gram negative anaerobic bacteria


Summary: A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.

Top Publications

  1. Takai K, Kobayashi H, Nealson K, Horikoshi K. Deferribacter desulfuricans sp. nov., a novel sulfur-, nitrate- and arsenate-reducing thermophile isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:839-46 pubmed
    ..thermophilus BMA(T) on the basis of its physiological and genetic properties. The name Deferribacter desulfuricans sp. nov. (type strain SSM1(T) = JCM 11476(T) = DSM 14783(T)) is proposed...
  2. Dahl C, Kredich N, Deutzmann R, Tr per H. Dissimilatory sulphite reductase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus: physico-chemical properties of the enzyme and cloning, sequencing and analysis of the reductase genes. J Gen Microbiol. 1993;139:1817-28 pubmed publisher
  3. Lebbink J, Knapp S, van der Oost J, Rice D, Ladenstein R, de Vos W. Engineering activity and stability of Thermotoga maritima glutamate dehydrogenase. I. Introduction of a six-residue ion-pair network in the hinge region. J Mol Biol. 1998;280:287-96 pubmed publisher
  4. Marsh P. Are dental diseases examples of ecological catastrophes?. Microbiology. 2003;149:279-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, a more holistic approach can be taken in disease control and management strategies. ..
  5. Rello J, Diaz E, Rodriguez A. Etiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Clin Chest Med. 2005;26:87-95 pubmed
    ..The discussion herein analyzes these aspects, placing particular emphasis on risk factors, attributable mortality, resistance, and the implications for management. ..
  6. el Gawi O, Saadawi A, Abudaia J, Maltsev B. Investigation of the causes facilitating formation of microflora in atomic reactor pool water. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1992;36:390-5 pubmed
    ..There is indeed an increased number of radioresistant types of microbes with intensified activity of catalase and nuclease in pool water of atomic reactors...
  7. Shinagawa N, Taniguchi M, Hirata K, Katsuramaki T, Mizukuchi T, Mashita K, et al. [Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2003 and March 2004]. Jpn J Antibiot. 2006;59:72-116 pubmed
    ..0 per cents. We should be carefully followed up the facts that an increasing isolation rates of B. fragilis group and B. wadsworthia which were resistant to both penicillins and cephems. ..
  8. Huang X, Guo C, Chen Z, Liu Y, He L, Zeng Z, et al. Metabolism of nitazoxanide in rats, pigs, and chickens: Application of liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid linear ion trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometer. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015;1000:147-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydroxylated tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucose were identified for the first time. All the comprehensive data were provided to make out the metabolism of NTZ in rats, pigs and chickens more clearly. ..
  9. Jackson B, Bhupathiraju V, Tanner R, Woese C, McInerney M. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms. Arch Microbiol. 1999;171:107-14 pubmed
    ..The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus...

More Information

Publications182 found, 100 shown here

  1. Coates J, Ellis D, Gaw C, Lovley D. Geothrix fermentans gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. Int J Syst Bacteriol. 1999;49 Pt 4:1615-22 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that strain H-5T represents a novel genus in the Holophaga-Acidobacterium phylum and that it should be named Geothrix fermentans sp. nov., gen. nov. ..
  2. Papaparaskevas J, Pantazatou A, Katsandri A, Legakis N, Avlamis A. Multicentre survey of the in-vitro activity of seven antimicrobial agents, including ertapenem, against recently isolated Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in Greece. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2005;11:820-4 pubmed
    ..isolates were imipenem-susceptible and ertapenem-non-susceptible. The MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were comparable for imipenem and ertapenem, although ertapenem MIC(90)s were one or two two-fold dilutions higher. ..
  3. Kobayashi Y, Okuda N, Matsumoto M, Inoue K, Wakita M, Hoshino S. Constitutive expression of a heterologous Eubacterium ruminantium xylanase gene (xynA) in Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998;163:11-7 pubmed
    ..The plasmid pYK4XT was maintained stably in the transformant for more than 100 generations. ..
  4. Duskova D, Marounek M. Fermentation of pectin and glucose, and activity of pectin-degrading enzymes in the rumen bacterium Lachnospira multiparus. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001;33:159-63 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the conventional Entner-Doudoroff pathway of glucose utilization does not operate in this bacterium, presumably because of the lack of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrase (EC activity. ..
  5. Bailey S, Baillon M, Rycroft A, Harris P, Elliott J. Identification of equine cecal bacteria producing amines in an in vitro model of carbohydrate overload. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:2087-93 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that certain bacteria, whose overgrowth is associated with carbohydrate fermentation, are capable of producing vasoactive amines which may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute laminitis. ..
  6. Coquelle N, Fioravanti E, Weik M, Vellieux F, Madern D. Activity, stability and structural studies of lactate dehydrogenases adapted to extreme thermal environments. J Mol Biol. 2007;374:547-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of the LDHs adapted to extreme temperatures shed light on how evolutionary processes shift the subtle balance between overall stability and flexibility of an enzyme...
  7. Suzuki H, Murata K, Sakamoto A. Fulminant sepsis due to anaerobic bacterial infection in immuno-compromised state. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11:237-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These cases suggest the possibility of sepsis as causes of death, especially in immuno-compromised hosts when unexplained putrefactive changes are seen on forensic autopsy. ..
  8. Guipaud O, Labedan B, Forterre P. A gyrB-like gene from the hyperthermophilic bacterion Thermotoga maritima. Gene. 1996;174:121-8 pubmed
    ..No gyrA-like gene has been found near top2B. A gene coding for a transaminase B-like protein was found in the upstream region of top2B. ..
  9. Foks H, Pancechowska Ksepko D, Kedzia A, Zwolska Z, Janowiec M, Augustynowicz Kopec E. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyrazine and -pyridine derivatives. Farmaco. 2005;60:513-7 pubmed
    ..They appeared to be of elevated activity towards the anaerobes and of low one towards the aerobes (Table 2). ..
  10. Liebl W, Feil R, Gabelsberger J, Kellermann J, Schleifer K. Purification and characterization of a novel thermostable 4-alpha-glucanotransferase of Thermotoga maritima cloned in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1992;207:81-8 pubmed
  11. Tee W, Korman T, Waters M, Macphee A, Jenney A, Joyce L, et al. Three cases of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens bacteremia confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1209-13 pubmed
    ..succiniciproducens, strain ATCC 29305. Two of the three clinical isolates have sequences identical to that of the type strain, while the sequence of the other strain differs from that of the type strain at 4 nucleotides. ..
  12. Lin S, Sela G, Sprecher H. Periopathogenic bacteria in persistent periapical lesions: an in vivo prospective study. J Periodontol. 2007;78:905-8 pubmed
    ..The clinical significance of the presence of bacterial DNA in persistent periapical lesions remains to be determined. ..
  13. Tiboni O, Cantoni R, Creti R, Cammarano P, Sanangelantoni A. Phylogenetic depth of Thermotoga maritima inferred from analysis of the fus gene: amino acid sequence of elongation factor G and organization of the Thermotoga str operon. J Mol Evol. 1991;33:142-51 pubmed
  14. Xi L, Cho K, Tu S. Cloning and nucleotide sequences of lux genes and characterization of luciferase of Xenorhabdus luminescens from a human wound. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:1399-405 pubmed
    ..However, the X. luminescens HW luciferase was unusual in the high stability of the 4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate and its sensitivity to aldehyde substrate inhibition. ..
  15. Jordan A, Torrents E, Jeanthon C, Eliasson R, Hellman U, Wernstedt C, et al. B12-dependent ribonucleotide reductases from deeply rooted eubacteria are structurally related to the aerobic enzyme from Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13487-92 pubmed
    ..From the conservation of substrate- and effector-binding residues we propose that the B12-dependent class II enzymes contain a similar barrel...
  16. Nudera W, Fayad M, Johnson B, Zhu M, Wenckus C, BeGole E, et al. Antimicrobial effect of triclosan and triclosan with Gantrez on five common endodontic pathogens. J Endod. 2007;33:1239-42 pubmed
    ..3-10.4 microg/mL. The addition of Gantrez enhanced the bactericidal activity of triclosan. Both triclosan and triclosan with Gantrez demonstrated bactericidal activity against the 5 specific endodontic pathogens. ..
  17. Darimont B, Sterner R. Sequence, assembly and evolution of a primordial ferredoxin from Thermotoga maritima. EMBO J. 1994;13:1772-81 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests a new model for the evolution of ferredoxins...
  18. Knapp S, de Vos W, Rice D, Ladenstein R. Crystal structure of glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga maritima at 3.0 A resolution. J Mol Biol. 1997;267:916-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, in T. maritima glutamate dehydrogenase the number of intersubunit ion pairs is reduced and the hydrophobic interactions are increased...
  19. Milazzo I, Blandino G, Musumeci R, Nicoletti G, Lo Bue A, Speciale A. Antibacterial activity of moxifloxacin against periodontal anaerobic pathogens involved in systemic infections. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2002;20:451-6 pubmed
    ..Our results show that moxifloxacin has good antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens comparable with that of cefoxitin and amoxycillin/clavulanate, and better than that of clindamycin, metronidazole and penicillin. ..
  20. Ogata K, Aminov R, Nagamine T, Benno Y, Sekizaki T, Mitsumori M, et al. Structural organization of pRAM4, a cryptic plasmid from Prevotella ruminicola. Plasmid. 1996;35:91-7 pubmed
    ..The plasmid hybridized at high stringency with plasmids from Bacteroides/Prevotella and Butyrivibrio, and with pBR322, suggesting that at least regions of the plasmid are widespread. ..
  21. Denger K, Warthmann R, Ludwig W, Schink B. Anaerophaga thermohalophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a moderately thermohalophilic, strictly anaerobic fermentative bacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002;52:173-8 pubmed
    ..nov., sp. nov. ..
  22. Munson M, Baumann P, Clark M, Baumann L, Moran N, Voegtlin D, et al. Evidence for the establishment of aphid-eubacterium endosymbiosis in an ancestor of four aphid families. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:6321-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that this endocytobiotic association was established in a common ancestor of the four aphid families with subsequent diversification into the present species of aphids and their endosymbionts. ..
  23. Sekiguchi Y, Kamagata Y, Nakamura K, Ohashi A, Harada H. Syntrophothermus lipocalidus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic, syntrophic, fatty-acid-oxidizing anaerobe which utilizes isobutyrate. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000;50 Pt 2:771-9 pubmed
    ..Hence, the name Syntrophothermus lipocalidus is proposed for TGB-C1T as a new species of a new genus. ..
  24. Myhr S, Torsvik T. Denitrovibrio acetiphilus, a novel genus and species of dissimilatory nitrate-reducing bacterium isolated from an oil reservoir model column. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000;50 Pt 4:1611-9 pubmed
    ..9%). On the basis of phylogenetic as well as phenotypic data, it is proposed that strain N2460T represents the type strain of a new genus and species, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus gen. nov., sp. nov. ..
  25. Norrby R. Linezolid--a review of the first oxazolidinone. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001;2:293-302 pubmed
  26. Vartoukian S, Palmer R, Wade W. The division "Synergistes". Anaerobe. 2007;13:99-106 pubmed
    ..Their role in human disease has yet to be established but improved knowledge of the characteristics that enable their identification should increase the likelihood of their recognition when present at diseased sites. ..
  27. Schurig H, Beaucamp N, Ostendorp R, Jaenicke R, Adler E, Knowles J. Phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima form a covalent bifunctional enzyme complex. EMBO J. 1995;14:442-51 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the amino acid sequence of both the PGK and the TIM parts of the fusion protein with those of known PGKs and TIMs reveals high similarity to the corresponding enzymes from different procaryotic and eucaryotic organisms...
  28. Sidhu H, Ogden S, Lung H, Luttge B, Baetz A, Peck A. DNA sequencing and expression of the formyl coenzyme A transferase gene, frc, from Oxalobacter formigenes. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:3378-81 pubmed
    ..With this, the two genes necessary for bacterial catabolism of oxalate, frc and oxc, have now been cloned, sequenced, and expressed. ..
  29. Plugge C, Stams A. Arginine catabolism by Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;195:259-62 pubmed
    ..5 mol acetate, 4 mol ammonia and 4 mol hydrogen; citrulline and ornithine were not formed. Enzyme measurements indicated the presence of the arginine deiminase pathway (ADI) in cells of T. acidaminovorans growing on arginine. ..
  30. Kobayashi Y, Forster R, Teather R. Development of a competitive polymerase chain reaction assay for the ruminal bacterium Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens OB156 and its use for tracking an OB156-derived recombinant. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2000;188:185-90 pubmed
    ..In an in vivo tracking trial, the recombinant became undetectable within 72 h with either assay, indicating rapid hydrolysis and/or outflow of the cells from the rumen. ..
  31. Sreenivasan P, Gittins E. The effects of a chlorhexidine mouthrinse on culturable microorganisms of the tongue and saliva. Microbiol Res. 2004;159:365-70 pubmed
    ..These results help to explain previous clinical results on the malodor efficacy of CHX and highlight microbiological approaches for bacteria implicated in malodor. ..
  32. Lunina O, Gorlenko V, Solov eva O, Akimov V, Rusanov I, Pimenov N. [Seasonal changes in the structure of the anoxygenic phototrophic bacterial community in Lake Mogilnoe, a relict lake on Kil'din Island in the Barents Sea]. Mikrobiologiia. 2005;74:677-86 pubmed
    ..phaeovibrioides and showed the presence of three minor species, Thiocvstis gelatinosa, Thiocapsa sp., and Thiorhodococcus sp., the last of which is specific to Lake Mogilnoe. ..
  33. Dakhova O, Kurepina N, Zverlov V, Svetlichnyi V, Velikodvorskaya G. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of Thermotoga neapolitana genes coding for enzymes of carbohydrate substrate degradation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:1359-64 pubmed
    ..One clone possessing avicelase activity was obtained. Some clones were selected with amylolytic activities toward amylose, amylopectin and pullulan. ..
  34. Tomas I, Tomas M, Alvarez M, Velasco D, Potel C, Limeres J, et al. Susceptibility of oral obligate anaerobes to telithromycin, moxifloxacin and a number of commonly used antibacterials. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2007;22:298-303 pubmed
    ..In consequence, MXF could represent a possible alternative antimicrobial against obligate anaerobes of oral origin, particularly in those patients with allergy, intolerance or lack of response to AMX-CLA or MTZ. ..
  35. Utt E, Eddy C, Keshav K, Ingram L. Sequencing and expression of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens xylB gene encoding a novel bifunctional protein with beta-D-xylosidase and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase activities. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991;57:1227-34 pubmed
    ..Based on comparison with other glycosidases, a conserved region was identified in the carboxyl end of the translated xylB gene which is similar to that of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger. ..
  36. Blamey J, Adams M. Characterization of an ancestral type of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium, Thermotoga maritima. Biochemistry. 1994;33:1000-7 pubmed
    ..The enzyme was also very sensitive to inactivation by oxygen, with a t50% in air at 25 degrees C of 70 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  37. Neef A, Amann R, Schlesner H, Schleifer K. Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: in situ detection of planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microbiology. 1998;144 ( Pt 12):3257-66 pubmed
    ..In situ hybridization of environmental samples indicated widespread presence of planctomycetes in different ecosystems. ..
  38. Born P, Bauch C, Ulm K, Kamereck K, Classen M, Scheppach W. Fecal bacterial activity in symptomatic carbohydrate malabsorption: effect on the fecal short-chain fatty acid ratio. Z Gastroenterol. 2000;38:623-6 pubmed
    ..However, the interesting correlation with the SCFA raises questions regarding possible connections between colonic bacteria, carbohydrate malabsorption, and the beneficial effect of this pattern of SCFA in several colonic diseases. ..
  39. Jousimies Somer H, Summanen P. Recent taxonomic changes and terminology update of clinically significant anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (excluding spirochetes). Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:S17-21 pubmed
    ..Although names and classifications of anaerobic bacteria are changing quickly, it is important to keep track of new bacterial names to work toward better description and recognition of bacterium-disease associations. ..
  40. Csotonyi J, Stackebrandt E, Yurkov V. Anaerobic respiration on tellurate and other metalloids in bacteria from hydrothermal vent fields in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4950-6 pubmed
    ..The protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone depressed metal(loid) reduction. Anaerobic tellurate respiration will be a significant component in describing biogeochemical cycling of Te at hydrothermal vents. ..
  41. Tanaka K, Mikamo H, Nakao K, Watanabe K. In vitro antianaerobic activity of DX-619, a new des-fluoro(6) quinolone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3908-13 pubmed
    ..with MIC(50)s/MIC(90)s of </=0.03 to 0.25/</=0.03 to 1 microg/ml, respectively. DX-619 was also active against imipenem-resistant Bacteroides spp., with MIC(50)s/MIC(90)s of 0.25/1 microg/ml, respectively. ..
  42. Miyagawa J, Maeda H, Murauchi T, Kokeguchi S, Yamabe K, Tanimoto I, et al. Rapid and simple detection of eight major periodontal pathogens by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;53:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest the usefulness of the LAMP method for the rapid and simple microbiological diagnosis of periodontitis, and the possibility of LAMP examination without the DNA extraction step. ..
  43. Takaki Y, Shimamura S, Nakagawa S, Fukuhara Y, Horikawa H, Ankai A, et al. Bacterial lifestyle in a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney revealed by the genome sequence of the thermophilic bacterium Deferribacter desulfuricans SSM1. DNA Res. 2010;17:123-37 pubmed publisher
    ..desulfuricans SSM1 thriving in the physically and chemically fluctuating environments near hydrothermal vents. This is the first genome sequence from the phylum Deferribacteres. ..
  44. Wrba A, Jaenicke R, Huber R, Stetter K. Lactate dehydrogenase from the extreme thermophile Thermotoga maritima. Eur J Biochem. 1990;188:195-201 pubmed
    ..This also holds if the two lactate dehydrogenases are compared with the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenases from the same organisms. ..
  45. Joblin K, Matsui H, Naylor G, Ushida K. Degradation of fresh ryegrass by methanogenic co-cultures of ruminal fungi grown in the presence or absence of Fibrobacter succinogenes. Curr Microbiol. 2002;45:46-53 pubmed
    ..Our results confirm the superiority of fungi in the degradation of intact stem and indicate that in vitro studies with non-autoclaved forage tissues may yield new information on forage factors affecting rumen microbes...
  46. Wang R, Kim S, Robertson L, Cerniglia C. Development of a membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples. Mol Cell Probes. 2002;16:341-50 pubmed
    ..The result was also confirmed by using specific PCR methods for these bacteria. ..
  47. Behra Miellet J, Calvet L, Dubreuil L. Activity of linezolid against anaerobic bacteria. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2003;22:28-34 pubmed
    ..4, 9.8 and 17% for imipenem, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively. As no strains resistant to LZD were detected, this antibiotic seems a promising candidate to treat infections caused by anaerobes. ..
  48. Jacinto R, Gomes B, Ferraz C, Zaia A, Filho F. Microbiological analysis of infected root canals from symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with periapical periodontitis and the antimicrobial susceptibility of some isolated anaerobic bacteria. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2003;18:285-92 pubmed
    ..Our results suggested that specific bacteria are associated with endodontic symptoms of infected teeth with periapical periodontitis and the majority of the anaerobic bacterial species tested were susceptible to all antibiotics studied. ..
  49. Zhang C, Liu X, Dong X. Syntrophomonas erecta sp. nov., a novel anaerobe that syntrophically degrades short-chain fatty acids. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005;55:799-803 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is proposed that the two strains are representatives of a novel species, Syntrophomonas erecta sp. nov. The type strain is GB4-38(T) (=CGMCC 1.5013(T)=DSM 16215(T))...
  50. Cousineau B, Cerpa C, Lefebvre J, Cedergren R. The sequence of the gene encoding elongation factor Tu from Chlamydia trachomatis compared with those of other organisms. Gene. 1992;120:33-41 pubmed
    ..Further peculiarities of the chlamydial and eubacterial sequences have been mapped to the X-ray crystallographic structure of the protein. ..
  51. Bruschi M, Woudstra M, Guigliarelli B, Asso M, Lojou E, Petillot Y, et al. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of two new cytochromes isolated from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Biochemistry. 1997;36:10601-8 pubmed
    ..Both D. acetoxidans cytochromes c are located in the periplasmic space and their biochemical and spectroscopic properties indicate that they belong to the class III cytochromes. ..
  52. Gomes D, Souza A, Lopes R, Nunes A, Nicoli J. Comparison of antagonistic ability against enteropathogens by G+ and G- anaerobic dominant components of human fecal microbiota. Folia Microbiol (Praha). 2006;51:141-5 pubmed
    ..The results showed that, at least in vitro, obligate anaerobic G+-components of the dominant human fecal microbiota present a higher potential for antagonism against the enteropathogenic models tested than do G- -bacteria. ..
  53. Leung K, Leung W, McMillan A. Supra-gingival microbiota in Sjögren's syndrome. Clin Oral Investig. 2007;11:415-23 pubmed
    ..acidophilus and non-oral species, while SS sufferers generally had lower proportions of gram-negative species. The microbial composition of noncaries associated SGP indicates a potential source of increased caries risk in SS. ..
  54. Scully C, El Maaytah M, Porter S, Greenman J. Breath odor: etiopathogenesis, assessment and management. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997;105:287-93 pubmed
    ..Systemic disease may underlie some cases of oral malodor. The objective assessment of malodor is still best performed by the human sense of smell (organoleptic method) but more quantifiable measures are being developed. ..
  55. Peterka M, Tepsic K, Accetto T, Kostanjsek R, Ramsak A, Lipoglavsek L, et al. Molecular microbiology of gut bacteria: genetic diversity and community structure analysis. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2003;50:395-406 pubmed
    ..The molecular tools for detection and monitoring of ruminal prevotellas are discussed. ..
  56. L Haridon S, Reysenbach A, Tindall B, Schonheit P, Banta A, Johnsen U, et al. Desulfurobacterium atlanticum sp. nov., Desulfurobacterium pacificum sp. nov. and Thermovibrio guaymasensis sp. nov., three thermophilic members of the Desulfurobacteriaceae fam. nov., a deep branching lineage within the Bacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:2843-52 pubmed
    ..It is therefore proposed that this lineage represents a new family, Desulfurobacteriaceae fam. nov., within the order Aquificales. ..
  57. Harada M, Yoshida H, Oomagari K, Sakai T, Abe H, Tanikawa K. [A case of sepsis caused by Edwardsiella tarda complicated panophthalmitis and pyogenic spondylitis]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1990;64:620-4 pubmed
    ..So we diagnosed sepsis with pyogenic spondylitis and panophthalmitis. We suspected that chronic ethanol administration reduced the resistance to infection of E. tarda which caused sepsis...
  58. Macedo Ribeiro S, Darimont B, Sterner R, Huber R. Small structural changes account for the high thermostability of 1[4Fe-4S] ferredoxin from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Structure. 1996;4:1291-301 pubmed
    ..The decreased flexibility will certainly play a relevant role in shielding the iron-sulfur cluster against physiologically high temperatures and further improve the functional integrity of FdTm...
  59. Carballeira N, Reyes M, Sostre A, Huang H, Verhagen M, Adams M. Unusual fatty acid compositions of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:2766-8 pubmed
    ..In contrast, a total of 18 different fatty acids were characterized, as minor components, in P. furiosus, and these included saturated, monounsaturated, and dicarboxylic acids. This is the first report of fatty acids from an archaeon. ..
  60. Legert K, Melén I, Heimdahl A, Stierna P. Development and characterization of an animal model of dental sinusitis. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:1195-1202 pubmed
    ..Microbial growth, predominantly Gram-negative aerobes, increased over time. In Group 2, the findings were generally more pronounced. Anaerobic microorganisms were predominant. In both groups the findings were consistent with dMxS. ..
  61. Whiting J, Cheng N, Chow A. Interactions of ciprofloxacin with clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, cefotaxime, and mezlocillin against gram-positive and gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987;31:1379-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that combinations of ciprofloxacin with these agents may be useful for certain resistant anaerobic infections. ..
  62. Wendt K, Schall I, Huber R, Buckel W, Jacob U. Crystal structure of the carboxyltransferase subunit of the bacterial sodium ion pump glutaconyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase. EMBO J. 2003;22:3493-502 pubmed
    ..The central channel is blocked by arginines against passage of sodium ions which might enter the central channel through two side channels. ..
  63. Lu C, Stricker J, Erickson H. FtsZ from Escherichia coli, Azotobacter vinelandii, and Thermotoga maritima--quantitation, GTP hydrolysis, and assembly. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1998;40:71-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this standard and quantitative Western blotting, we determined that the average E. coli cell has 15,000 molecules of FtsZ, at a concentration of 400 microg/ml. This is just above the plateau for full GTPase activity in vitro...
  64. Menes R, Muxí L. Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, peptide-fermenting bacterium that uses crotonate as an electron acceptor, and emended description of the genus Anaerobaculum. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002;52:157-64 pubmed
    ..thermoterrenum ACM 5076T was 40.8%. On the basis of these results, strain NGA(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Anaerobaculum, namely Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov. The type strain is NGA(T) (= DSM 13181T =ATCC BAA-54T). ..
  65. Summanen P. Comparison of effects of medium composition and atmospheric conditions on detection of Bilophila wadsworthia beta-lactamase by cefinase and cefinase plus methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:733-6 pubmed
    ..Brucella agar supplemented with taurine was unsuitable for B. wadsworthia beta-lactamase testing. Cefinase and Cefinase Plus results were in agreement, but Cefinase Plus yielded faster reactions. ..
  66. Drulis Kawa Z, Bednarkiewicz A, Bugla Płoskońska G, Strek W, Doroszkiewicz W. The susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontal diseases to photodynamic inactivation with Fotolon (chlorin e6). Pol J Microbiol. 2005;54:305-10 pubmed
    ..Over 99.9% reduction in colony forming units in 20 Gram-positive and 30 Gram-negative clinical anaerobic strains was obtained. ..
  67. Kadzielska J, Kierzkowska M, Sawicka Grzelak A, Rokosz A, Łuczak M. [Characteristic of clinical strains of gram-negative obligate anaerobes]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2007;59:351-7 pubmed
    ..3%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (97.8%). ..
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