citrobacter freundii

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.

Top Publications

  1. Lee H, Park Y, Kim J, Chang E, Cho S, Chae H, et al. Prevalence of decreased susceptibility to carbapenems among Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii and investigation of carbapenemases. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;52:331-6 pubmed
    ..Between March and July 2002, total of 612 clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae, and Citrobacter freundii (201 S. marcescens, 228 E. cloacae, and 183 C...
  2. Abdalhamid B, Pitout J, Moland E, Hanson N. Community-onset disease caused by Citrobacter freundii producing a novel CTX-M beta-lactamase, CTX-M-30, in Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:4435-7 pubmed publisher
    Strains of Citrobacter freundii intermediate to cefotaxime but sensitive to ceftazidime were isolated from four different patients in Canada...
  3. Millán B, Ghiglione B, Díaz T, Gutkind G, Araque M. CTX-M-14 ?-lactamase-producing Citrobacter freundii isolated in Venezuela. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2011;10:22 pubmed publisher
    ..freundii.LM07/10. Although this is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Venezuela, we alert the medical community that future increase of these ?-lactamases in our city could be due to dissemination of plasmids into bacterial populations...
  4. Lu A, Hu X, Xue J, Zhu J, Wang Y, Zhou G. Gene expression profiling in the skin of zebrafish infected with Citrobacter freundii. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;32:273-83 pubmed publisher
    ..was used to assess gene expression in the skin of zebrafish (Danio rerio) infected with the bacterium Citrobacter freundii. The results showed that 229 genes were differentially expressed, of which 196 genes were upregulated and ..
  5. Liepinsh E, G n reux C, Dehareng D, Joris B, Otting G. NMR structure of Citrobacter freundii AmpD, comparison with bacteriophage T7 lysozyme and homology with PGRP domains. J Mol Biol. 2003;327:833-42 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the NMR structure of AmpD from Citrobacter freundii (PDB accession code 1J3G)...
  6. Manukhov I, Mamaeva D, Morozova E, Rastorguev S, Faleev N, Demidkina T, et al. L-methionine gamma-lyase from Citrobacter freundii: cloning of the gene and kinetic parameters of the enzyme. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2006;71:361-9 pubmed
    ..Enterobacteriaceae family that a gene encoding L-methionine gamma-lyase (MGL) is present in the genome of Citrobacter freundii. Homogeneous enzyme has been purified from C...
  7. Herold S, Karch H, Schmidt H. Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages--genomes in motion. Int J Med Microbiol. 2004;294:115-21 pubmed
    ..coli isolated from human and non-human sources, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, and sporadically, by Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Shigella flexneri...
  8. Karasawa T, Ito H, Tsukamoto T, Yamasaki S, Kurazono H, Faruque S, et al. Cloning and characterization of genes encoding homologues of the B subunit of cholera toxin and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin from clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii and E. coli. Infect Immun. 2002;70:7153-5 pubmed
    ..of cholera toxin (CTB) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LTB) of Escherichia coli from a clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii that was found to produce a factor in the culture supernatant that cross-reacted with antibodies to CTB and ..
  9. Milić D, Demidkina T, Faleev N, Matković Čalogović D, Antson A. Insights into the catalytic mechanism of tyrosine phenol-lyase from X-ray structures of quinonoid intermediates. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We trapped the quinonoid intermediates of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase with L-alanine and L-methionine in the crystalline state and determined their ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Phillips R, Demidkina T, Zakomirdina L, Bruno S, Ronda L, Mozzarelli A. Crystals of tryptophan indole-lyase and tyrosine phenol-lyase form stable quinonoid complexes. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:21592-7 pubmed
    ..substrates and inhibitors to wild-type Proteus vulgaris tryptophan indole-lyase and to wild type and Y71F Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase was investigated in the crystalline state by polarized absorption ..
  2. Sanchez Cespedes J, Marti S, Soto S, Alba V, Melcion C, Almela M, et al. Two chromosomally located qnrB variants, qnrB6 and the new qnrB16, in Citrobacter spp. isolates causing bacteraemia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15:1132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Five strains were found to carry a qnr gene, one of which, qnrB16, a new variant of qnrB, was detected in a Citrobacter freundii isolate. The qnrB6 variant was found in two C. freundii isolates and in one Citrobacter werkmanii isolate...
  3. Chen H, Demidkina T, Phillips R. Site-directed mutagenesis of tyrosine-71 to phenylalanine in Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase: evidence for dual roles of tyrosine-71 as a general acid catalyst in the reaction mechanism and in cofactor binding. Biochemistry. 1995;34:12276-83 pubmed
    ..The PLP binding constant of Y71F TPL is estimated to be 1 mM by spectrophotometric titration, compared to 0.6 microM for wild-type TPL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  4. Park Y, Lee S, Yu J, Woo G, Lee K, Arakawa Y. Co-production of 16S rRNA methylases and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens in Korea. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;58:907-8 pubmed
  5. Zhang R, Yang L, Cai J, Zhou H, Chen G. High-level carbapenem resistance in a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate is due to a combination of KPC-2 production and decreased porin expression. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:332-7 pubmed publisher
    An imipenem-resistant isolate of Citrobacter freundii ZJ163 (MIC 256 microg ml(-1)) isolated from a Chinese hospital was investigated. The C...
  6. Rasheed J, Biddle J, Anderson K, Washer L, Chenoweth C, Perrin J, et al. Detection of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase type 2 Carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzyme in clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii and K. oxytoca carrying a common plasmid. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2066-9 pubmed publisher
    The Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) was detected in carbapenem-resistant isolates of Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella oxytoca recovered from different patients in a Michigan hospital...
  7. Kim S, Park Y, Yu J, Kim Y, Han K. Prevalence and characteristics of aac(6')-Ib-cr in AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens: a multicenter study from Korea. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;63:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 479 clinical isolates of Enterobacter cloacae (179), Citrobacter freundii (134), and Serratia marcescens (166) from 12 laboratories between March and July 2005 were examined...
  8. Bai Q, Somerville R. Integration host factor and cyclic AMP receptor protein are required for TyrR-mediated activation of tpl in Citrobacter freundii. J Bacteriol. 1998;180:6173-86 pubmed
    The tpl gene of Citrobacter freundii encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia. This gene is known to be positively regulated by TyrR...
  9. Zhang R, Ichijo T, Huang Y, Cai J, Zhou H, Yamaguchi N, et al. High prevalence of qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes in both water-borne environmental bacteria and clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii in China. Microbes Environ. 2012;27:158-63 pubmed
    ..from surface water samples obtained from 10 different locations in Hangzhou City, and clinical isolates of Citrobacter freundii were isolated from several hospitals in four cities in China...
  10. Thompson L, Gray V, Kalala B, Lindsay D, Reynolds K, von Holy A. Biohydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii in carrier induced granules. Biotechnol Lett. 2008;30:271-4 pubmed
    Carrier induced granular particles comprising Enterobacter cloacae and Citrobacter freundii were used to generate H(2) from sucrose in an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor. At a hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h, 95...
  11. Antson A, Demidkina T, Gollnick P, Dauter Z, Von Tersch R, Long J, et al. Three-dimensional structure of tyrosine phenol-lyase. Biochemistry. 1993;32:4195-206 pubmed
    Tyrosine phenol-lyase (EC 4.1.99.2) from Citrobacter freundii has been cloned and the primary sequence deduced from the DNA sequence. From the BrCN digest of the NaBH4-reduced holoenzyme, five peptides were purified and sequenced...
  12. Dervisoglu E, Yumuk Z, Yegenaga I. Citrobacter freundii peritonitis and tunnel infection in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:125-7 pubmed
    ..ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who developed peritonitis and tunnel infection due to an unusual pathogen, Citrobacter freundii, is described...
  13. Pereira A, Silva T, Gomes A, Araújo A, Giugliano L. Diarrhea-associated biofilm formed by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and aggregative Citrobacter freundii: a consortium mediated by putative F pili. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Citrobacter freundii is classically considered as an indigenous intestinal species that is sporadically associated with diarrhea.
  14. Schumacher A, Trittler R, Bohnert J, Kümmerer K, Pages J, Kern W. Intracellular accumulation of linezolid in Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter aerogenes: role of enhanced efflux pump activity and inactivation. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;59:1261-4 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that the poor activity of linezolid in Gram-negative bacteria is in part caused by relatively low intracellular concentration due to efflux...
  15. Hess P, Altenhöfer A, Khan A, Daryab N, Kim K, Hacker J, et al. A Salmonella fim homologue in Citrobacter freundii mediates invasion in vitro and crossing of the blood-brain barrier in the rat pup model. Infect Immun. 2004;72:5298-307 pubmed
    From the invasive Citrobacter freundii strain 3009, an invasion determinant was cloned, sequenced, and expressed...
  16. Sundararaju B, Antson A, Phillips R, Demidkina T, Barbolina M, Gollnick P, et al. The crystal structure of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase complexed with 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, together with site-directed mutagenesis and kinetic analysis, demonstrates that arginine 381 is required for substrate specificity. Biochemistry. 1997;36:6502-10 pubmed
    ..M., & Phillips. R. S. (1988) Biochemistry 27, 7333-7338], and hence Arg 381 is at least partially responsible for the substrate specificity of TPL...
  17. Généreux C, Dehareng D, Devreese B, Van Beeumen J, Frere J, Joris B. Mutational analysis of the catalytic centre of the Citrobacter freundii AmpD N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase. Biochem J. 2004;377:111-20 pubmed
    b>Citrobacter freundii AmpD is an intracellular 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase involved in both peptidoglycan recycling and beta-lactamase induction...
  18. Wu S, Dornbusch K, Kronvall G, Norgren M. Characterization and nucleotide sequence of a Klebsiella oxytoca cryptic plasmid encoding a CMY-type beta-lactamase: confirmation that the plasmid-mediated cephamycinase originated from the Citrobacter freundii AmpC beta-lactamase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:1350-7 pubmed
    ..pneumoniae and the chromosomal AmpC of Citrobacter freundii, with 99.7 and 97...
  19. Siebold C, Arnold I, Garcia Alles L, Baumann U, Erni B. Crystal structure of the Citrobacter freundii dihydroxyacetone kinase reveals an eight-stranded alpha-helical barrel ATP-binding domain. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48236-44 pubmed
    ..Here we report the 2.5-A crystal structure of the homodimeric Citrobacter freundii dihydroxyacetone kinase complex with an ATP analogue and dihydroxyacetone...
  20. Kim P, Harris A, Roghmann M, Morris J, Strinivasan A, Perencevich E. Epidemiological risk factors for isolation of ceftriaxone-resistant versus -susceptible citrobacter freundii in hospitalized patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:2882-7 pubmed
    ..Risk factors for the recovery of ceftriaxone-resistant (CRCF) or -susceptible (CSCF) Citrobacter freundii in clinical cultures from hospitalized patients were determined by using a case-case-control study design...
  21. Mierzejewska J, Kulinska A, Jagura Burdzy G. Functional analysis of replication and stability regions of broad-host-range conjugative plasmid CTX-M3 from the IncL/M incompatibility group. Plasmid. 2007;57:95-107 pubmed
    Plasmid CTX-M3 (89 kb) isolated from Citrobacter freundii from a Warsaw hospital is a mosaic plasmid with replication functions 100% identical with those of pMU407...
  22. Phillips R, Chen H, Faleev N. Aminoacrylate intermediates in the reaction of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase. Biochemistry. 2006;45:9575-83 pubmed
    Tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) from Citrobacter freundii is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydrolytic cleavage of l-Tyr to give phenol and ammonium pyruvate...
  23. Bai L, Xia S, Lan R, Liu L, Ye C, Wang Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of cytotoxic, aggregative Citrobacter freundii. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33054 pubmed publisher
    b>Citrobacter freundii is an infrequent but established cause of diarrhea in humans. However, little is known of its genetic diversity and potential for virulence...
  24. Whalen J, Mully T, English J. Spontaneous Citrobacter freundii infection in an immunocompetent patient. Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:124-5 pubmed
  25. Shanks R, Dashiff A, Alster J, Kadouri D. Isolation and identification of a bacteriocin with antibacterial and antibiofilm activity from Citrobacter freundii. Arch Microbiol. 2012;194:575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..One compound isolated from Citrobacter freundii exhibited antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria and was effective against ..
  26. Du X, Wang J, Fu Y, Zhao F, Chen Y, Wang H, et al. Genetic characteristics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmid in Citrobacter freundii isolate separated from a clinical infectious patient. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:1332-7 pubmed publisher
    This study reports an infectious case involving an (NDM-1)-producing Citrobacter freundii and further explored the potential threat of the bla(NDM-1) gene by analysing the characteristics of the (NDM-1)-encoding plasmid sequence...
  27. Barlow M, Hall B. Origin and evolution of the AmpC beta-lactamases of Citrobacter freundii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1190-8 pubmed
    To determine whether the widespread clinical use of beta-lactams has been selective for Citrobacter freundii-derived alleles of plasmid ampC genes, we generated a Bayesian consensus phylogeny of the published ampC sequences and compared ..
  28. Thomson K, Sanders C, Moland E. Use of microdilution panels with and without beta-lactamase inhibitors as a phenotypic test for beta-lactamase production among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999;43:1393-400 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens possessing well-characterized beta-lactamases...
  29. Samuel G, Hogbin J, Wang L, Reeves P. Relationships of the Escherichia coli O157, O111, and O55 O-antigen gene clusters with those of Salmonella enterica and Citrobacter freundii, which express identical O antigens. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:6536-43 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica O30, and Citrobacter freundii F90 have identical O-antigen structures, as do E. coli O55 and S. enterica O50. The O-antigen gene cluster sequences for E. coli O157 and E...
  30. Houng H, Noon K, Ou J, Baron L. Expression of Vi antigen in Escherichia coli K-12: characterization of ViaB from Citrobacter freundii and identity of ViaA with RcsB. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:5910-5 pubmed
    ..b>Citrobacter freundii, not usually a common human pathogen, also expresses the Vi antigen but expresses it unstably, exhibiting a ..
  31. Jansson L, Angstrom J, Lebens M, Imberty A, Varrot A, Teneberg S. Carbohydrate binding specificities and crystal structure of the cholera toxin-like B-subunit from Citrobacter freundii. Biochimie. 2010;92:482-90 pubmed publisher
    ..coli is produced by certain strains of enteropathogenic E. coli and by Citrobacter freundii. This C. freundii B-subunit (CFXB) has now been expressed in V. cholerae, and isolated in high yields...
  32. Nishiuchi Y, Doe M, Hotta H, Kobayashi K. Structure and serologic properties of O-specific polysaccharide from Citrobacter freundii possessing cross-reactivity with Escherichia coli O157:H7. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000;28:163-71 pubmed
    b>Citrobacter freundii OCU158 is a serologically cross-reactive strain with Escherichia coli O157:H7...
  33. Gunasekaran V, Kotay S, Das D. Alkaline lipase production by Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006;44:485-91 pubmed
    ..8 U/ml) at pH 9.0 and 40 degrees C. The 16S rDNA phylogenetic studies showed that Citrobacter freundii belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae and later confirmed by the microbial identification...
  34. Yan J, Ko W, Chuang C, Wu J. Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates in a university hospital in Taiwan: prevalence of IMP-8 in Enterobacter cloacae and first identification of VIM-2 in Citrobacter freundii. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:503-11 pubmed
    ..Thirty-six (2.9%) of the 1261 Enterobacter cloacae isolates and one (0.3%) of the 340 Citrobacter freundii isolates were found to carry bla(IMP-8) and bla(VIM-2), respectively, by colony hybridization, PCR and ..
  35. Mouratou B, Kasper P, Gehring H, Christen P. Conversion of tyrosine phenol-lyase to dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase, an enzyme not found in nature. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1320-5 pubmed
    ..001 s-1) were the only reactions observed. Thus, TPL R100T/V283R accepts dicarboxylic amino acids as substrates without significant change in its reaction specificity. Dicarboxylic amino acid beta-lyase is an enzyme not found in nature...
  36. Khorasani G, Salehifar E, Eslami G. Profile of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance at a tertiary care referral burn centre in Iran: emergence of Citrobacter freundii as a common microorganism. Burns. 2008;34:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..3% and 35.5%, respectively); 95.5% of Citrobacter. isolates were Citrobacter freundii. Antibiogram results obtained from 15 antimicrobial agents demonstrated that imipenem was the most ..
  37. Mukhopadhyay C, Dey A, Bairy I. Citrobacter freundii infection in glutaric aciduria type 1: adding insult to injury. J Postgrad Med. 2008;54:35-6 pubmed
    ..Encephalopathic manifestations of GA1 may consequently increase the risk of meningeal infection and it has not been previously documented...
  38. Park Y, Park S, Oh E, Park J, Lee K, Woo G, et al. Occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases among chromosomal AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens in Korea and investigation of screening criteria. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;51:265-9 pubmed
    ..criterion for extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) among AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Serratia marcescens. The 413 isolates (158 E. cloacae, 126 C. freundii, and 129 S...
  39. Chen H, Phillips R. Binding of phenol and analogues to alanine complexes of tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter freundii: implications for the mechanisms of alpha,beta-elimination and alanine racemization. Biochemistry. 1993;32:11591-9 pubmed
    We have examined the interaction of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase with both L- and D-alanine...
  40. Ruppe E, Bidet P, Verdet C, Arlet G, Bingen E. First detection of the Ambler class C 1 AmpC beta-lactamase in Citrobacter freundii by a new, simple double-disk synergy test. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4204-7 pubmed
  41. Jiang P, Wang H, Xiao S, Fang M, Zhang R, He S, et al. Pathway redesign for deoxyviolacein biosynthesis in Citrobacter freundii and characterization of this pigment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;94:1521-32 pubmed publisher
    ..B2, and was introduced into Citrobacter freundii. With the viod gene disrupted in the Vio synthetic pathway, Vio production was completely abolished and the ..
  42. Chen H, Gollnick P, Phillips R. Site-directed mutagenesis of His343-->Ala in Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase. Effects on the kinetic mechanism and rate-determining step. Eur J Biochem. 1995;229:540-9 pubmed
    His343 in Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase is conserved in all known sequences of both tyrosine phenol-lyase and tryptophan indole-lyase; it is located near the active-site Lys257 in C. freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase [Antson, A...
  43. Metsoviti M, Zeng A, Koutinas A, Papanikolaou S. Enhanced 1,3-propanediol production by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste glycerol through sterile and non-sterile bioprocesses. J Biotechnol. 2013;163:408-18 pubmed publisher
    The production of 1,3-propanediol (PD) by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain [FMCC-B 294 (VK-19)] was investigated. Different grades of biodiesel-derived glycerol were employed...
  44. Demidkina T, Barbolina M, Faleev N, Sundararaju B, Gollnick P, Phillips R. Threonine-124 and phenylalanine-448 in Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase are necessary for activity with L-tyrosine. Biochem J. 2002;363:745-52 pubmed
    Thr-124 and Phe-448 are located in the active site of Citrobacter freundii tyrosine phenol-lyase (TPL) near the phenol ring of a bound substrate analogue, 3-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid [Sundararaju, Antson, Phillips, Demidkina, ..
  45. Chakladar S, Cheng L, CHOI M, Liu J, Bennet A. Mechanistic evaluation of MelA ?-galactosidase from Citrobacter freundii: a family 4 glycosyl hydrolase in which oxidation is rate-limiting. Biochemistry. 2011;50:4298-308 pubmed publisher
    The MelA gene from Citrobacter freundii, which encodes a glycosyl hydrolase family 4 (GH4) ?-galactosidase, has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli...
  46. Forcella C, Pellegrini C, Celenza G, Segatore B, Calabrese R, Tavio M, et al. QnrB9 in association with TEM-116 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase in Citrobacter freundii isolated from sewage effluent: first report from Italy. J Chemother. 2010;22:243-5 pubmed
    ..the present study was to investigate the mechanism of quinolone and beta-lactam resistance in an isolate of Citrobacter freundii PC2/08 collected from sewage effluent from l'Aquila, Italy...
  47. Sekiguchi J, Morita K, Kitao T, Watanabe N, Okazaki M, Miyoshi Akiyama T, et al. KHM-1, a novel plasmid-mediated metallo-beta-lactamase from a Citrobacter freundii clinical isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:4194-7 pubmed publisher
    A novel gene, bla(KHM-1), encoding a metallo-beta-lactamase, KHM-1, was cloned from a clinical isolate of Citrobacter freundii resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics...
  48. Malpas T, Munoz J, Muscat I. Vertical transmission of Citrobacter freundii. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004;89:F280-1 pubmed
  49. Park Y, Yu J, Lee S, Oh E, Woo G. Prevalence and diversity of qnr alleles in AmpC-producing Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii and Serratia marcescens: a multicentre study from Korea. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007;60:868-71 pubmed
    ..To investigate the prevalence of qnr determinants, their influence on quinolone susceptibility and their association with other plasmid-mediated genes in AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae without any selection criteria...
  50. Lee S, Hong S, Kim D, Song J, Ro H, Sung M. Inactivation of tyrosine phenol-lyase by Pictet-Spengler reaction and alleviation by T15A mutation on intertwined N-terminal arm. FEBS J. 2006;273:5564-73 pubmed
  51. Watkins E, Phillips R. Enzymatic synthesis of aza-l-tyrosines. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2001;11:2099-100 pubmed
    Tyrosine phenol-lyase from Citrobacter freundii synthesizes 2-aza-L-tyrosine and 3-aza-L-tyrosine from 3-hydroxypyridine and 2-hydroxypyridine, respectively, and ammonium pyruvate.
  52. Deal E, Micek S, Reichley R, Ritchie D. Effects of an alternative cefepime dosing strategy in pulmonary and bloodstream infections caused by Enterobacter spp, Citrobacter freundii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a single-center, open-label, prospective, observational study. Clin Ther. 2009;31:299-310 pubmed publisher
  53. Chen S, Hu F, Liu Y, Zhu D, Wang H, Zhang Y. Detection and spread of carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii in a teaching hospital in China. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:e55-60 pubmed publisher
    We examined the detection and spread of carbapenem-resistant Citrobacter freundii in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China between 2005 and 2008.
  54. Kim B, Woo J, Ryu J, Kim Y. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and mortality in patients with Citrobacter freundii bacteremia. Infection. 2003;31:202-7 pubmed
    This study was performed to characterize the clinical features and to identify the risk factors for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) and for mortality in patients with Citrobacter freundii bacteremia.
  55. Manukhov I, Mamaeva D, Rastorguev S, Faleev N, Morozova E, Demidkina T, et al. A gene encoding L-methionine gamma-lyase is present in Enterobacteriaceae family genomes: identification and characterization of Citrobacter freundii L-methionine gamma-lyase. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3889-93 pubmed
    b>Citrobacter freundii cells produce L-methionine gamma-lyase when grown on a medium containing L-methionine. The nucleotide sequence of the hybrid plasmid with a C. freundii EcoRI insert of about 3...
  56. Milić D, Matković Čalogović D, Demidkina T, Kulikova V, Sinitzina N, Antson A. Structures of apo- and holo-tyrosine phenol-lyase reveal a catalytically critical closed conformation and suggest a mechanism for activation by K+ ions. Biochemistry. 2006;45:7544-52 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the crystal structure of the Citrobacter freundii holoenzyme at 1.9 A resolution...