chlamydia

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE whose species cause a variety of diseases in vertebrates including humans, mice, and swine. Chlamydia species are gram-negative and produce glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.

Top Publications

  1. Beeckman D, Vanrompay D. Bacterial secretion systems with an emphasis on the chlamydial Type III secretion system. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2010;12:17-41 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose a model of the chlamydial Type III secretion system and summarize current knowledge on the role of Type III secretion in the different stages of the chlamydial developmental cycle. ..
  2. Fisher D, Fernández R, Adams N, Maurelli A. Uptake of biotin by Chlamydia Spp. through the use of a bacterial transporter (BioY) and a host-cell transporter (SMVT). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46052 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals. Minor variations in metabolic capacity between species have been causally linked to host and tissue tropisms...
  3. Bliven K, Fisher D, Maurelli A. Characterization of the activity and expression of arginine decarboxylase in human and animal Chlamydia pathogens. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2012;337:140-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional arginine decarboxylase (ArgDC), AaxB, that activates upon self-cleavage and converts l-arginine to agmatine...
  4. McClarty G, Caldwell H, Nelson D. Chlamydial interferon gamma immune evasion influences infection tropism. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2007;10:47-51 pubmed
    b>Chlamydia trachomatis is a human pathogen and Chlamydia muridarum is a mouse pathogen but paradoxically, they share near genomic synteny...
  5. Sachse K, Vretou E, Livingstone M, Borel N, Pospischil A, Longbottom D. Recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of chlamydial infections. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:2-21 pubmed publisher
    There are two main approaches to diagnosing infections by Chlamydia and Chlamydophila spp. in mammals and birds...
  6. Haferkamp I, Schmitz Esser S, Wagner M, Neigel N, Horn M, Neuhaus H. Tapping the nucleotide pool of the host: novel nucleotide carrier proteins of Protochlamydia amoebophila. Mol Microbiol. 2006;60:1534-45 pubmed
    ..amoebophila in this and previous studies uncovered that these metabolically impaired bacteria are intimately connected with their host cell's metabolism in a surprisingly complex manner. ..
  7. Entrican G, Wheelhouse N, Wattegedera S, Longbottom D. New challenges for vaccination to prevent chlamydial abortion in sheep. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;35:271-6 pubmed publisher
    Ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) is caused by the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia abortus...
  8. Dong F, Su H, Huang Y, Zhong Y, Zhong G. Cleavage of host keratin 8 by a Chlamydia-secreted protease. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3863-8 pubmed
    Chlamydiae have to replicate within a cytoplasmic vacuole in eukaryotic cells. Expansion of the chlamydia-laden vacuole is essential for chlamydial intravacuolar replication, which inevitably causes host cell cytoskeleton rearrangements...
  9. Andrew D, Hafner L, Beagley K, Timms P. Partial protection against chlamydial reproductive tract infection by a recombinant major outer membrane protein/CpG/cholera toxin intranasal vaccine in the guinea pig Chlamydia caviae model. J Reprod Immunol. 2011;91:9-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is currently no vaccine to protect against chlamydial infection of the female reproductive tract...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Voigt A, Schöfl G, Saluz H. The Chlamydia psittaci genome: a comparative analysis of intracellular pathogens. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35097 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate genomic aspects of infection, virulence and host preference we have sequenced Chlamydia psittaci, the pathogenic agent of ornithosis...
  2. Rank R, Bowlin A, Cane S, Shou H, Liu Z, Nagarajan U, et al. Effect of Chlamydiaphage phiCPG1 on the course of conjunctival infection with "Chlamydia caviae" in guinea pigs. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1216-21 pubmed publisher
    Over the last several years, four different phages of chlamydiae, in addition to a phage associated with Chlamydia psittaci isolated from an ornithosis infection in ducks over 25 years ago, have been described and characterized...
  3. Haasnoot A, Koedijk F, Op de Coul E, Gotz H, van der Sande M, VAN DEN Broek I. Comparing two definitions of ethnicity for identifying young persons at risk for chlamydia. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:951-8 pubmed publisher
    Ethnic disparities in chlamydia infections in The Netherlands were assessed, in order to compare two definitions of ethnicity: ethnicity based on country of birth and self-defined ethnicity...
  4. Khandhadia S, Foster S, Cree A, Griffiths H, Osmond C, Goverdhan S, et al. Chlamydia infection status, genotype, and age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis. 2012;18:29-37 pubmed
    To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C...
  5. Muschiol S, Normark S, Henriques Normark B, Subtil A. Small molecule inhibitors of the Yersinia type III secretion system impair the development of Chlamydia after entry into host cells. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:75 pubmed publisher
    ..of type III secretion in Yersinia, termed INPs (Innate Pharmaceuticals AB) were reported to strongly inhibit Chlamydia growth in epithelial cells. In this study we have analyzed the effect of these drugs on bacterial invasiveness...
  6. Marcus J, Bernstein K, Kohn R, Liska S, Philip S. Infections missed by urethral-only screening for chlamydia or gonorrhea detection among men who have sex with men. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:922-4 pubmed publisher
    ..8% by screening the rectum and pharynx. Extragenital screening is critical to the provision of comprehensive sexual health services for men who have sex with men...
  7. Israelsson O. Chlamydial symbionts in the enigmatic Xenoturbella (Deuterostomia). J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;96:213-20 pubmed
  8. Valdivia R. Chlamydia effector proteins and new insights into chlamydial cellular microbiology. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2008;11:53-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia and Chlamydophila sp. are highly related obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause sexually transmitted diseases, ocular infections and atypical pneumonias...
  9. Nathan S, Thacker E, Oakeshott P, Atherton H. Use of opt-out in a trial of chlamydia screening. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:143-4 pubmed publisher
  10. Guscetti F, Schiller I, Sydler T, Heinen E, Pospischil A. Experimental enteric infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Chlamydia suis strain S45. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:157-68 pubmed publisher
    Enteric chlamydial infections of pigs with Chlamydia (C.) suis are frequent and often subclinical. The enteric pathogenicity of C. suis strain S45 was investigated in gnotobiotic piglets...
  11. Binet R, Bowlin A, Maurelli A, Rank R. Impact of azithromycin resistance mutations on the virulence and fitness of Chlamydia caviae in guinea pigs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1094-101 pubmed publisher
    Azithromycin (AZM) is a major drug used in the treatment and prophylaxis of infections caused by Chlamydia, yet no significant clinical resistance has been reported for these obligate intracellular bacteria...
  12. Hogan R, Mathews S, Mukhopadhyay S, Summersgill J, Timms P. Chlamydial persistence: beyond the biphasic paradigm. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1843-55 pubmed
  13. Sandoz K, Rockey D. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae. Future Microbiol. 2010;5:1427-42 pubmed publisher
    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans...
  14. Webley W, Norkin L, Stuart E. Caveolin-2 associates with intracellular chlamydial inclusions independently of caveolin-1. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4:23 pubmed
    ..However, our results also show that caveolin-2 did not colocalize with UV-irradiated Chlamydia in FRT cells, suggesting that in these caveolin-1 negative cells, pathogen viability and very likely pathogen ..
  15. Dugan J, Rockey D, Jones L, Andersen A. Tetracycline resistance in Chlamydia suis mediated by genomic islands inserted into the chlamydial inv-like gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48:3989-95 pubmed
    Many strains of Chlamydia suis, a pathogen of pigs, express a stable tetracycline resistance phenotype. We demonstrate that this resistance pattern is associated with a resistance gene, tet(C), in the chlamydial chromosome...
  16. Li Z, Chen D, Zhong Y, Wang S, Zhong G. The chlamydial plasmid-encoded protein pgp3 is secreted into the cytosol of Chlamydia-infected cells. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3415-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the pORF5 protein (also known as pgp3) was detected mainly in the cytosol of Chlamydia-infected cells, while the remaining seven proteins were found inside the chlamydial inclusions only...
  17. Han X, Wang S, Fan Y, Yang J, Jiao L, Qiu H, et al. Chlamydia infection induces ICOS ligand-expressing and IL-10-producing dendritic cells that can inhibit airway inflammation and mucus overproduction elicited by allergen challenge in BALB/c mice. J Immunol. 2006;176:5232-9 pubmed
    Our previous study has shown that the adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) freshly isolated from Chlamydia-infected mice (iIDCs), unlike those from control naive mice (iNDCs), can inhibit systemic and cutaneous eosinophilia induced ..
  18. Kauffold J, Henning K, Bachmann R, Hotzel H, Melzer F. The prevalence of chlamydiae of bulls from six bull studs in Germany. Anim Reprod Sci. 2007;102:111-21 pubmed
    ..8%) bulls. Bull studs differed in regard to the number of bulls found chlamydia-positive in faeces and serologically positive...
  19. Beagley K, Huston W, Hansbro P, Timms P. Chlamydial infection of immune cells: altered function and implications for disease. Crit Rev Immunol. 2009;29:275-305 pubmed
    b>Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that infects the genital and ocular mucosa of humans, causing infections that can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and blinding trachoma. C...
  20. Bilardi J, Fairley C, Temple Smith M, Pirotta M, McNamee K, Bourke S, et al. Incentive payments to general practitioners aimed at increasing opportunistic testing of young women for chlamydia: a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:70 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to determine if offering general practitioners (GP) a small incentive payment per test would increase chlamydia testing in women aged 16 to 24 years, attending general practice...
  21. Ferreri A, Guidoboni M, Ponzoni M, de Conciliis C, Dell Oro S, Fleischhauer K, et al. Evidence for an association between Chlamydia psittaci and ocular adnexal lymphomas. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004;96:586-94 pubmed
    ..The presence of Chlamydia psittaci, trachomatis, and pneumoniae DNA was investigated by polymerase chain reaction in 40 ocular adnexal ..
  22. Paschen S, Christian J, Vier J, Schmidt F, Walch A, Ojcius D, et al. Cytopathicity of Chlamydia is largely reproduced by expression of a single chlamydial protease. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Active CPAF in uninfected human cells thus mimics many features of chlamydial infection, implicating CPAF as a major factor of chlamydial pathogenicity, Chlamydia-associated cell damage, and inflammation.
  23. Henrichfreise B, Schiefer A, Schneider T, Nzukou E, Poellinger C, Hoffmann T, et al. Functional conservation of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway in the cell wall-less bacteria Chlamydia and Wolbachia: why is lipid II needed?. Mol Microbiol. 2009;73:913-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes for enzymes of both machineries have been found in the genomes of the cell wall-less genera Chlamydia and Wolbachia, raising questions as to the functionality of the lipid II biosynthesis pathway and reasons for ..
  24. Archuleta T, Du Y, English C, Lory S, LESSER C, Ohi M, et al. The Chlamydia effector chlamydial outer protein N (CopN) sequesters tubulin and prevents microtubule assembly. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:33992-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that utilize a type three secretion system to manipulate host cell processes...
  25. Biello K, Pettigrew M, Niccolai L. Multiple chlamydia infection among young women: comparing the role of individual- and neighbourhood-level measures of socioeconomic status. Sex Transm Infect. 2011;87:560-2 pubmed publisher
    Young women have the highest burden of chlamydia infections, and socioeconomic disparities exist. Individual-level measures of socioeconomic status (SES) may be difficult to assess for young women...
  26. Byrne G, Ojcius D. Chlamydia and apoptosis: life and death decisions of an intracellular pathogen. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:802-8 pubmed
    ..This subtle pathogenic mechanism highlights the manner in which these highly successful pathogens take control of infected cells to promote their own survival - even under the most adverse circumstances. ..
  27. Facchinelli F, Colleoni C, Ball S, Weber A. Chlamydia, cyanobiont, or host: who was on top in the ménage à trois?. Trends Plant Sci. 2013;18:673-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Chlamydia-like pathogens are the second major source of foreign genes in Archaeplastida, suggesting that these obligate ..
  28. Longbottom D, Coulter L. Animal chlamydioses and zoonotic implications. J Comp Pathol. 2003;128:217-44 pubmed
  29. Heinz E, Rockey D, Montanaro J, Aistleitner K, Wagner M, Horn M. Inclusion membrane proteins of Protochlamydia amoebophila UWE25 reveal a conserved mechanism for host cell interaction among the Chlamydiae. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:5093-102 pubmed publisher
    ..amoebophila shows that this strategy for host cell interaction is conserved among the chlamydiae and is used by chlamydial symbionts and pathogens alike. ..
  30. Tun W, Vu L, Adebajo S, Abiodun L, Sheehy M, Karlyn A, et al. Population-based prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus, HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia in male injection drug users in Lagos, Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBV), hepatitis C antibody (HCV), HIV and syphilis, as well as genital chlamydia and gonorrhoea infections...
  31. Abdelrahman Y, Belland R. The chlamydial developmental cycle. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2005;29:949-59 pubmed
    ..Measuring transcriptional changes throughout the cycle has allowed investigators to determine the nature of the temporal gene expression changes required for bacterial growth and development. ..
  32. Guy R, Wand H, Franklin N, Fairley C, Chen M, O Connor C, et al. Chlamydia trends in men who have sex with men attending sexual health services in Australia, 2004-2008. Sex Transm Dis. 2011;38:339-46 pubmed publisher
    In most Australian settings, chlamydia notifications do not contain information on the gender of sexual partners...
  33. Kollipara A, Wan C, Rawlinson G, Brumm J, Nilsson K, Polkinghorne A, et al. Antigenic specificity of a monovalent versus polyvalent MOMP based Chlamydia pecorum vaccine in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Vaccine. 2013;31:1217-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia continues to be a major pathogen of koalas. The bacterium is associated with ocular, respiratory and urogenital tract infections and a vaccine is considered the best option to limit the decline of mainland koala populations...
  34. Reinhold P, Sachse K, Kaltenboeck B. Chlamydiaceae in cattle: commensals, trigger organisms, or pathogens?. Vet J. 2011;189:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..pecorum, C. abortus, C. psittaci and Chlamydia suis, is ubiquitous with mixed infections occurring frequently...
  35. Griffiths E, Ventresca M, Gupta R. BLAST screening of chlamydial genomes to identify signature proteins that are unique for the Chlamydiales, Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydophila and Chlamydia groups of species. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:14 pubmed
    ..The obligate intracellular nature of chlamydiae has also limited their genetic and biochemical studies. Thus, it is of importance to develop additional means for their identification and characterization...
  36. Pantchev A, Sting R, Bauerfeind R, Tyczka J, Sachse K. Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:473-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected...
  37. Ito A, Matsuo J, Nakamura S, Yoshida A, Okude M, Hayashi Y, et al. Amoebal endosymbiont Protochlamydia induces apoptosis to human immortal HEp-2 cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30270 pubmed publisher
    Protochlamydia, an environmental chlamydia and obligate amoebal endosymbiotic bacterium, evolved to survive within protist hosts, such as Acanthamobae, 700 million years ago...
  38. Kuo C, Lee A, Campbell L. Cleavage of the N-linked oligosaccharide from the surfaces of Chlamydia species affects attachment and infectivity of the organisms in human epithelial and endothelial cells. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6699-701 pubmed
    Previous studies demonstrated that the high-mannose oligosaccharide N linked to the Chlamydia major outer membrane protein inhibited the attachment and infectivity of the organism...
  39. Sachse K, Hotzel H, Slickers P, Ellinger T, Ehricht R. DNA microarray-based detection and identification of Chlamydia and Chlamydophila spp. Mol Cell Probes. 2005;19:41-50 pubmed
    ..The present assay proved suitable for unambiguous species identification of chlamydial cell cultures and showed a potential for direct detection of these bacteria from clinical tissue...
  40. Satpathy G, Sharma A, Vasisht S. Immunocomb Chlamydia bivalent assay to study Chlamydia species-specific antibodies in patients with coronary heart disease. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121:171-5 pubmed
    Serological evidences suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease (CHD). Efficacy of available serological tests for detection of C. pneumoniae antibody has been debated...
  41. Suchland R, Sandoz K, Jeffrey B, Stamm W, Rockey D. Horizontal transfer of tetracycline resistance among Chlamydia spp. in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4604-11 pubmed publisher
    There are no examples of stable tetracycline resistance in clinical strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. However, the swine pathogen Chlamydia suis is commonly tetracycline resistant, both in America and in Europe. In tested U.S...
  42. Case E, Peterson E, Tan M. Promoters for Chlamydia type III secretion genes show a differential response to DNA supercoiling that correlates with temporal expression pattern. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2569-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The genes encoding T3S components in Chlamydia are transcribed as separate temporal classes, but the mechanisms that regulate the timing of their expression ..
  43. Ekstrand M, Tyden T, Larsson M. Exposing oneself and one's partner to sexual risk-taking as perceived by young Swedish men who requested a Chlamydia test. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2011;16:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore young men's perceptions of (i) the risk for themselves and their partners in connection with unprotected intercourse, and (ii) the main barriers to practising safe sex...
  44. Polkinghorne A, Hanger J, Timms P. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas. Vet Microbiol. 2013;165:214-23 pubmed publisher
    ..and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in ..
  45. Igietseme J, Eko F, Black C. Contemporary approaches to designing and evaluating vaccines against Chlamydia. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003;2:129-46 pubmed
    ..pathologic consequences of primary ocular, genital, or respiratory human infection by members of the genus Chlamydia are conjunctivitis, cervicitis, urethritis and sinusitis...
  46. Dong F, Sharma J, Xiao Y, Zhong Y, Zhong G. Intramolecular dimerization is required for the chlamydia-secreted protease CPAF to degrade host transcriptional factors. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3869-75 pubmed
    We previously identified a chlamydial protein designated CPAF (chlamydia protease/proteasome-like activity factor) that is secreted into host cell cytosol for degrading host transcription factors required for major histocompatibility ..
  47. Miya N, Oguchi S, Watanabe I, Kanmatsuse K. Relation of secretory phospholipase A(2) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in acute coronary syndromes. Circ J. 2004;68:628-33 pubmed
    ..inflammatory changes play a part in the development of atherosclerosis, including coronary artery disease, and Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is thought to be a proinflammatory factor...
  48. Casson N, Greub G. Resistance of different Chlamydia-like organisms to quinolones and mutations in the quinoline resistance-determining region of the DNA gyrase A- and topoisomerase-encoding genes. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006;27:541-4 pubmed
    ..For Simkania, substitutions at positions 99 and 101 in the GyrA QRDR and at positions 81 and 84 in the ParC QRDR were observed. Resistance of Parachlamydia, Neochlamydia and Simkania to quinolones is likely due to these mutations...
  49. Wilson D, Timms P, McElwain D, Bavoil P. Type III secretion, contact-dependent model for the intracellular development of chlamydia. Bull Math Biol. 2006;68:161-78 pubmed
    The medically significant genus Chlamydia is a class of obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate within vacuoles in host eukaryotic cells termed inclusions...
  50. Hybiske K, Stephens R. Mechanisms of host cell exit by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:11430-5 pubmed
    ..The release pathway of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia from cells is unknown...
  51. Doshi J, Power J, Allen E. Acceptability of chlamydia screening using self-taken vaginal swabs. Int J STD AIDS. 2008;19:507-9 pubmed publisher
    In the first phase of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), the majority of sites involved offered testing with urine sample...
  52. Stephens R, Myers G, Eppinger M, Bavoil P. Divergence without difference: phylogenetics and taxonomy of Chlamydia resolved. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2009;55:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..consistent with the natural history of the organism revealed by genome comparisons, nor widely used by the Chlamydia research community 8 years after its introduction; thus, it is proposed to reunite the Chlamydiaceae into a ..
  53. Borel N, Regenscheit N, Di Francesco A, Donati M, Markov J, Masserey Y, et al. Selection for tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis in treated pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2012;156:143-6 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate Chlamydia suis in a pig farm with an outbreak of conjunctivitis and diarrhea. Eye swabs and pooled fecal samples were investigated for the presence of C...
  54. den Hartog J, Land J, Stassen F, Slobbe van Drunen M, Kessels A, Bruggeman C. The role of chlamydia genus-specific and species-specific IgG antibody testing in predicting tubal disease in subfertile women. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:1380-4 pubmed
    We evaluated whether measuring chlamydia genus- and species-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies might improve the predictive value of C. trachomatis antibody testing (CAT) in screening for distal tubal pathology (DTP).
  55. Longbottom D, Livingstone M. Vaccination against chlamydial infections of man and animals. Vet J. 2006;171:263-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, much research still needs to be done to improve the delivery of plasmid DNA, as well as the expression and presentation of antigens to ensure that effective immune responses are induced...
  56. Wagner M, Horn M. The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae and sister phyla comprise a superphylum with biotechnological and medical relevance. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2006;17:241-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the availability of these genome sequences offered new insights into the evolutionary history of this peculiar group of microbes with major medical, ecological and biotechnological relevance...
  57. Novikov V, Egorova N, Kurnikov G, Evsegneeva I, Baryshnikov A, Karaulov A. Serum levels of soluble HLA and IL-2R molecules in patients with urogenital chlamydia infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;601:285-9 pubmed
    ..We concluded that Th1 immune responses might dominate during genital chlamydial infection contrary to the state of nonspecific inflammation of urogenital tract...
  58. Mac T, Von Hacht A, Hung K, Dutton R, Boyd D, Bardwell J, et al. Insight into disulfide bond catalysis in Chlamydia from the structure and function of DsbH, a novel oxidoreductase. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:824-32 pubmed publisher
    The Chlamydia family of human pathogens uses outer envelope proteins that are highly cross-linked by disulfide bonds but nevertheless keeps an unusually high number of unpaired cysteines in its secreted proteins...
  59. Chen D, Chai J, Hart P, Zhong G. Identifying catalytic residues in CPAF, a Chlamydia-secreted protease. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;485:16-23 pubmed
    ..protease designated CPAF (Chlamydial Protease/proteasome-like Activity Factor) degrades host proteins, enabling Chlamydia to evade host defenses and replicate. The mechanistic details of CPAF action, however, remain obscure...
  60. Kollipara A, George C, Hanger J, Loader J, Polkinghorne A, Beagley K, et al. Vaccination of healthy and diseased koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) with a Chlamydia pecorum multi-subunit vaccine: evaluation of immunity and pathology. Vaccine. 2012;30:1875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..vaccinated both healthy koalas as well as clinically diseased koalas with a multi-subunit vaccine consisting of Chlamydia pecorum MOMP and NrdB mixed with immune stimulating complex as adjuvant...
  61. Frazer L, Darville T, Chandra Kuntal K, Andrews C, Zurenski M, Mintus M, et al. Plasmid-cured Chlamydia caviae activates TLR2-dependent signaling and retains virulence in the guinea pig model of genital tract infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30747 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains...
  62. Jelocnik M, Frentiu F, Timms P, Polkinghorne A. Multilocus sequence analysis provides insights into molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum infections in Australian sheep, cattle, and koalas. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2625-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C...
  63. Horn M, Collingro A, Schmitz Esser S, Beier C, Purkhold U, Fartmann B, et al. Illuminating the evolutionary history of chlamydiae. Science. 2004;304:728-30 pubmed
    Chlamydiae are the major cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted disease. Genome analysis of a chlamydia-related symbiont of free-living amoebae revealed that it is twice as large as any of the pathogenic chlamydiae and ..
  64. Reinhold P, Jaeger J, Liebler Tenorio E, Berndt A, Bachmann R, Schubert E, et al. Impact of latent infections with Chlamydophila species in young cattle. Vet J. 2008;175:202-11 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, naturally occurring infections with Chlamydophila species in calves were found to be associated with chronic effects on animal health at a subclinical level...
  65. Vignola M, Kashatus D, Taylor G, Counter C, Valdivia R. cPLA2 regulates the expression of type I interferons and intracellular immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21625-35 pubmed publisher
    Infection with the obligate bacterial intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis leads to the sustained activation of the small GTPase RAS and many of its downstream signaling components...
  66. Haider S, Wagner M, Schmid M, Sixt B, Christian J, Hacker G, et al. Raman microspectroscopy reveals long-term extracellular activity of Chlamydiae. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:687-700 pubmed publisher
    ..and protein synthesis after extended extracellular incubation could also be demonstrated for the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, which synthesizes stress-related proteins under these conditions as shown by 2-D gel ..
  67. Hogan A, Howell Jones R, Pottinger E, Wallace L, McNulty C. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:616 pubmed publisher
    Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the ..
  68. Schoborg R. Chlamydia persistence -- a tool to dissect chlamydia--host interactions. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:649-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will discuss examples of: i) persistence studies that have illuminated critical chlamydiae/host interactions; and ii) novel persistence models that will do so in the future...
  69. Runge M, Binder A, Schotte U, Ganter M. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2012;125:138-43 pubmed
    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl...
  70. Wilson A, Tan M. Stress response gene regulation in Chlamydia is dependent on HrcA-CIRCE interactions. J Bacteriol. 2004;186:3384-91 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that HrcA regulates the promoter for the dnaK heat shock operon in Chlamydia. Here we demonstrate that HrcA represses a second heat shock promoter that controls the expression of groES and ..
  71. Koo I, Walthers D, Hefty P, Kenney L, Stephens R. ChxR is a transcriptional activator in Chlamydia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:750-5 pubmed
    b>Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that alternate between two metabolically and morphologically distinct developmental forms, and differentiation depends on transcriptional regulation...
  72. Lee S, Alemayehu W, Melese M, Lakew T, Lee D, Yi E, et al. Chlamydia on children and flies after mass antibiotic treatment for trachoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:129-31 pubmed
    There are various approaches to control trachoma. These include the elimination of the ocular strains of Chlamydia trachomatis that cause the disease and to decrease the spread of infection by other measures such as fly control...
  73. Reinhold P, Kirschvink N, Theegarten D, Berndt A. An experimentally induced Chlamydia suis infection in pigs results in severe lung function disorders and pulmonary inflammation. Vet Res. 2008;39:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight animals were exposed to Chlamydia suis (C. suis) and four non-infected animals served as controls...
  74. Pospischil A, Borel N, Chowdhury E, Guscetti F. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis. Vet Microbiol. 2009;135:147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C...
  75. Bilardi J, De Guingand D, Temple Smith M, Garland S, Fairley C, Grover S, et al. Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:505 pubmed publisher
    In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant...
  76. Jewett T, Miller N, Dooley C, Hackstadt T. The conserved Tarp actin binding domain is important for chlamydial invasion. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000997 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that Tarp mediated actin binding and nucleation is a conserved feature among diverse chlamydial species and this function plays a critical role in bacterial invasion of host cells...
  77. Schautteet K, De Clercq E, Miry C, Van Groenweghe F, Delava P, Kalmar I, et al. Tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis in cases of reproductive failure on Belgian, Cypriote and Israeli pig production farms. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:331-4 pubmed publisher
    Similar cases of severe reproductive failure associated with the presence of Chlamydia suis in two Belgian, one Cypriote and one Israeli pig farrowing to slaughter farms are presented...
  78. Subtil A, Dautry Varsat A. Chlamydia: five years A.G. (after genome). Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004;7:85-92 pubmed
    ..In the past five years, publications of the genome sequences of several strains have opened new areas of research. Some of these new advances are presented here...
  79. Haider S, Collingro A, Walochnik J, Wagner M, Horn M. Chlamydia-like bacteria in respiratory samples of community-acquired pneumonia patients. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;281:198-202 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia-like bacteria, obligate intracellular relatives of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, are widely distributed in nature...
  80. Barry P, Kent C, Scott K, Goldenson J, Klausner J. Is jail screening associated with a decrease in Chlamydia positivity among females seeking health services at community clinics?-San francisco, 1997-2004. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:S22-8 pubmed publisher
    Young adults entering jail are at increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as chlamydia, are released quickly, and are unlikely to be tested for STDs elsewhere...
  81. Walker J, Fairley C, Walker S, Gurrin L, Gunn J, Pirotta M, et al. Computer reminders for Chlamydia screening in general practice: a randomized controlled trial. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:445-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia notifications are increasing in Australia, and the use of a computer alert prompting general practitioners to test young women is a potential way to increase opportunistic chlamydia testing...
  82. Derre I, Swiss R, Agaisse H. The lipid transfer protein CERT interacts with the Chlamydia inclusion protein IncD and participates to ER-Chlamydia inclusion membrane contact sites. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002092 pubmed publisher
    ..recruited to the inclusion, a membrane-bound compartment harboring the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis...
  83. Furtado A, Essid M, Perrinet S, Balañá M, Yoder N, Dehoux P, et al. The chlamydial OTU domain-containing protein ChlaOTU is an early type III secretion effector targeting ubiquitin and NDP52. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:2064-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia are obligate intracellular pathogens. Upon contact with the host, they use type III secretion to deliver proteins into the cell, thereby triggering actin-dependent entry and establishing the infection...
  84. Rzomp K, Scholtes L, Briggs B, Whittaker G, Scidmore M. Rab GTPases are recruited to chlamydial inclusions in both a species-dependent and species-independent manner. Infect Immun. 2003;71:5855-70 pubmed
    ..we examined the intracellular localization of several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Rab GTPases in chlamydia-infected HeLa cells...
  85. Eng H, Wang C, Chen C, Chou M, Cheng C, Lin T. A CD14 promoter polymorphism is associated with CD14 expression and Chlamydia-stimulated TNF alpha production. Genes Immun. 2004;5:426-30 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the single base pair polymorphism of CD14 promoter gene is associated with CD14 expression and Chlamydia-stimulated TNFalpha production, and may thus play some role in the chlamydia-induced inflammatory response.
  86. Haferkamp I, Schmitz Esser S, Linka N, Urbany C, Collingro A, Wagner M, et al. A candidate NAD+ transporter in an intracellular bacterial symbiont related to Chlamydiae. Nature. 2004;432:622-5 pubmed
    ..This protein acts together with a newly discovered nucleotide transporter and an ATP/ADP translocase, and allows UWE25 to exploit its host cell by means of a sophisticated metabolic parasitism...
  87. Betts H, Wolf K, Fields K. Effector protein modulation of host cells: examples in the Chlamydia spp. arsenal. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:81-7 pubmed publisher
    As obligate intracellular parasites, Chlamydia spp. must create and maintain a specialized intracellular niche while simultaneously contending with potent host defenses...
  88. Abromaitis S, Stephens R. Attachment and entry of Chlamydia have distinct requirements for host protein disulfide isomerase. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000357 pubmed publisher
    b>Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases in humans...
  89. Osaka I, Hills J, Kieweg S, Shinogle H, Moore D, Hefty P. An automated image-based method for rapid analysis of Chlamydia infection as a tool for screening antichlamydial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4184-8 pubmed publisher
    ..immunofluorescence assay is the preferred approach for accurate quantification of the intracellular growth of Chlamydia. In this study, an immunofluorescence image-based method (termed image-based automated chlamydial identification ..
  90. Stuart E, Webley W, Norkin L. Lipid rafts, caveolae, caveolin-1, and entry by Chlamydiae into host cells. Exp Cell Res. 2003;287:67-78 pubmed
    Obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens of the genus Chlamydia are reported to enter host cells by both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent processes. C...
  91. Wehrl W, Brinkmann V, Jungblut P, Meyer T, Szczepek A. From the inside out--processing of the Chlamydial autotransporter PmpD and its role in bacterial adhesion and activation of human host cells. Mol Microbiol. 2004;51:319-34 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that N-PmpD is an autotransporter component of chlamydial outer membrane, important for bacterial invasion and host inflammation...
  92. Livingstone M, Longbottom D. What is the prevalence and economic impact of chlamydial infections in cattle? The need to validate and harmonise existing methods of detection. Vet J. 2006;172:3-5 pubmed