flies: a tripartite model for nematode parasitism. Curr Biol. 2007;17:898-904 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated that the insect parasitic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, its bacterial symbiont Photorhabdus luminescens, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster constitute a tripartite model for nematode parasitism ..
  55. Waterfield N, Sanchez Contreras M, Eleftherianos I, Dowling A, Yang G, Wilkinson P, et al. Rapid Virulence Annotation (RVA): identification of virulence factors using a bacterial genome library and multiple invertebrate hosts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15967-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we apply RVA to the emerging human pathogen Photorhabdus asymbiotica using "gain of toxicity" assays of recombinant Escherichia coli clones...
  56. Bowen D, Rocheleau T, Grutzmacher C, Meslet L, Valens M, Marble D, et al. Genetic and biochemical characterization of PrtA, an RTX-like metalloprotease from Photorhabdus. Microbiology. 2003;149:1581-91 pubmed
    Proteases play a key role in the interaction between pathogens and their hosts. The bacterial entomopathogen Photorhabdus lives in symbiosis with nematodes that invade insects...
  57. Kuwata R, Yoshiga T, Yoshida M, Kondo E. Mutualistic association of Photorhabdus asymbiotica with Japanese heterorhabditid entomopathogenic nematodes. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:734-41 pubmed publisher
    Gram-negative bacteria, Photorhabdus luminescens and P. temperata, form a mutualistic association with entomopathogenic heterorhabditid nematodes while P...
  58. Daborn P, Waterfield N, Blight M, ffrench Constant R. Measuring virulence factor expression by the pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens in culture and during insect infection. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:5834-9 pubmed
    During insect infection Photorhabdus luminescens emits light and expresses virulence factors, including insecticidal toxin complexes (Tcs) and an RTX-like metalloprotease (Prt)...
  59. Ehlers R. Mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes for plant protection. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;56:623-33 pubmed
    ..They are symbiotically associated with bacteria of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus, respectively, which are the major food source for the nematodes...
  60. Hu K, Webster J. Antibiotic production in relation to bacterial growth and nematode development in Photorhabdus--Heterorhabditis infected Galleria mellonella larvae. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;189:219-23 pubmed
    The population of Photorhabdus luminescens C9, bacterial symbiont of the entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis megidis 90, increased rapidly to 1.2-2...
  61. Gupta R, Patterson S, Ripp S, Simpson M, Sayler G. Expression of the Photorhabdus luminescens lux genes (luxA, B, C, D, and E) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Yeast Res. 2003;4:305-13 pubmed
    The luxA, B, C, D, and E genes from Photorhabdus luminescens were cloned and functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to construct a bacterial lux-based yeast bioreporter capable of autonomous bioluminescence emission...
  62. Daborn P, Waterfield N, Silva C, Au C, Sharma S, ffrench Constant R. A single Photorhabdus gene, makes caterpillars floppy (mcf), allows Escherichia coli to persist within and kill insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10742-7 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens, a bacterium with alternate pathogenic and symbiotic phases of its lifestyle, represents a source of novel genes associated with both virulence and symbiosis...
  63. Watson R, Millichap P, Joyce S, Reynolds S, Clarke D. The role of iron uptake in pathogenicity and symbiosis in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:177 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus are Gram negative bacteria that are pathogenic to insect larvae whilst also having a mutualistic interaction with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis...
  64. Eleftherianos I, Marokhazi J, Millichap P, Hodgkinson A, Sriboonlert A, Ffrench Constant R, et al. Prior infection of Manduca sexta with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli elicits immunity to pathogenic Photorhabdus luminescens: roles of immune-related proteins shown by RNA interference. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;36:517-25 pubmed
    ..effective immunity against subsequent infection by the usually lethal and highly virulent insect pathogen Photorhabdus luminescens TT01...
  65. Crennell S, Tickler P, Bowen D, ffrench Constant R. The predicted structure of photopexin from Photorhabdus shows the first haemopexin-like motif in prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;191:139-44 pubmed
    The insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens secretes several insecticidal high molecular mass 'toxin complexes'...
  66. Fuchs S, Sachs C, Kegler C, Nollmann F, Karas M, Bode H. Neutral loss fragmentation pattern based screening for arginine-rich natural products in Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus. Anal Chem. 2012;84:6948-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The culture supernatants of 69 strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus were analyzed by MALDI-MS(2), and a database comprising MS(2) data from each strain was ..
  67. Krin E, Derzelle S, Bedard K, Adib Conquy M, Turlin E, Lenormand P, et al. Regulatory role of UvrY in adaptation of Photorhabdus luminescens growth inside the insect. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:1118-34 pubmed publisher
    We report global expression profiling of a uvrY-deficient mutant of Photorhabdus luminescens...
  68. Akhurst R, Boemare N, Janssen P, Peel M, Alfredson D, Beard C. Taxonomy of Australian clinical isolates of the genus Photorhabdus and proposal of Photorhabdus asymbiotica subsp. asymbiotica subsp. nov. and P. asymbiotica subsp. australis subsp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2004;54:1301-10 pubmed
    The relationship of Photorhabdus isolates that were cultured from human clinical specimens in Australia to Photorhabdus asymbiotica isolates from human clinical specimens in the USA and to species of the genus Photorhabdus that are ..
  69. ffrench Constant R, Waterfield N, Daborn P, Joyce S, Bennett H, Au C, et al. Photorhabdus: towards a functional genomic analysis of a symbiont and pathogen. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003;26:433-56 pubmed
    ..Here we review studies on pathogenicity and symbiosis in an insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus and its entomopathogenic nematode vector and model insect hosts...
  70. Chalabaev S, Turlin E, Charles J, Namane A, Pages S, Givaudan A, et al. The HcaR regulatory protein of Photorhabdus luminescens affects the production of proteins involved in oxidative stress and toxemia. Proteomics. 2007;7:4499-510 pubmed
    Comparison of the proteomes of wild-type Photorhabdus luminescens and its hcaR derivative, grown in insect hemolymph, showed that hcaR disruption decreased the production of toxins (tcdA1, mcf, and pirAB) and proteins involved in ..
  71. Fan J, Crooks C, Lamb C. High-throughput quantitative luminescence assay of the growth in planta of Pseudomonas syringae chromosomally tagged with Photorhabdus luminescens luxCDABE. Plant J. 2008;53:393-9 pubmed
    ..tomato and pv. maculicola were made by insertion of the luxCDABE operon from Photorhabdus luminescens into the P. syringae chromosome under the control of a constitutive promoter...
  72. An R, Sreevatsan S, Grewal P. Comparative in vivo gene expression of the closely related bacteria Photorhabdus temperata and Xenorhabdus koppenhoeferi upon infection of the same insect host, Rhizotrogus majalis. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:433 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus are Gram-negative, phylogenetically related, enterobacteria, forming mutualism with the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, respectively...
  73. Visschedyk D, Perieteanu A, Turgeon Z, Fieldhouse R, Dawson J, Merrill A. Photox, a novel actin-targeting mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase from Photorhabdus luminescens. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13525-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a pathogenic bacterium that produces many toxic proteins...
  74. Chalabaev S, Turlin E, Bay S, Ganneau C, Brito Fravallo E, Charles J, et al. Cinnamic acid, an autoinducer of its own biosynthesis, is processed via Hca enzymes in Photorhabdus luminescens. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:1717-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens, an entomopathogenic bacterium and nematode symbiont, has homologues of the Hca and Mhp enzymes...
  75. Qiu X, Yan X, Liu M, Han R. Genetic and proteomic characterization of rpoB mutations and their effect on nematicidal activity in Photorhabdus luminescens LN2. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43114 pubmed publisher
    Rifampin resistant (Rif(R)) mutants of the insect pathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens LN2 from entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica LN2 were genetically and proteomically characterized...
  76. Bode H. Entomopathogenic bacteria as a source of secondary metabolites. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2009;13:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..understanding of secondary metabolism of Bacillus thuringiensis, Pseudomonas entomophila, and Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria all of which are entomopathogenic...
  77. Waterfield N, Daborn P, Ffrench Constant R. Genomic islands in Photorhabdus. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:541-5 pubmed
    Genomic islands are responsible for unique aspects of bacterial behavior such as symbiosis and pathogenicity. Photorhabdus luminescens is a pathogen of insects that spends part of its lifecycle in symbiosis with a nematode...
  78. You J, Liang S, Cao L, Liu X, Han R. Nutritive significance of crystalline inclusion proteins of Photorhabdus luminescens in Steinernema nematodes. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2006;55:178-85 pubmed
    Phase I cells of Photorhabdus luminescens produce two types of intracellular crystalline inclusion proteins designated CipA and CipB. The genes encoding CipA and CipB proteins from P...
  79. Joyce S, Watson R, Clarke D. The regulation of pathogenicity and mutualism in Photorhabdus. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:127-32 pubmed
    b>Photorhabdus is a genus of insect-pathogenic bacteria that also maintains a mutualistic interaction with Heterorhabditid nematodes...
  80. Kontnik R, Crawford J, Clardy J. Exploiting a global regulator for small molecule discovery in Photorhabdus luminescens. ACS Chem Biol. 2010;5:659-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This study coupled a global transcriptional regulator, HexA, to secondary metabolite production in Photorhabdus luminescens, a member of the Gammaproteobacteria that participates in a complex symbiosis with nematode worms ..
  81. Rodou A, Ankrah D, Stathopoulos C. Toxins and secretion systems of Photorhabdus luminescens. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:1250-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus luminescens is a nematode-symbiotic, gram negative, bioluminescent bacterium, belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae...
  82. Ahantarig A, Chantawat N, Waterfield N, ffrench Constant R, Kittayapong P. PirAB toxin from Photorhabdus asymbiotica as a larvicide against dengue vectors. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4627-9 pubmed publisher
    We have evaluated Photorhabdus insect-related protein (Pir) from Photorhabdus asymbiotica against dengue vectors...
  83. Gaudriault S, Thaler J, Duchaud E, Kunst F, Boemare N, Givaudan A. Identification of a P2-related prophage remnant locus of Photorhabdus luminescens encoding an R-type phage tail-like particle. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2004;233:223-31 pubmed
    Analysis of the Photorhabdus luminescens genome sequence revealed that the pts region is related to the tail synthesis gene core of the P2 phage. The pts locus encodes a DNA invertase homologue...
  84. Amos M, Sanchez Contreras M, Jackson R, Muñoz Berbel X, Ciche T, Yang G, et al. Influence of the Photorhabdus luminescens phosphomannose isomerase gene, manA, on mannose utilization, exopolysaccharide structure, and biofilm formation. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:776-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the first investigation of some of the genes important for biofilm formation in Photorhabdus luminescens and demonstrate the key role of the phosphomannose isomerase gene, manA, in the structure of ..
  85. Sicard M, Hering S, Schulte R, Gaudriault S, Schulenburg H. The effect of Photorhabdus luminescens (Enterobacteriaceae) on the survival, development, reproduction and behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematoda: Rhabditidae). Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:12-25 pubmed
    ..elegans and three natural isolates of the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens. Two of the tested P. luminescens strains were clearly pathogenic...
  86. Clarke D. The genetic basis of the symbiosis between Photorhabdus and its invertebrate hosts. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2014;88:1-29 pubmed publisher
    b>Photorhabdus is a pathogen of insects that also maintains a mutualistic association with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Photorhabdus colonizes the gut of the infective juvenile (IJ) stage of the nematode...