ehrlichia

Summary

Summary: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.

Top Publications

  1. Alekseev A, Dubinina H, van De Pol I, Schouls L. Identification of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes ticks in the Baltic regions of Russia. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:2237-42 pubmed
    The presence and distribution of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was demonstrated among ixodid ticks collected in the Baltic regions of Russia, where Lyme borreliosis is endemic...
  2. Shpynov S, Fournier P, Rudakov N, Tarasevich I, Raoult D. Detection of members of the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia in ticks collected in the Asiatic part of Russia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:378-83 pubmed
    ..DnS28, "Candidatus R. tarasevichiae," a rickettsia closely related to R. helvetica, A. bovis, Ehrlichia muris, "Ehrlichia-like" "Schotti variant," and bacterium "Montezuma...
  3. Allsopp M, Dorfling C, Maillard J, Bensaid A, Haydon D, Van Heerden H, et al. Ehrlichia ruminantium major antigenic protein gene (map1) variants are not geographically constrained and show no evidence of having evolved under positive selection pressure. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4200-3 pubmed
    In a search for tools to distinguish antigenic variants of Ehrlichia ruminantium, we sequenced the major antigenic protein genes (map1 genes) of 21 different isolates and found that the sequence polymorphisms were too great to permit the ..
  4. Mattner J, Debord K, Ismail N, Goff R, Cantu C, Zhou D, et al. Exogenous and endogenous glycolipid antigens activate NKT cells during microbial infections. Nature. 2005;434:525-9 pubmed
    ..activation of NKT cells against Gram-negative, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-negative alpha-Proteobacteria such as Ehrlichia muris and Sphingomonas capsulata...
  5. Loftis A, Mixson T, Stromdahl E, Yabsley M, Garrison L, Williamson P, et al. Geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the Ehrlichia sp. from Panola Mountain in Amblyomma americanum. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:54 pubmed publisher
    A novel Ehrlichia, closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium, was recently discovered from Panola Mountain State Park, GA, USA. We conducted a study to determine if this agent was recently introduced into the United States...
  6. Stuen S, Bergstrom K. Serological investigation of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection in sheep in Norway. Acta Vet Scand. 2001;42:331-8 pubmed
    ..e. 361 lambs (6 to 7 months old) and 388 adults (> 1.5 year), were analysed for antibodies to Ehrlichia equi. Ten animals from each flock were examined...
  7. Tabara K, Arai S, Kawabuchi T, Itagaki A, Ishihara C, Satoh H, et al. Molecular survey of Babesia microti, Ehrlichia species and Candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis in wild rodents from Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2007;51:359-67 pubmed
    ..We conducted molecular surveys for Babesia microti, Ehrlichia species, and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in 62 FUO cases and 62 wild rodents from Shimane Prefecture, ..
  8. Thirumalapura N, Stevenson H, Walker D, Ismail N. Protective heterologous immunity against fatal ehrlichiosis and lack of protection following homologous challenge. Infect Immun. 2008;76:1920-30 pubmed publisher
    The roles of antibodies and memory T cells in protection against virulent Ehrlichia have not been completely investigated...
  9. Cabezas Cruz A, Vancova M, Zweygarth E, Ribeiro M, Grubhoffer L, Passos L. Ultrastructure of Ehrlichia mineirensis, a new member of the Ehrlichia genus. Vet Microbiol. 2013;167:455-8 pubmed publisher
    Recently, we reported the in vitro isolation and the molecular characterization of a new species of Ehrlichia (Ehrlichia mineirensis) from haemolymph of Brazilian Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Inokuma H, Brouqui P, Drancourt M, Raoult D. Citrate synthase gene sequence: a new tool for phylogenetic analysis and identification of Ehrlichia. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:3031-9 pubmed
    The sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of 13 ehrlichial species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia muris, an Ehrlichia species recently detected from Ixodes ovatus, Cowdria ruminantium, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, ..
  2. Dutra F, Schuch L, Delucchi E, Curcio B, Coimbra H, Raffi M, et al. Equine monocytic Ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever) in horses in Uruguay and southern Brazil. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:433-7 pubmed
    ..Eleven of the 12 horses were serologically positive to Ehrlichia risticii (indirect fluorescent antibody assay) and, of 3 paired samples, 2 showed seroconversion...
  3. Paras K, Little S, Reichard M, Reiskind M. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia species in coyotes (Canis latrans), from rural Oklahoma and Texas. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:619-21 pubmed publisher
    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes in Oklahoma and Texas...
  4. Aguero Rosenfeld M, Kalantarpour F, Baluch M, Horowitz H, McKenna D, Raffalli J, et al. Serology of culture-confirmed cases of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:635-8 pubmed
    ..17 patients with culture-confirmed HGE also tested by IFA by using either a human isolate from Wisconsin or an Ehrlichia equi isolate from a horse, there was qualitative agreement for 62 serum specimens (87. 3%)...
  5. Bjöersdorff A, Wittesjö B, Berglun J, Massung R, Eliasson I. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis as a common cause of tick-associated fever in Southeast Sweden: report from a prospective clinical study. Scand J Infect Dis. 2002;34:187-91 pubmed
    ..Granulocytic ehrlichiosis should be suspected in patients who present with tick-associated fever, with or without erythema migrans. Ehrlichia serology and PCR should be employed to confirm the diagnosis.
  6. Yabsley M, Adams D, O Connor T, Chandrashekar R, Little S. Experimental primary and secondary infections of domestic dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:315-21 pubmed publisher
    In this study, the infection dynamics of Ehrlichia ewingii, causative agent of granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis in dogs and humans, was examined in experimentally infected dogs by using a combination of physical examination, hematologic ..
  7. Petrovec M, Lotric Furlan S, Zupanc T, Strle F, Brouqui P, Roux V, et al. Human disease in Europe caused by a granulocytic Ehrlichia species. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1556-9 pubmed
    Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) was recently described in North America. It is caused by an Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia phagocytophila and Ehrlichia equi, recognized to infect mostly ruminants and horses, ..
  8. Kawahara M, Rikihisa Y, Lin Q, Isogai E, Tahara K, Itagaki A, et al. Novel genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. in wild deer and ticks on two major islands in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1102-9 pubmed
    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe...
  9. Yabsley M, Loftis A, Little S. Natural and experimental infection of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from the United States with an Ehrlichia sp. closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44:381-7 pubmed
    An Ehrlichia sp. (Panola Mountain [PM] Ehrlichia sp.) closely related to Ehrlichia ruminantium was recently detected in a domestic goat experimentally infested with lone star ticks (LSTs, Amblyomma americanum) collected from Georgia, USA...
  10. Liu Y, Zhang Z, Jiang Y, Zhang L, Popov V, Zhang J, et al. Obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia inhibiting mitochondrial activity. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:232-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Ehrlichia are obligately intracellular bacteria that reside in a vacuole in the cytoplasm of phagocytes...
  11. des Vignes F, Piesman J, Heffernan R, Schulze T, Stafford K, Fish D. Effect of tick removal on transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis nymphs. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:773-8 pubmed
    ..with either laboratory or field strains of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi and field strains of Ehrlichia phagocytophila, an agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis...
  12. McBride J, Walker D. Progress and obstacles in vaccine development for the ehrlichioses. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:1071-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Ehrlichia are tick-borne obligately intracellular bacteria that cause significant diseases in veterinary natural hosts, including livestock and companion animals, and are now considered important zoonotic pathogens in humans...
  13. Inokuma H, Beppu T, Okuda M, Shimada Y, Sakata Y. Detection of ehrlichial DNA in Haemaphysalis ticks recovered from dogs in Japan that is closely related to a novel Ehrlichia sp. found in cattle ticks from Tibet, Thailand, and Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:1353-5 pubmed
    Tick DNA samples from dogs in Japan were examined for Ehrlichia infection by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR and sequencing. Three positive samples were detected from Haemaphysalis ticks, and higher levels of similarity (98.46 to 99...
  14. Aktas M, Altay K, Dumanli N, Kalkan A. Molecular detection and identification of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species in ixodid ticks. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR) assay followed by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed for the presence of Ehrlichia and/or Anaplasma...
  15. Ndip L, Labruna M, Ndip R, Walker D, McBride J. Molecular and clinical evidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in Cameroonian patients with undifferentiated febrile illness. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:719-25 pubmed publisher
    In the U.S.A., human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME) caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis. In Cameroon, where E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E...
  16. Sarih M, M ghirbi Y, Bouattour A, Gern L, Baranton G, Postic D. Detection and identification of Ehrlichia spp. in ticks collected in Tunisia and Morocco. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1127-32 pubmed
    ..Of 324 adult I. ricinus ticks, 16.3% were positive for Ehrlichia spp., whereas only 3.4 and 2.8% of nymphs and larvae, respectively, were positive...
  17. Bitsaktsis C, Nandi B, Racine R, MacNamara K, Winslow G. T-Cell-independent humoral immunity is sufficient for protection against fatal intracellular ehrlichia infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4933-41 pubmed
    ..Our studies of highly pathogenic Ehrlichia bacteria isolated from Ixodes ovatus (IOE) reveal, however, that this paradigm is not always correct...
  18. Sirigireddy K, Ganta R. Multiplex detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species pathogens in peripheral blood by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Diagn. 2005;7:308-16 pubmed
    ..These include human infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii...
  19. Nicholson W, Comer J, Sumner J, Gingrich Baker C, Coughlin R, Magnarelli L, et al. An indirect immunofluorescence assay using a cell culture-derived antigen for detection of antibodies to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1510-6 pubmed
    ..Animal sera reactive against Ehrlichia equi or Ehrlichia phagocytophila bound to the HGE antigen, indicating that the assay may be useful for ..
  20. Egenvall A, Franzen P, Gunnarsson A, Engvall E, Vågsholm I, Wikström U, et al. Cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and granulocytic Ehrlichia spp. and demographic, clinical and tick-exposure factors in Swedish horses. Prev Vet Med. 2001;49:191-208 pubmed
    A cross-sectional study of the seroprevalence to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and granulocytic Ehrlichia spp. in Swedish horses was conducted to evaluate associations with demographic, clinical and tick-exposure factors...
  21. Pusterla N, Chang C, Chomel B, Chae J, Foley J, DeRock E, et al. Serologic and molecular evidence of Ehrlichia spp. in coyotes in California. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:494-9 pubmed
    ..and monocytic ehrlichial agents in California (USA), we tested 149 serum samples for antibodies against Ehrlichia equi, E. risticii, and E. canis, using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test...
  22. Gajadhar A, Lobanov V, Scandrett W, Campbell J, Al Adhami B. A novel Ehrlichia genotype detected in naturally infected cattle in North America. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..BC), Canada were infected with Anaplasma marginale or other related rickettsial blood parasites, a novel Ehrlichia genotype was revealed...
  23. Aktas M, Altay K, Dumanli N. Molecular detection and identification of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in cattle from Turkey. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:62-5 pubmed publisher
    ..ovis, and the other 2 sequences were 99.5% identical to the sequence of Ehrlichia sp. Omatjenne strain. The results further confirmed that A. ovis and Ehrlichia sp...
  24. Stevenson H, Jordan J, Peerwani Z, Wang H, Walker D, Ismail N. An intradermal environment promotes a protective type-1 response against lethal systemic monocytotropic ehrlichial infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4856-64 pubmed
    Immune responses against monocytotropic ehrlichiosis during infection with a strain of Ehrlichia from Ixodes ovatus (IOE) were evaluated using a model that closely reproduces the pathology and immunity associated with tick-transmitted ..
  25. Ohashi N, Zhi N, Zhang Y, Rikihisa Y. Immunodominant major outer membrane proteins of Ehrlichia chaffeensis are encoded by a polymorphic multigene family. Infect Immun. 1998;66:132-9 pubmed
    ..Several immunodominant major proteins ranging from 23 to 30 kDa were identified in the outer membrane fractions of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of a 28-kDa protein of E...
  26. Fernández Soto P, Perez Sanchez R, Encinas Grandes A. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup organisms in larvae of Neotrombicula autumnalis (Acari: Trombiculidae) captured in Spain. J Parasitol. 2001;87:1482-3 pubmed
    ..l.). rickettsiae, and the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup. At least 10% of the larvae were found to contain granulocytic ehrlichiae...
  27. Alekseev A, Semenov A, Dubinina H. Evidence of Babesia microti infection in multi-infected Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Russia. Exp Appl Acarol. 2003;29:345-53 pubmed
    ..The entire sample (more than 1,200 individuals) was screened for the presence of Borrelia spp., Ehrlichia spp. and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV)...
  28. Shpynov S, Fournier P, Rudakov N, Tankibaev M, Tarasevich I, Raoult D. Detection of a rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia aeschlimannii, "Rickettsia heilongjiangensis," Rickettsia sp. strain RpA4, and Ehrlichia muris in ticks collected in Russia and Kazakhstan. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2221-3 pubmed
    ..In Russia, we detected "Rickettsia heilongjiangensis," Rickettsia sp. strain RpA4, and Ehrlichia muris. In Kazakhstan, we detected Rickettsia sp...
  29. Schulze T, Jordan R, Schulze C, Mixson T, Papero M. Relative encounter frequencies and prevalence of selected Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from central New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:450-6 pubmed
    ..americanum adults yielded infection prevalences of 9.1% for Borrelia lonestari, 12.3% for Ehrlichia chaffeenensis, and 8.2% for E. ewingii, and coinfection prevalences of 4.1% for E. chaffeensis/E. ewingii and 0...
  30. Nandi B, Chatterjee M, Hogle K, McLaughlin M, MACNAMARA K, Racine R, et al. Antigen display, T-cell activation, and immune evasion during acute and chronic ehrlichiosis. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4643-53 pubmed publisher
    ..T-cell line to monitor antigen display ex vivo during acute and chronic infection with Ehrlichia muris, a bacterium that establishes persistent infection in C57BL/6 mice...
  31. Kelly P, Lucas H. Failure to demonstrate Babesia, Anaplasma or Ehrlichia in thrombocytopenic dogs from St Kitts. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:561-3 pubmed
    Thrombocytopenia is common in dogs on St Kitts but there is no data on the possible etiological role played by infections with Anaplasma, Babesia and Ehrlichia, other than E. canis, which are known to occur in the Caribbean.
  32. Socolovschi C, Kernif T, Raoult D, Parola P. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species in bat ticks, France, 2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1966-75 pubmed publisher
    ..A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp...
  33. Munderloh U, Silverman D, MacNamara K, Ahlstrand G, Chatterjee M, Winslow G. Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia exhibits unique ultrastructural characteristics in mammalian endothelial and tick-derived cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1166:112-9 pubmed publisher
    Tick-borne pathogens in the genus Ehrlichia cause emerging zoonoses. Although laboratory mice are susceptible to Ehrlichia infections, many isolates do not cause clinical illness...
  34. Dumler J, Barbet A, Bekker C, Dasch G, Palmer G, Ray S, et al. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001;51:2145-65 pubmed
    The genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Cowdria, Neorickettsia and Wolbachia encompass a group of obligate intracellular bacteria that reside in vacuoles of eukaryotic cells and were previously placed in taxa based upon morphological, ..
  35. Stuen S, Djuve R, Bergstrom K. Persistence of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection during wintertime in two sheep flocks in Norway. Acta Vet Scand. 2001;42:347-53 pubmed
    Granulocytic Ehrlichia infection in sheep is common in Norway in areas with Ixodes ricinus. In this study, 2 sheep flocks that had been grazing on I...
  36. Mäkinen J, Vuorinen I, Oksi J, Peltomaa M, He Q, Marjamäki M, et al. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from Southwestern Finland and from Vormsi Island in Estonia. APMIS. 2003;111:355-62 pubmed
    ..Using the polymerase chain reaction the ticks were examined for 16S rDNA of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup and for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato recA and flagellin genes...
  37. Feng H, Walker D. Mechanisms of immunity to Ehrlichia muris: a model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Infect Immun. 2004;72:966-71 pubmed
    b>Ehrlichia species can cause life-threatening infections or chronic persistent infections. Mechanisms of protective immunity were examined in an Ehrlichia muris mouse model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis...
  38. Zhi N, Ohashi N, Rikihisa Y. Multiple p44 genes encoding major outer membrane proteins are expressed in the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17828-36 pubmed
    ..Characterization of p44-homologous genes expressed by the HGE agent in a tissue culture would assist in understanding a role of the p44 multigene family in pathogenesis and immune response in HGE...
  39. Inokuma H, Parola P, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Molecular survey of Ehrlichia infection in ticks from animals in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:335-9 pubmed
    A total of 82 ticks collected from wild animals and dogs in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan were examined for Ehrlichia infection by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers that amplify DNA of most members of the genus Ehrlichia...
  40. Wen B, Jian R, Zhang Y, Chen R. Simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and a new Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis by sequence analyses of 16S ribosomal DNA in Boophilus microplus ticks from Tibet. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3286-90 pubmed
    ..The other sequence was most similar to that of the gene of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an etiological agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis...
  41. Olano J, Wen G, Feng H, McBride J, Walker D. Histologic, serologic, and molecular analysis of persistent ehrlichiosis in a murine model. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:997-1006 pubmed
    Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis was reported in 1987...
  42. Inayoshi M, Naitou H, Kawamori F, Masuzawa T, Ohashi N. Characterization of Ehrlichia species from Ixodes ovatus ticks at the foot of Mt. Fuji, Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:737-45 pubmed
    ..Fuji and two near cities in Shizuoka prefecture, Japan, were examined for Ehrlichia infection by isolation with laboratory mice from whole tick tissues...
  43. Williamson P, Billingsley P, Teltow G, Seals J, Turnbough M, Atkinson S. Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. in ticks removed from persons, Texas, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Cause, treatment, and prevention strategies can be better addressed through collecting sufficient data to establish baseline assessments of risk...
  44. Beall M, Alleman A, Breitschwerdt E, Cohn L, Couto C, Dryden M, et al. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:29 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp...
  45. Chen S, Dumler J, Bakken J, Walker D. Identification of a granulocytotropic Ehrlichia species as the etiologic agent of human disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32:589-95 pubmed
    ..variable regions of the determined sequence, a forward primer specific for three organisms (human granulocytic ehrlichia, E. phagocytophila, and E. equi) and a reverse primer for these ehrlichiae and E. platys were designed...
  46. Zhang Y, Ohashi N, Lee E, Tamura A, Rikihisa Y. Ehrlichia sennetsu groE operon and antigenic properties of the GroEL homolog. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1997;18:39-46 pubmed
    A clone expressing an immunoreactive 55-kilodalton (kDa) protein of Ehrlichia sennetsu, the causative agent of human Sennetsu ehrlichiosis, was isolated from a gene library of this organism...
  47. Allsopp M, Allsopp B. Novel Ehrlichia genotype detected in dogs in South Africa. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:4204-7 pubmed
    ..with no morulae detected on blood smears, frequently failed to give a positive reaction with a North American Ehrlichia canis-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene...
  48. Cocco R, Sanna G, Cillara M, Tola S, Ximenes L, Pinnaparpaglia M, et al. Ehrlichiosis and rickettsiosis in a canine population of Northern Sardinia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:126-30 pubmed
    ..5% for ehrlichiosis and 64% for rickettsiosis, was observed in the age group of 13-60 months. The mortality was greatest in the males in the age group, which manifested the disease in the chronic phase...
  49. Cohen S, Yabsley M, Freye J, Dunlap B, Rowland M, Huang J, et al. Prevalence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in ticks from Tennessee. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Two closely related ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii, are both causative agents of human disease and are transmitted by Amblyomma ..
  50. Little S, O Connor T, Hempstead J, Saucier J, Reichard M, Meinkoth K, et al. Ehrlichia ewingii infection and exposure rates in dogs from the southcentral United States. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:355-60 pubmed publisher
    We used PCR and a novel serologic assay to determine infection and exposure rates to Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs from an area of northeast Oklahoma and northwest Arkansas where Amblyomma americanum ticks are abundant...
  51. Al Adhami B, Scandrett W, Lobanov V, Gajadhar A. Serological cross-reactivity between Anaplasma marginale and an Ehrlichia species in naturally and experimentally infected cattle. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:1181-8 pubmed publisher
    Seroconversion and cross-reactivity in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale or a recently described Ehrlichia species (BOV2010 from British Columbia, Canada) were investigated...
  52. Belongia E, Reed K, Mitchell P, Kolbert C, Persing D, Gill J, et al. Prevalence of granulocytic Ehrlichia infection among white-tailed deer in Wisconsin. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1465-8 pubmed
    ..ehrlichiosis (HGE) is caused by an agent that is nearly indistinguishable from the veterinary pathogens Ehrlichia equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila...
  53. Harrus S, Waner T, Aizenberg I, Foley J, Poland A, Bark H. Amplification of ehrlichial DNA from dogs 34 months after infection with Ehrlichia canis. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:73-6 pubmed
    ..In order to determine whether dogs in the subclinical phase of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) are carriers of Ehrlichia canis and to determine the significance of persistent indirect immunofluorescent anti-E...
  54. Ogden N, Bown K, Horrocks B, Woldehiwet Z, Bennett M. Granulocytic Ehrlichia infection in ixodid ticks and mammals in woodlands and uplands of the U.K. Med Vet Entomol. 1998;12:423-9 pubmed
    The prevalence of infection with Ehrlichiae of the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup (the granulocytic Ehrlichiae), in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks of U.K. upland and woodland habitats, was investigated by PCR...
  55. Waner T, Harrus S, Jongejan F, Bark H, Keysary A, Cornelissen A. Significance of serological testing for ehrlichial diseases in dogs with special emphasis on the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:1-15 pubmed
    ..canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is an important and potentially fatal disease of dogs caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis...
  56. Childs J, Paddock C. The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States. Annu Rev Entomol. 2003;48:307-37 pubmed
    ..With the recent discoveries of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and "Borrelia lonestari," the public health relevance of lone star ..
  57. Comer J, Paddock C, Childs J. Urban zoonoses caused by Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia species. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2001;1:91-118 pubmed
    ..in the occurrence and recognition of urban zoonoses caused by members of the genera Bartonella, Coxiella, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia, all traditionally considered to be members of the family Rickettsiaceae...
  58. Lappin M, Griffin B, Brunt J, Riley A, Burney D, Hawley J, et al. Prevalence of Bartonella species, haemoplasma species, Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Neorickettsia risticii DNA in the blood of cats and their fleas in the United States. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:85-90 pubmed
    ..from the corresponding cat were digested and assessed in polymerase chain reaction assays that amplify DNA of Ehrlichia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Neorickettsia risticii, Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus M haemominutum' ..
  59. Beall M, Chandrashekar R, Eberts M, Cyr K, Diniz P, Mainville C, et al. Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:455-64 pubmed publisher
    ..tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Ehrlichia canis antibodies and for Dirofilaria immitis antigen...
  60. Doudier B, Olano J, Parola P, Brouqui P. Factors contributing to emergence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp. as human pathogens. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Human granulocytic anaplasmosis was described as a separate entity in 1994 and ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia ewingii was reported in humans in 1999...
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    Dogs were experimentally inoculated with Ehrlichia canis Florida to assess the efficacy of doxycycline hyclate for the treatment of acute ehrlichiosis. Treatment with doxycycline eliminated infection in eight of eight dogs...
  62. Chang Y, Novosel V, Dubovi E, Wong S, Chu F, Chang C, et al. Experimental infection of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent in horses. Vet Parasitol. 1998;78:137-45 pubmed
    Human blood collected from two patients from Westchester County, New York with human granulocytic ehrlichia (HGE) infection was inoculated into two ponies...
  63. Pusterla N, Pusterla J, Deplazes P, Wolfensberger C, Muller W, Horauf A, et al. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis and of canine granulocytic Ehrlichia infection in dogs in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:3460-2 pubmed
    Serum samples from 996 dogs in Switzerland were examined for antibodies to Ehrlichia canis and to the agent causing canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis (CGE)...
  64. Pusterla N, Leutenegger C, Chae J, Lutz H, Kimsey R, Dumler J, et al. Quantitative evaluation of ehrlichial burden in horses after experimental transmission of human granulocytic Ehrlichia agent by intravenous inoculation with infected leukocytes and by infected ticks. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:4042-4 pubmed
    ..The data obtained indicated differences in the period of incubation, duration of rickettsemia, and initial and maximal ehrlichial loads between the two routes of infection...
  65. Chae J, Foley J, Dumler J, Madigan J. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA, 444 Ep-ank, and groESL heat shock operon genes in naturally occurring Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates from Northern California. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1364-9 pubmed
    We examined 11 naturally occurring isolates of Ehrlichia equi in horses and two human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent isolates in California for sequence diversity in three genes...
  66. Sotomayor E, Popov V, Feng H, Walker D, Olano J. Animal model of fatal human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:757-69 pubmed
    Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a life-threatening, tick-borne, emerging infectious disease for which no satisfactory animal model has been developed...
  67. Parola P, Cornet J, Sanogo Y, Miller R, Thien H, Gonzalez J, et al. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1600-8 pubmed
    ..strain AnDa465, which was considered a genotype of Anaplasma platys (formerly Ehrlichia platys) and which was obtained from Dermacentor auratus ticks collected from dogs; (ii) Anaplasma sp...
  68. Takano A, Ando S, Kishimoto T, Fujita H, Kadosaka T, Nitta Y, et al. Presence of a novel Ehrlichia sp. in Ixodes granulatus found in Okinawa, Japan. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:101-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Ehrlichia-specific DNA fragments of Ehrlichia omp-1 and groEL genes were found in two I. granulatus ticks which had been collected from wild small mammals in a subtropical zone in Japan...
  69. Munderloh U, Madigan J, Dumler J, Goodman J, Hayes S, Barlough J, et al. Isolation of the equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, Ehrlichia equi, in tick cell culture. J Clin Microbiol. 1996;34:664-70 pubmed
    The equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, Ehrlichia equi, is closely related or identical to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. Both are suspected of being transmitted by ticks. We have successfully isolated E...
  70. Barlough J, Rikihisa Y, Madigan J. Nested polymerase chain reaction for detection of Ehrlichia risticii genomic DNA in infected horses. Vet Parasitol. 1997;68:367-73 pubmed
    A nested polymerase chain reaction was developed for amplifying a 529-bp segment of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of Ehrlichia risticii from equine buffy coat cells...
  71. Massung R, Owens J, Ross D, Reed K, Petrovec M, Bjoersdorff A, et al. Sequence analysis of the ank gene of granulocytic ehrlichiae. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2917-22 pubmed
    ..Also examined was a canine granulocytic ehrlichia sample obtained from Minnesota, Ehrlichia equi from California, Ehrlichia phagocytophila from Sweden, and the ..
  72. Paddock C, Folk S, Shore G, Machado L, Huycke M, Slater L, et al. Infections with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:1586-94 pubmed
    ..clinical course and laboratory evaluation of 21 patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Ehrlichia chaffeensis or Ehrlichia ewingii are reviewed and summarized, including 13 cases of ehrlichiosis caused by E...
  73. Harrus S, Alleman A, Bark H, Mahan S, Waner T. Comparison of three enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays with the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test for the diagnosis of canine infection with Ehrlichia canis. Vet Microbiol. 2002;86:361-8 pubmed
    ..USA)) with the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test in detecting anti-Ehrlichia canis immunoglobulin-G (IgG) antibodies...
  74. Massung R, Mauel M, Owens J, Allan N, Courtney J, Stafford K, et al. Genetic variants of Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Rhode Island and Connecticut. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:467-72 pubmed
    Primers were used to amplify a 561-bp region of the 16S rRNA gene of Ehrlichia phagocytophila from Ixodes scapularis ticks and small mammals collected in Rhode Island and Connecticut. DNA sequences for all 50 E...
  75. Crocquet Valdes P, McBride J, Feng H, Ismail N, Small M, YU X, et al. Analysis of ehrlichial p28 gene expression in a murine model of persistent infection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:420-4 pubmed
    ..We reported initial sequencing of the Ehrlichia muris p28 locus...
  76. Dunning Hotopp J, Lin M, Madupu R, Crabtree J, Angiuoli S, Eisen J, et al. Comparative genomics of emerging human ehrlichiosis agents. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e21 pubmed
    Anaplasma (formerly Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Neorickettsia (formerly Ehrlichia) sennetsu are intracellular vector-borne pathogens that cause human ehrlichiosis, an emerging infectious disease...
  77. Wen B, Rikihisa Y, Mott J, Greene R, Kim H, Zhi N, et al. Comparison of nested PCR with immunofluorescent-antibody assay for detection of Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs treated with doxycycline. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:1852-5 pubmed
    A partial 16S rRNA gene was amplified in Ehrlichia canis-infected cells by nested PCR...
  78. Brown G, Martin A, Roberts T, Aitken R. Detection of Ehrlichia platys in dogs in Australia. Aust Vet J. 2001;79:554-8 pubmed
    To describe the detection of Ehrlichia platys in free-roaming dogs in Central Australia.
  79. Stich R, Rikihisa Y, Ewing S, Needham G, Grover D, Jittapalapong S. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in canine carrier blood and in individual experimentally infected ticks with a p30-based PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:540-6 pubmed
    ..The ability to detect Ehrlichia spp...
  80. Ogden N, Casey A, French N, Bown K, Adams J, Woldehiwet Z. Natural Ehrlichia phagocytophila transmission coefficients from sheep 'carriers' to Ixodes ricinus ticks vary with the numbers of feeding ticks. Parasitology. 2002;124:127-36 pubmed
    ..study in a UK upland site, 38% of adult sheep were detected as infected with the tick-borne bacterium Ehrlichia phagocytophila by PCR of blood samples...
  81. Yabsley M, Varela A, Tate C, Dugan V, Stallknecht D, Little S, et al. Ehrlichia ewingii infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:668-71 pubmed
    Two closely related zoonotic ehrlichiae, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii, are transmitted by Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick. Because white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are critical hosts for all mobile stages of A...
  82. Christova I, Van De Pol J, Yazar S, Velo E, Schouls L. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species, and spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from Southeastern Europe. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:535-42 pubmed
    ..In this study the presence and identity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia species in Bulgarian Ixodes ricinus ticks and in non- Ixodes ticks from Turkey and ..
  83. Ndip L, Ndip R, Ndive V, Awuh J, Walker D, McBride J. Ehrlichia species in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in Cameroon. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:221-7 pubmed
    b>Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species are tick-transmitted obligately intracellular bacteria that commonly cause disease in dogs worldwide...
  84. Pritt B, Sloan L, Johnson D, Munderloh U, Paskewitz S, McElroy K, et al. Emergence of a new pathogenic Ehrlichia species, Wisconsin and Minnesota, 2009. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:422-9 pubmed publisher
    Ehrlichiosis is a clinically important, emerging zoonosis. Only Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii have been thought to cause ehrlichiosis in humans in the United States...
  85. Messick J, Rikihisa Y. Characterization of Ehrlichia risticii binding, internalization, and proliferation in host cells by flow cytometry. Infect Immun. 1993;61:3803-10 pubmed
    The binding, internalization, and proliferation of Ehrlichia risticii in P388D1 cells and equine polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes were studied by immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometric analysis...
  86. Massung R, Slater K, Owens J, Nicholson W, Mather T, Solberg V, et al. Nested PCR assay for detection of granulocytic ehrlichiae. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1090-5 pubmed
    ..A putative variant granulocytic ehrlichia 16S rRNA gene sequence was detected among products amplified from both the ticks and the deer blood specimens.
  87. Walls J, Aguero Rosenfeld M, Bakken J, Goodman J, Hossain D, Johnson R, et al. Inter- and intralaboratory comparison of Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent strains for serodiagnosis of HGE by the immunofluorescent-antibody test. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:2968-73 pubmed
    Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is usually diagnosed by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) serology with Ehrlichia equi-infected neutrophils or HGE agent-infected cultured HL60 cells. The HGE agent and E...
  88. Pusterla N, Leutenegger C, Sigrist B, Chae J, Lutz H, Madigan J. Detection and quantitation of Ehrlichia risticii genomic DNA in infected horses and snails by real-time PCR. Vet Parasitol. 2000;90:129-35 pubmed
    ..PCR using the TaqMan fluorogenic detection system (TaqMan PCR) was established for identification of Ehrlichia risticii, the agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF)...
  89. Thomas S, Thirumalapura N, Crossley E, Ismail N, Walker D. Antigenic protein modifications in Ehrlichia. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:296-303 pubmed publisher
    To develop effective vaccination strategies against Ehrlichia, we have previously reported developing an animal model of cross-protection in which C57BL/6 mice primed with E...
  90. Thomas S, Popov V, Walker D. Exit mechanisms of the intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15775 pubmed publisher
    The obligately intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis that resides in mononuclear phagocytes is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis...
  91. Dutta S, Vemulapalli R, Biswas B. Association of deficiency in antibody response to vaccine and heterogeneity of Ehrlichia risticii strains with Potomac horse fever vaccine failure in horses. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:506-12 pubmed
    b>Ehrlichia risticii is the causative agent of Potomac horse fever (PHF), which continues to be an important disease of horses. Commercial inactivated whole-cell vaccines are regularly used for immunization of horses against the disease...
  92. Manna L, Alberti A, Pavone L, Scibelli A, Staiano N, Gravino A. First molecular characterization of a granulocytic Ehrlichia strain isolated from a dog in South Italy. Vet J. 2004;167:224-7 pubmed