pectobacterium carotovorum

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes rotting, particularly of storage tissues, of a wide variety of plants and causes a vascular disease in CARROTS; and POTATO plants.

Top Publications

  1. Cui Y, Chatterjee A, Liu Y, Dumenyo C, Chatterjee A. Identification of a global repressor gene, rsmA, of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora that controls extracellular enzymes, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, and pathogenicity in soft-rotting Erwinia spp. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:5108-15 pubmed
    ..support the hypothesis that rsmA controls these traits by modulating the levels of the cell density (quorum)-sensing signal...
  2. Hasegawa H, Chatterjee A, Cui Y, Chatterjee A. Elevated temperature enhances virulence of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora strain EC153 to plants and stimulates production of the quorum sensing signal, N-acyl homoserine lactone, and extracellular proteins. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:4655-63 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal that overall metabolic activity, AHL levels, and mRNA stability are responsible for the higher levels of extracellular protein production and the enhanced virulence of EC153 at 34.5 degrees C compared to 28 degrees C...
  3. Cooper V, Salmond G. Molecular analysis of the major cellulase (CelV) of Erwinia carotovora: evidence for an evolutionary "mix-and-match" of enzyme domains. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;241:341-50 pubmed
    ..CelV is secreted by Ecc and by the taxonomically related Erwinia carotovora subspecies atroseptica (Eca) but not by E. coli. Overproduction of the enzyme from multicopy plasmids in Ecc appears to overload the secretory mechanism. ..
  4. Thomson N, Nasser W, McGowan S, Sebaihia M, Salmond G. Erwinia carotovora has two KdgR-like proteins belonging to the IciR family of transcriptional regulators: identification and characterization of the RexZ activator and the KdgR repressor of pathogenesis. Microbiology. 1999;145 ( Pt 7):1531-45 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the complex regulatory network governing virulence in the erwinias involves two totally distinct, but highly conserved, members of the IcIR class of DNA binding proteins: RexZ and KdgR. ..
  5. Toth I, Birch P. Rotting softly and stealthily. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005;8:424-9 pubmed
  6. Cui Y, Chatterjee A, Hasegawa H, Dixit V, Leigh N, Chatterjee A. ExpR, a LuxR homolog of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, activates transcription of rsmA, which specifies a global regulatory RNA-binding protein. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:4792-803 pubmed
    ..These findings for the first time establish that the expR effect in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora is channeled via RsmA, a posttranscriptional regulator of E. carotovora subspecies, and AHL neutralizes this ExpR effect. ..
  7. Chuang D, Kyeremeh A, Gunji Y, Takahara Y, Ehara Y, Kikumoto T. Identification and cloning of an Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora bacteriocin regulator gene by insertional mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:1953-7 pubmed
    ..coli DH5. Plasmid pBYL1 was reisolated and transferred into the insertion mutant TM01A01. Transformants carrying the plasmid, which was reisolated and designated pBYL1, re-produced the low-molecular-weight bacteriocin. ..
  8. Pemberton C, Whitehead N, Sebaihia M, Bell K, Hyman L, Harris S, et al. Novel quorum-sensing-controlled genes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: identification of a fungal elicitor homologue in a soft-rotting bacterium. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005;18:343-53 pubmed
    ..In E. carotovora subsp. carotovora, nip was shown to be subject to weak repression by the LuxR family regulator, EccR, and may be regulated by the negative global regulator RsmA. ..
  9. Sharga B, Lyon G. Bacillus subtilis BS 107 as an antagonist of potato blackleg and soft rot bacteria. Can J Microbiol. 1998;44:777-83 pubmed
    ..The application of an antagonist or its antibiotic to cut potato tissues prevented or reduced symptoms of the diseases. The antibiotic was active in vitro against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal species. ..

More Information

Publications71

  1. Kersey C, Agyemang P, Dumenyo C. CorA, the magnesium/nickel/cobalt transporter, affects virulence and extracellular enzyme production in the soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. Mol Plant Pathol. 2012;13:58-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora ssp...
  2. Bell K, Sebaihia M, Pritchard L, Holden M, Hyman L, Holeva M, et al. Genome sequence of the enterobacterial phytopathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica and characterization of virulence factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11105-10 pubmed
  3. Terta M, El Karkouri A, Ait M hand R, Achbani E, Barakate M, Amdan M, et al. Occurrence OF Pectobacterium carotovorum strains isolated from potato soft rot in Morocco. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2010;56 Suppl:OL1324-33 pubmed
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium astrosepticum and Pectobacterium chrysanthemi are the soft rot tuber of potatoes pathogens (Solanum tuberosum)...
  4. Aggarwal K, Rus F, Vriesema Magnuson C, Erturk Hasdemir D, Paquette N, Silverman N. Rudra interrupts receptor signaling complexes to negatively regulate the IMD pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000120 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that Rudra is a critical component in a negative feedback loop, whereby immune-induced gene expression rapidly produces a potent inhibitor that binds and inhibits pattern recognition receptors...
  5. Chuang D, Chien Y, Wu H. Cloning and expression of the Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora gene encoding the low-molecular-weight bacteriocin carocin S1. J Bacteriol. 2007;189:620-6 pubmed
    ..These genes encode proteins with nuclease activity (domain 4). This study found that carocin S1 also has nuclease activity...
  6. Chan Y, Wu J, Wu H, Tzeng K, Chuang D. Cloning, purification, and functional characterization of Carocin S2, a ribonuclease bacteriocin produced by Pectobacterium carotovorum. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:99 pubmed publisher
    Most isolates of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc) produce bacteriocins...
  7. Byers J, Lucas C, Salmond G, Welch M. Nonenzymatic turnover of an Erwinia carotovora quorum-sensing signaling molecule. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:1163-71 pubmed
    ..8. These results may provide a rationale for the observation that an early response of plants which are under attack by Erwinia is to activate a proton pump which alkalizes the site of infection to a pH of >8.2...
  8. Basset A, Khush R, Braun A, Gardan L, Boccard F, Hoffmann J, et al. The phytopathogenic bacteria Erwinia carotovora infects Drosophila and activates an immune response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3376-81 pubmed
  9. McGowan S, Sebaihia M, O LEARY S, Hardie K, Williams P, Stewart G, et al. Analysis of the carbapenem gene cluster of Erwinia carotovora: definition of the antibiotic biosynthetic genes and evidence for a novel beta-lactam resistance mechanism. Mol Microbiol. 1997;26:545-56 pubmed
    ..We assume that these novel beta-lactam resistance genes have evolved in concert with the biosynthetic genes to ensure 'self-resistance' in the Erwinia carbapenem producer...
  10. Chan Y, Wu H, Chuang D. Extracellular secretion of Carocin S1 in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum occurs via the type III secretion system integral to the bacterial flagellum. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:181 pubmed publisher
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum is a phytopathogenic enterobacterium responsible for soft rot, a disease characterized by extensive maceration of the affected plant tissue...
  11. Po Wen C, Singh P, Zimmerli L. Priming of the Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity response upon infection by necrotrophic Pectobacterium carotovorum bacteria. Mol Plant Pathol. 2013;14:58-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether BABA increases Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) is not clear...
  12. Gendrin M, Welchman D, Poidevin M, Hervé M, Lemaitre B. Long-range activation of systemic immunity through peptidoglycan diffusion in Drosophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000694 pubmed publisher
    ..Genital infection is thus an intriguing new model for studying the systemic immune response to local epithelial infections and a potential route of entry for naturally occurring pathogens of Drosophila...
  13. Marquez Villavicencio M, Weber B, Witherell R, Willis D, Charkowski A. The 3-hydroxy-2-butanone pathway is required for Pectobacterium carotovorum pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22974 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression data identified Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp...
  14. An C, Lim W, Hong S, Shin E, Kim M, Lee J, et al. Structural and biochemical analysis of the asc operon encoding 6-phospho-beta-glucosidase in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum LY34. Res Microbiol. 2005;156:145-53 pubmed
    An asc operon of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum LY34 (Pcc LY34) was isolated from a genomic library in a screen for beta-glucosidase activities...
  15. Cui Y, Chatterjee A, Hasegawa H, Chatterjee A. Erwinia carotovora subspecies produce duplicate variants of ExpR, LuxR homologs that activate rsmA transcription but differ in their interactions with N-acylhomoserine lactone signals. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:4715-26 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that ExpR2 activity is responsible for regulating exoprotein production primarily by modulating the levels of an RNA binding protein...
  16. Terta M, Kettani Halabi M, Ibenyassine K, Tran D, Meimoun P, M hand R, et al. Arabidopsis thaliana cells: a model to evaluate the virulence of Pectobacterium carotovorum. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:139-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum are economically important plant pathogens that cause plant soft rot. These enterobacteria display high diversity world-wide...
  17. Lee S, Li B, Jin S, Daniell H. Expression and characterization of antimicrobial peptides Retrocyclin-101 and Protegrin-1 in chloroplasts to control viral and bacterial infections. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011;9:100-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Adequate yield of purified antimicrobial peptides from transplastomic plants should facilitate further preclinical studies...
  18. Avrova A, Hyman L, Toth R, Toth I. Application of amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting for taxonomy and identification of the soft rot bacteria Erwinia carotovora and Erwinia chrysanthemi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:1499-508 pubmed
    ..AFLP fingerprinting was also found to be more differentiating than other techniques for typing the soft rot erwinias and was applicable to all strain types, including different serogroups...
  19. Andresen L, Kõiv V, Alamäe T, Mäe A. The Rcs phosphorelay modulates the expression of plant cell wall degrading enzymes and virulence in Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;273:229-38 pubmed
    ..b>Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp...
  20. Rantakari A, Virtaharju O, Vähämiko S, Taira S, Palva E, Saarilahti H, et al. Type III secretion contributes to the pathogenesis of the soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora: partial characterization of the hrp gene cluster. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2001;14:962-8 pubmed
    ..The hrcC- strain was able to multiply and cause disease in Arabidopsis, but the population kinetics were altered so that growth was delayed during the early stages of infection...
  21. Mole B, Habibi S, Dangl J, Grant S. Gluconate metabolism is required for virulence of the soft-rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:1335-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum is a ubiquitous soft rot pathogen that uses global virulence regulators to coordinate pathogenesis in response to undefined environmental conditions. We characterize an operon in P...
  22. Kim H, Thammarat P, Lommel S, Hogan C, Charkowski A. Pectobacterium carotovorum elicits plant cell death with DspE/F but the P. carotovorum DspE does not suppress callose or induce expression of plant genes early in plant-microbe interactions. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:773-86 pubmed publisher
    The broad-host-range bacterial soft rot pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum causes a DspE/F-dependent plant cell death on Nicotiana benthamiana within 24 h postinoculation (hpi) followed by leaf maceration within 48 hpi. P...
  23. Park T, Choi B, Choi A, Choi I, Heu S, Park B. Genome sequence of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum strain PCC21, a pathogen causing soft rot in Chinese cabbage. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6345-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum is a plant-pathogenic enterobacterium responsible for soft rot in various commercially important plants. Here we report the complete genome sequence and automatic annotation of strain PCC21.
  24. Flego D, Marits R, Eriksson A, Koiv V, Karlsson M, Heikinheimo R, et al. A two-component regulatory system, pehR-pehS, controls endopolygalacturonase production and virulence in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2000;13:447-55 pubmed
    ..Functional similarity of PehR-PehS with PhoP-PhoQ of E. coli and S. typhimurium was demonstrated by genetic complementation...
  25. Brader G, Sjöblom S, Hyytiäinen H, Sims Huopaniemi K, Palva E. Altering substrate chain length specificity of an acylhomoserine lactone synthase in bacterial communication. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:10403-9 pubmed
    ..Our data identify critical residues that define the size of the substrate-binding pocket of the AHSL synthase and will help in understanding and manipulating this bacterial language...
  26. Duarte V, de Boer S, Ward L, de Oliveira A. Characterization of atypical Erwinia carotovora strains causing blackleg of potato in Brazil. J Appl Microbiol. 2004;96:535-45 pubmed
    ..To determine the characteristics of bacteria associated with the blackleg disease of potato in Brazil and compare them with species and subspecies of pectolytic Erwinia...
  27. Laasik E, Andresen L, Mäe A. Type II quorum sensing regulates virulence in Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;258:227-34 pubmed
    ..The findings reported here demonstrate that the LuxS-dependent signaling affects the progression of disease symptoms during the early stages of infection by modulating the expression of pectinolytic enzymes...
  28. Buchon N, Broderick N, Poidevin M, Pradervand S, Lemaitre B. Drosophila intestinal response to bacterial infection: activation of host defense and stem cell proliferation. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:200-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila gut provides a powerful model to study the integration of stress and immunity with pathways associated with stem cell control, and this study should prove to be a useful resource for such further studies...
  29. Han S, Lee S, Moon J, Park K, Yang K, Cho B, et al. GacS-dependent production of 2R, 3R-butanediol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 is a major determinant for eliciting systemic resistance against Erwinia carotovora but not against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in tobacco. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:924-30 pubmed
    ..carotovora through regulation of 2R, 3R-butanediol production. This is the first report of the production of these assumed fermentation products by a pseudomonad and the role of the sensor kinase GacS in production of 2R, 3R-butanediol...
  30. Mattinen L, Tshuikina M, Mäe A, Pirhonen M. Identification and characterization of Nip, necrosis-inducing virulence protein of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2004;17:1366-75 pubmed
    ..A mutant strain of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora lacking the nip gene showed reduced virulence in potato tuber assay but was unaffected in virulence in potato stem or on other tested host plants...
  31. Dong Y, Zhang X, Xu J, Zhang L. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis silences Erwinia carotovora virulence by a new form of microbial antagonism, signal interference. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:954-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that signal interference mechanisms existing in natural ecosystems could be explored as a new version of antagonism for prevention of bacterial infections...
  32. Chatterjee A, Cui Y, Chatterjee A. RsmA and the quorum-sensing signal, N-[3-oxohexanoyl]-L-homoserine lactone, control the levels of rsmB RNA in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by affecting its stability. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4089-95 pubmed
    ..The findings reported here firmly establish that the quorum-sensing signal is channeled in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora via the rsmA-rsmB posttranscriptional regulatory system...
  33. McGowan S, Barnard A, Bosgelmez G, Sebaihia M, Simpson N, Thomson N, et al. Carbapenem antibiotic biosynthesis in Erwinia carotovora is regulated by physiological and genetic factors modulating the quorum sensing-dependent control pathway. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:526-45 pubmed
    ..The nature of the carbon source and the temperature of growth influence carbapenem production by modulating the level of the OHHL signalling molecule, and thereby physiologically fine-tune the quorum sensing regulatory system...
  34. Yap M, Barak J, Charkowski A. Genomic diversity of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and its correlation with virulence. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:3013-23 pubmed
  35. Andresen L, Sala E, Kõiv V, Mäe A. A role for the Rcs phosphorelay in regulating expression of plant cell wall degrading enzymes in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Microbiology. 2010;156:1323-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In the plant pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp...
  36. Roh E, Park T, Kim M, Lee S, Ryu S, Oh C, et al. Characterization of a new bacteriocin, Carocin D, from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum Pcc21. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:7541-9 pubmed publisher
    Two different bacteriocins, carotovoricin and carocin S1, had been found in Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, which causes soft-rot disease in diverse plants...
  37. Yishay M, Burdman S, Valverde A, Luzzatto T, Ophir R, Yedidia I. Differential pathogenicity and genetic diversity among Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum isolates from monocot and dicot hosts support early genomic divergence within this taxon. Environ Microbiol. 2008;10:2746-59 pubmed publisher
    The capability of Pectobacterium carotovorum isolates to infect monocotyledonous plants has been previously reported; however, no full consideration was given to characterize the association between such isolates and their monocot hosts...
  38. Park S, Park S, Ryu C, Park S, Lee J. The role of AiiA, a quorum-quenching enzyme from Bacillus thuringiensis, on the rhizosphere competence. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1518-21 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that AiiA can play an important role in rhizosphere competentce of B. thuringiensis and bacterial quorum quenching to Gram-negative bacteria without changing bacterial number or composition...
  39. Chatterjee A, Cui Y, Chatterjee A. RsmC of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora negatively controls motility, extracellular protein production, and virulence by binding FlhD and modulating transcriptional activity of the master regulator, FlhDC. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:4582-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here support the idea that differences in structural features in enterobacterial FlhD are responsible for differential susceptibility to E. carotovora subsp. carotovora RsmC action...
  40. Buchon N, Broderick N, Chakrabarti S, Lemaitre B. Invasive and indigenous microbiota impact intestinal stem cell activity through multiple pathways in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2333-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that gut homeostasis is achieved by a complex interregulation of the immune response, gut microbiota, and stem cell activity...
  41. Corbett M, Virtue S, Bell K, Birch P, Burr T, Hyman L, et al. Identification of a new quorum-sensing-controlled virulence factor in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica secreted via the type II targeting pathway. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005;18:334-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, the type II secretory machine is a conduit for virulence factors other than the main pectinnases and cellulase in E. carotovora subsp. atroseptica...
  42. Chatterjee A, Cui Y, Hasegawa H, Leigh N, Dixit V, Chatterjee A. Comparative analysis of two classes of quorum-sensing signaling systems that control production of extracellular proteins and secondary metabolites in Erwinia carotovora subspecies. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:8026-38 pubmed
    ..Conversely, the expR effect of Ecc71, a strain belonging to class II, is neutralized by 3-oxo-C6-HL but not by 3-oxo-C8-HL. The AHL responses correlated with expR-mediated inhibition of exoprotein and secondary metabolite production...
  43. Laasik E, Ojarand M, Pajunen M, Savilahti H, Mäe A. Novel mutants of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora defective in the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes generated by Mu transpososome-mediated insertion mutagenesis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243:93-9 pubmed
    ..The findings reported here demonstrate that we have isolated six new representatives that belong to the pool of genes modulating the production of virulence factors in E. carotovora...
  44. Hyytiäinen H, Sjöblom S, Palomaki T, Tuikkala A, Tapio Palva E. The PmrA-PmrB two-component system responding to acidic pH and iron controls virulence in the plant pathogen Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:795-807 pubmed
    ..We propose that PmrA-PmrB TCS is involved in controlling of bacterial response to external pH and iron and is crucial for bacterial virulence and survival in planta...
  45. Arnaud D, Desclos Theveniau M, Zimmerli L. Disease resistance to Pectobacterium carotovorum is negatively modulated by the Arabidopsis Lectin Receptor Kinase LecRK-V.5. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:1070-2 pubmed publisher
    ..5 in resistance against necrotrophic bacteria Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc). Upon surface-inoculation lecrk-V...
  46. Nasser W, Bouillant M, Salmond G, Reverchon S. Characterization of the Erwinia chrysanthemi expI-expR locus directing the synthesis of two N-acyl-homoserine lactone signal molecules. Mol Microbiol. 1998;29:1391-405 pubmed
    ..chrysanthemi. These results suggest that the expI-expR locus is part of a complex autoregulatory system that controls quorum sensing in E. chrysanthemi...
  47. Wagner C, Isermann K, Roeder T. Infection induces a survival program and local remodeling in the airway epithelium of the fly. FASEB J. 2009;23:2045-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, features related to those observed in inflammatory diseases of the human airways are apparently part of the normal response repertoire of airway epithelia to infection...
  48. Burr T, Barnard A, Corbett M, Pemberton C, Simpson N, Salmond G. Identification of the central quorum sensing regulator of virulence in the enteric phytopathogen, Erwinia carotovora: the VirR repressor. Mol Microbiol. 2006;59:113-25 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the VirR regulatory pathway is present and functional in both blackleg and soft rotting species of Erwinia...
  49. Kariola T, Brader G, Li J, Palva E. Chlorophyllase 1, a damage control enzyme, affects the balance between defense pathways in plants. Plant Cell. 2005;17:282-94 pubmed
    ..brassicicola, resistance to which requires jasmonate signaling. We propose that AtCLH1 is involved in plant damage control and can modulate the balance between different plant defense pathways...
  50. Nabhan S, de Boer S, Maiss E, Wydra K. Taxonomic relatedness between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. odoriferum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. brasiliense subsp. nov. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:904-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Pectobacterium carotovorum is a heterogeneous species consisting of two named subspecies, P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and P. carotovorum subsp. odoriferum. A third subspecies, P. carotovorum subsp...
  51. Kariola T, Palomäki T, Brader G, Palva E. Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia-derived elicitors HrpN and PehA trigger distinct but interacting defense responses and cell death in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2003;16:179-87 pubmed
    ..The two elicitors produced by E. carotovora subsp. carotovora also cooperate in triggering increased production of superoxide and lesion formation...
  52. Frederick R, Chiu J, Bennetzen J, Handa A. Identification of a pathogenicity locus, rpfA, in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora subsp. carotovora that encodes a two-component sensor-regulator protein. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1997;10:407-15 pubmed
    ..The RpfA locus described in this study encodes a putative sensor kinase protein that is involved in both extracellular protease and cellulase production and the pathogenicity of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora on potato tubers...
  53. Chatterjee A, Cui Y, Liu Y, Dumenyo C, Chatterjee A. Inactivation of rsmA leads to overproduction of extracellular pectinases, cellulases, and proteases in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in the absence of the starvation/cell density-sensing signal, N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995;61:1959-67 pubmed
    ..While the basal levels of Pel, Peh, Cel, and Prt are comparable in the RsmA- mutant and its HSL- derivative, these enzymes are barely detectable in the Hsl- derivative of the RsmA+ parent strain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  54. Kwan G, Charkowski A, Barak J. Salmonella enterica suppresses Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum population and soft rot progression by acidifying the microaerophilic environment. MBio. 2013;4:e00557-12 pubmed publisher
    ..human pathogens and phytobacterial pathogens in the phyllosphere, we examined the interactions between Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp...
  55. Park S, Hwang B, Shin M, Kim J, Kim H, Lee J. N-acylhomoserine lactonase producing Rhodococcus spp. with different AHL-degrading activities. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;261:102-8 pubmed
    ..erythropolis W2. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on AHLases of Rhodococcus spp...
  56. Smadja B, Latour X, Trigui S, Burini J, Chevalier S, Orange N. Thermodependence of growth and enzymatic activities implicated in pathogenicity of two Erwinia carotovora subspecies (Pectobacterium spp.). Can J Microbiol. 2004;50:19-27 pubmed
    ..The optimal temperature for pathogenicity appears to be different from the optimal growth temperature but seems to be a compromise between this temperature and temperatures at which lytic activities are maximal...
  57. Lee S, Park S, Lee J, Yum D, Koo B, Lee J. Genes encoding the N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading enzyme are widespread in many subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:3919-24 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that insecticidal B. thuringiensis strains might have potential to compete with gram-negative bacteria in natural ecosystems by autoinducer-degrading activity...
  58. Fray R, Throup J, Daykin M, Wallace A, Williams P, Stewart G, et al. Plants genetically modified to produce N-acylhomoserine lactones communicate with bacteria. Nat Biotechnol. 1999;17:1017-20 pubmed
    ..The ability to generate bacterial quorum-sensing signaling molecules in the plant offers novel opportunities for disease control and for manipulating plant/microbe interactions...
  59. Kumar S, Venkata Dasu V, Pakshirajan K. Purification and characterization of glutaminase-free L-asparaginase from Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:2077-82 pubmed publisher
    An intracellular glutaminase-free L-asparaginase from Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428 was isolated to apparent homogeneity. The homotetramer enzyme has a molecular mass of 144...
  60. Noel J, Joy J, Smith J, Fatica M, Schneider K, Ahmer B, et al. Salmonella SdiA recognizes N-acyl homoserine lactone signals from Pectobacterium carotovorum in vitro, but not in a bacterial soft rot. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:273-82 pubmed publisher
    ..RIVET) reporter was observed inside a soft rot formed on a tomato by an AHL-producing strain of Pectobacterium carotovorum. The results of the control experiments suggest that sdiA is not expressed inside tomato, pepper, green ..
  61. Cui Y, Chatterjee A, Yang H, Chatterjee A. Regulatory network controlling extracellular proteins in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora: FlhDC, the master regulator of flagellar genes, activates rsmB regulatory RNA production by affecting gacA and hexA (lrhA) expression. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4610-23 pubmed publisher
    ..carotovora subsp. carotovora. Our observations for the first time establish a regulatory connection between FlhDC, HexA, GacA, and rsmB RNA in the context of the exoprotein production and virulence of E. carotovora subsp. carotovora...
  62. Eriksson A, Andersson R, Pirhonen M, Palva E. Two-component regulators involved in the global control of virulence in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1998;11:743-52 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that ExpS and ExpA are members of two-component sensor kinase and response regulator families, respectively. These two proteins might interact in controlling virulence gene expression in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora...