anaplasma marginale

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-negative bacteria and causative agent of severe bovine ANAPLASMOSIS. It is the most pathogenic of the ANAPLASMA species.

Top Publications

  1. Ybañez A, Sivakumar T, Ybañez R, Ratilla J, Perez Z, Gabotero S, et al. First molecular characterization of Anaplasma marginale in cattle and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in Cebu, Philippines. J Vet Med Sci. 2013;75:27-36 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale has been detected in the Philippines only by peripheral blood smear examination and serological methods. This study generally aimed to molecularly detect and characterize A...
  2. Rodríguez Camarillo S, García Ortiz M, Rojas Ramírez E, Cantó Alarcón G, Preciado de la Torre J, Rosario Cruz R, et al. Anaplasma marginale Yucatan (Mexico) Strain. Assessment of low virulence and potential use as a live vaccine. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:98-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma marginale Yucatan strain was found to have low virulence in cattle...
  3. Noh S, Brayton K, Brown W, Norimine J, Munske G, Davitt C, et al. Composition of the surface proteome of Anaplasma marginale and its role in protective immunity induced by outer membrane immunization. Infect Immun. 2008;76:2219-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the surface proteome of Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted bacterial pathogen, was targeted by using surface-specific cross-linking to form ..
  4. Han S, Norimine J, Palmer G, Mwangi W, Lahmers K, Brown W. Rapid deletion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells following infection represents a strategy of immune evasion and persistence for Anaplasma marginale. J Immunol. 2008;181:7759-69 pubmed
    ..We investigated this by using infection with Anaplasma marginale, a ruminant pathogen that replicates to levels of 10(9) bacteria per ml of blood during acute infection and ..
  5. Zivkovic Z, Esteves E, Almazan C, Daffre S, Nijhof A, Kocan K, et al. Differential expression of genes in salivary glands of male Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in response to infection with Anaplasma marginale. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:186 pubmed publisher
    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by the rickettsial tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), is vectored by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus)microplus in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. A...
  6. Ramabu S, Schneider D, Brayton K, Ueti M, Graça T, Futse J, et al. Expression of Anaplasma marginale ankyrin repeat-containing proteins during infection of the mammalian host and tick vector. Infect Immun. 2011;79:2847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anaplasma marginale illustrates this transition: in the mammalian host, the bacterium infects and replicates in mature (..
  7. Araújo F, Melo V, Ramos C, Madruga C, Soares C, Kessler R, et al. Development of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays based on recombinant MSP1a and MSP2 of Anaplasma marginale. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005;100:765-9 pubmed
    ..enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant MSP1a and MSP2 from a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale were developed to detect antibodies against this rickettsia in cattle...
  8. Molad T, Mazuz M, Fleiderovitz L, Fish L, Savitsky I, Krigel Y, et al. Molecular and serological detection of A. centrale- and A. marginale-infected cattle grazing within an endemic area. Vet Microbiol. 2006;113:55-62 pubmed
    ..line blot hybridization (RLB) one-stage nested PCR (nPCR) for Anaplasma centrale and a nested PCR for Anaplasma marginale were used to detect infected cattle grazing within an endemic region in Israel...
  9. de Echaide S, Bono M, Lugaresi C, Aguirre N, Mangold A, Moretta R, et al. Detection of antibodies against Anaplasma marginale in milk using a recombinant MSP5 indirect ELISA. Vet Microbiol. 2005;106:287-92 pubmed
    ..The recombinant 19 kDa major surface protein 5 (rMSP5) of Anaplasma marginale was used as antigen...

More Information

Publications89

  1. Riding G, Hope M, Waltisbuhl D, Willadsen P. Identification of novel protective antigens from Anaplasma marginale. Vaccine. 2003;21:1874-83 pubmed
    A successful recombinant vaccine against Anaplasma marginale remains elusive, despite intensive study of the protective, though variable major surface antigens...
  2. Rodriguez J, Palmer G, Knowles D, Brayton K. Distinctly different msp2 pseudogene repertoires in Anaplasma marginale strains that are capable of superinfection. Gene. 2005;361:127-32 pubmed
    Lifelong persistent infection of cattle is a hallmark of the tick transmitted pathogen Anaplasma marginale. Antigenic variation of Major Surface Protein 2 (MSP2) plays an important role in evasion of the host immune response to allow ..
  3. Garcia Garcia J, De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Johnson T, Halbur T, Onet V, et al. Differential expression of the msp1alpha gene of Anaplasma marginale occurs in bovine erythrocytes and tick cells. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:261-72 pubmed
    Major surface proteins (MSP) 1a and 1b of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) are conserved on A. marginale derived from bovine erythrocytes and tick cells...
  4. Lasmar P, Carvalho A, Facury Filho E, Bastos C, Ribeiro M. Evaluating the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2012;21:112-7 pubmed
    The protective efficacy of an inactivated vaccine from Anaplasma marginale that was cultured in tick cells (IDE8) for use against bovine anaplasmosis was evaluated...
  5. De La Fuente J, Naranjo V, Ruiz Fons F, Höfle U, Fernandez de Mera I, Villanúa D, et al. Potential vertebrate reservoir hosts and invertebrate vectors of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in central Spain. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:390-401 pubmed
    ..The increasing contact between wildlife, domestic animals, and human populations increases the risk of outbreaks of human and bovine anaplasmosis, and the difficulty of implementing surveillance and control measures...
  6. Ashuma -, Sharma A, Singla L, Kaur P, Bal M, Batth B, et al. Prevalence and haemato-biochemical profile of Anaplasma marginale infection in dairy animals of Punjab (India). Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..alterations in infected animals to arrive at the conclusion regarding the pathogenicity induced by Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) in latent and patent infection...
  7. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Manzano Román R, Naranjo V, Hynes W, Sonenshine D. Silencing expression of the defensin, varisin, in male Dermacentor variabilis by RNA interference results in reduced Anaplasma marginale infections. Exp Appl Acarol. 2008;46:17-28 pubmed publisher
    ..research, we studied the role of varisin in the immunity of ticks to the gram-negative cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. Expression of the varisin gene was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi) in which male ticks were injected ..
  8. Ramabu S, Ueti M, Brayton K, Baszler T, Palmer G. Identification of Anaplasma marginale proteins specifically upregulated during colonization of the tick vector. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3047-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We used an unbiased proteomic screen to identify Anaplasma marginale proteins specifically upregulated in the tick compared to the mammalian host...
  9. Ooshiro M, Zakimi S, Matsukawa Y, Yafuso M, Katagiri Y, Inokuma H. Anaplasma marginale infection in a Japanese Black cow 13 years after eradication of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Okinawa, Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:351-5 pubmed publisher
    In October 2007, a 15-year-old Japanese Black cow on Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, was diagnosed with Anaplasma marginale infection based on clinical symptoms, blood examination, smear observation, 16S rRNA and groEL gene sequence ..
  10. Norimine J, Brown W. Intrahaplotype and interhaplotype pairing of bovine leukocyte antigen DQA and DQB molecules generate functional DQ molecules important for priming CD4(+) T-lymphocyte responses. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:750-62 pubmed
    ..and six DQ pairs for antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses against tick-transmitted bovine hemoparasites Anaplasma marginale or Babesia bovis. Interhaplotype pairing of DQ A and B molecules was demonstrated...
  11. Hornok S, Elek V, De La Fuente J, Naranjo V, Farkas R, Majoros G, et al. First serological and molecular evidence on the endemicity of Anaplasma ovis and A. marginale in Hungary. Vet Microbiol. 2007;122:316-22 pubmed
    ..from 9 farms in the region were examined serologically with a competitive ELISA to detect antibodies to Anaplasma marginale, A. centrale and A. ovis. The seropositivity in sheep was 99.4%, and in cattle 80.8%. A. ovis and A...
  12. Molad T, Fleidrovich L, Mazuz M, Fish L, Leibovitz B, Krigel Y, et al. Genetic diversity of major surface protein 1a of Anaplasma marginale in beef cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:54-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Learning how this diversity is generated and identification of distinct A. marginale strains coupled with high sequence variation of MSP1a will aid in understanding Anaplasma transmission and disease development. ..
  13. Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..bovis), anaplasmosis (caused by Anaplasma marginale) and heartwater (caused by Ehrlichia ruminantium)...
  14. Pierle S, Hammac G, Palmer G, Brayton K. Transcriptional pathways associated with the slow growth phenotype of transformed Anaplasma marginale. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:272 pubmed publisher
    ..Transformed Anaplasma marginale, a rickettsial pathogen, exhibits slow growth in vitro and in vivo as compared to the parent wild type ..
  15. Ruybal P, Moretta R, Perez A, Petrigh R, Zimmer P, Alcaraz E, et al. Genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale in Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:176-80 pubmed publisher
    Bovine anaplasmosis caused by Anaplasma marginale is a worldwide major constraint to cattle production. The A...
  16. De La Fuente J, Passos L, Van Den Bussche R, Ribeiro M, Facury Filho E, Kocan K. Genetic diversity and molecular phylogeny of Anaplasma marginale isolates from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2004;121:307-16 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), a tick-borne pathogen of cattle, is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and many isolates of A. marginale may occur in a given geographic area...
  17. Sutten E, Norimine J, Beare P, Heinzen R, Lopez J, Morse K, et al. Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system proteins VirB2, VirB7, VirB11, and VirD4 are immunogenic components of a protective bacterial membrane vaccine. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1314-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunization of cattle with an Anaplasma marginale fraction enriched in outer membranes (OM) can provide complete protection against disease and persistent ..
  18. De La Fuente J, Vicente J, Höfle U, Ruiz Fons F, Fernandez de Mera I, Van Den Bussche R, et al. Anaplasma infection in free-ranging Iberian red deer in the region of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. Vet Microbiol. 2004;100:163-73 pubmed
    ..The type species, Anaplasma marginale, causes bovine anaplasmosis and infects erythrocytes of the vertebrate host and undergoes a complex ..
  19. Ocampo Espinoza V, Vázquez J, Aguilar M, Ortiz M, Alarcón G, Rodríguez S. Anaplasma marginale: lack of cross-protection between strains that share MSP1a variable region and MSP4. Vet Microbiol. 2006;114:34-40 pubmed
    ..Blood derived Anaplasma marginale used for immunizing susceptible cattle has shown promising results for homologous protection and ..
  20. Garcia Garcia J, De La Fuente J, Bell Eunice G, Blouin E, Kocan K. Glycosylation of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and its putative role in adhesion to tick cells. Infect Immun. 2004;72:3022-30 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale, the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle that multiplies in erythrocytes and tick cells. Major surface protein 1a (MSP1a) and MSP1b form the MSP1 complex of A...
  21. Lahmers K, Hedges J, Jutila M, Deng M, Abrahamsen M, Brown W. Comparative gene expression by WC1+ gammadelta and CD4+ alphabeta T lymphocytes, which respond to Anaplasma marginale, demonstrates higher expression of chemokines and other myeloid cell-associated genes by WC1+ gammadelta T cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:939-52 pubmed
    ..which respond to major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of the intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of cattle, Anaplasma marginale. Gene expression profiles of activated T cell clones were compared using a microarray format, and ..
  22. Magona J, Walubengo J, Olaho Mukani W, Jonsson N, Welburn S, Eisler M. Clinical features associated with seroconversion to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva infections in African cattle under natural tick challenge. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..natural tick challenge, with a view to identifying clinical features for prediction of seroconversion to Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria parva infections...
  23. Reinbold J, Coetzee J, Sirigireddy K, Ganta R. Detection of Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum in bovine peripheral blood samples by duplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the duplex real-time qRT-PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for the accurate and precise detection of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum infections in cattle...
  24. Palmer G, Futse J, Knowles D, Brayton K. Insights into mechanisms of bacterial antigenic variation derived from the complete genome sequence of Anaplasma marginale. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:15-25 pubmed
    ..The resulting combinatorial diversity generates the number of variants both predicted and shown to emerge during persistence...
  25. Dark M, Al Khedery B, Barbet A. Multistrain genome analysis identifies candidate vaccine antigens of Anaplasma marginale. Vaccine. 2011;29:4923-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines have been developed and marketed against the causative organism, Anaplasma marginale; however, these have not been widely used because of breakthrough infections caused by heterologous strains ..
  26. Merino O, Almazan C, Canales M, Villar M, Moreno Cid J, Galindo R, et al. Targeting the tick protective antigen subolesin reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection by Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Vaccine. 2011;29:8575-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used the fact that these animals were naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina to evaluate the effect of subolesin vaccination and gene knockdown on tick infection ..
  27. De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Manzano Román R, Naranjo V, Almazan C, Pérez de la Lastra J, et al. Differential expression of the tick protective antigen subolesin in anaplasma marginale- and A. phagocytophilum-infected host cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1149:27-35 pubmed publisher
    ..and to affect tick feeding, reproduction, and development as well as infection of host cells by Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum...
  28. Brayton K, Kappmeyer L, Herndon D, Dark M, Tibbals D, Palmer G, et al. Complete genome sequencing of Anaplasma marginale reveals that the surface is skewed to two superfamilies of outer membrane proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:844-9 pubmed
    The rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is the most prevalent tick-borne livestock pathogen worldwide and is a severe constraint to animal health. A...
  29. G Junior D, Araújo F, Almeida Junior N, Adi S, Cheung L, Fragoso S, et al. Analysis of membrane protein genes in a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:843-9 pubmed
    The sequencing of the complete genome of Anaplasma marginale has enabled the identification of several genes that encode membrane proteins, thereby increasing the chances of identifying candidate immunogens...
  30. Lockwood S, Voth D, Brayton K, Beare P, Brown W, Heinzen R, et al. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27724 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A...
  31. Lopez J, Siems W, Palmer G, Brayton K, McGuire T, Norimine J, et al. Identification of novel antigenic proteins in a complex Anaplasma marginale outer membrane immunogen by mass spectrometry and genomic mapping. Infect Immun. 2005;73:8109-18 pubmed
    Immunization with purified Anaplasma marginale outer membranes induces complete protection against infection that is associated with CD4+ T-lymphocyte-mediated gamma interferon secretion and immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) antibody titers...
  32. Futse J, Brayton K, Knowles D, Palmer G. Structural basis for segmental gene conversion in generation of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein variants. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57:212-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, Anaplasma marginale generates variants by recombination of oligonucleotide segments derived from the pseudogenes into the ..
  33. Dreher U, Hofmann Lehmann R, Meli M, Regula G, Cagienard A, Stark K, et al. Seroprevalence of anaplasmosis among cattle in Switzerland in 1998 and 2003: no evidence of an emerging disease. Vet Microbiol. 2005;107:71-9 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale infection in Europe has been limited to the Mediterranean and eastern countries, to Austria and to very sporadic cases in Switzerland. There are no reports of its occurrence in the countries north of Switzerland...
  34. Felsheim R, Chávez A, Palmer G, Crosby L, Barbet A, Kurtti T, et al. Transformation of Anaplasma marginale. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:167-74 pubmed publisher
    The tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, has a complex life cycle involving ruminants and ixodid ticks. It causes bovine anaplasmosis, a disease with significant economic impact on cattle farming worldwide...
  35. Futse J, Brayton K, Dark M, Knowles D, Palmer G. Superinfection as a driver of genomic diversification in antigenically variant pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2123-7 pubmed publisher
  36. Chávez A, Felsheim R, Kurtti T, Ku P, Brayton K, Munderloh U. Expression patterns of Anaplasma marginale Msp2 variants change in response to growth in cattle, and tick cells versus mammalian cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36012 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, major surface protein 2 (Msp2) of the tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, is thought to be involved in antigenic variation to evade the mammalian host immune response...
  37. Aubry P, Geale D. A review of bovine anaplasmosis. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:1-30 pubmed publisher
    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is an infectious but non-contagious disease...
  38. Nazifi S, Razavi S, Kaviani F, Rakhshandehroo E. Acute phase response in cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale. Vet Microbiol. 2012;155:267-71 pubmed publisher
    ..IFN-? and TNF-?) and acute phase proteins (Hp and SAA) in 20 adult crossbred cattle naturally infected by Anaplasma marginale. The infected animals were divided into 2 subgroups on the basis of parasitemia rate (<20% and >20%)...
  39. Carelli G, Decaro N, LoRusso A, Elia G, Lorusso E, Mari V, et al. Detection and quantification of Anaplasma marginale DNA in blood samples of cattle by real-time PCR. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:107-14 pubmed
    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay was developed for the diagnosis of Anaplasma marginale infection of cattle...
  40. Hofmann Lehmann R, Meli M, Dreher U, Gönczi E, Deplazes P, Braun U, et al. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:3775-80 pubmed
    ..Upon microscopic examination of red blood cells, Anaplasma marginale inclusion bodies were found in 47% of the cows...
  41. Hornok S, Micsutka A, Fernandez de Mera I, Meli M, Gönczi E, Tanczos B, et al. Fatal bovine anaplasmosis in a herd with new genotypes of Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma ovis and concurrent haemoplasmosis. Res Vet Sci. 2012;92:30-5 pubmed publisher
    ..reticulatus males the msp4 gene of Anaplasma marginale was detected. In the same I. ricinus pool Anaplasma ovis was also identified...
  42. Brayton K, Palmer G, Brown W. Genomic and proteomic approaches to vaccine candidate identification for Anaplasma marginale. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2006;5:95-101 pubmed
    Outer membrane protein preparations have been demonstrated to elicit protective immunity for Anaplasma marginale. Attempts to recreate this protective immunity using known surface proteins have been unsuccessful; therefore, novel outer ..
  43. De La Fuente J, Ruybal P, Mtshali M, Naranjo V, Shuqing L, Mangold A, et al. Analysis of world strains of Anaplasma marginale using major surface protein 1a repeat sequences. Vet Microbiol. 2007;119:382-90 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen of cattle that causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis worldwide...
  44. Noh S, Turse J, Brown W, Norimine J, Palmer G. Linkage between Anaplasma marginale outer membrane proteins enhances immunogenicity but is not required for protection from challenge. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Using as a model Anaplasma marginale, a persistent tick-borne bacterial pathogen of cattle, we tested two sets of immunogens to determine ..
  45. Noh S, Ueti M, Palmer G, Munderloh U, Felsheim R, Brayton K. Stability and tick transmission phenotype of gfp-transformed Anaplasma marginale through a complete in vivo infection cycle. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:330-4 pubmed publisher
    We tested the stability and tick transmission phenotype of transformed Anaplasma marginale through a complete in vivo infection cycle. Similar to the wild type, the gfp-transformed A...
  46. Kocan K, Zivkovic Z, Blouin E, Naranjo V, Almazan C, Mitra R, et al. Silencing of genes involved in Anaplasma marginale-tick interactions affects the pathogen developmental cycle in Dermacentor variabilis. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:42 pubmed publisher
    The cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, undergoes a developmental cycle in ticks that begins in gut cells. Transmission to cattle occurs from salivary glands during a second tick feeding. At each site of development two forms of A...
  47. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Coetzee J, Ewing S. The natural history of Anaplasma marginale. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:95-107 pubmed publisher
    The intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), described by Sir Arnold Theiler in 1910, is endemic worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas. Infection of cattle with A...
  48. Agnes J, Brayton K, Lafollett M, Norimine J, Brown W, Palmer G. Identification of Anaplasma marginale outer membrane protein antigens conserved between A. marginale sensu stricto strains and the live A. marginale subsp. centrale vaccine. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1311-8 pubmed publisher
    Live vaccination with Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale (synonym for Anaplasma centrale) induces protection against severe disease upon challenge with A. marginale sensu stricto strains...
  49. Dark M, Herndon D, Kappmeyer L, Gonzales M, Nordeen E, Palmer G, et al. Conservation in the face of diversity: multistrain analysis of an intracellular bacterium. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the complete genome sequence of the Florida strain of Anaplasma marginale, and near complete (>96%) sequences for an additional three strains, for comparative analysis with the ..
  50. De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Manzano Román R, Naranjo V, Almazan C, Pérez de la Lastra J, et al. Functional genomic studies of tick cells in response to infection with the cattle pathogen, Anaplasma marginale. Genomics. 2007;90:712-22 pubmed
    ..these studies, we used a functional genomics approach to characterize tick genes regulated in response to Anaplasma marginale infection...
  51. Zhuang Y, Futse J, Brown W, Brayton K, Palmer G. Maintenance of antibody to pathogen epitopes generated by segmental gene conversion is highly dynamic during long-term persistent infection. Infect Immun. 2007;75:5185-90 pubmed
    ..This question was addressed by tracking the Anaplasma marginale variant population and corresponding segment-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody responses during long-..
  52. Rodriguez Vivas R, Mata Mendez Y, Pérez Gutierrez E, Wagner G. The effect of management factors on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Bos indicus cattle in the Mexican tropics. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004;36:135-43 pubmed
    ..distribution was carried out to determine the effect of management factors on the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Bos indicus cattle in the Mexican tropics. Serum was obtained from 384 cattle aged 1-2 years on 92 farms...
  53. Hornok S, Földvári G, Elek V, Naranjo V, Farkas R, De La Fuente J. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale and rickettsial endosymbionts in blood-sucking flies (Diptera: Tabanidae, Muscidae) and hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..specific msp4 PCR, four individuals of T. bovinus collected near to grazing cattle were positive for Anaplasma marginale. The results of the present study provide the first molecular evidence for the potential mechanical vector ..
  54. Araújo F, Costa C, Ramos C, Farias T, Souza I, Melo E, et al. IgG and IgG2 antibodies from cattle naturally infected with Anaplasma marginale recognize the recombinant vaccine candidate antigens VirB9, VirB10, and elongation factor-Tu. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:186-90 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale is an important vector-borne rickettsia of ruminants in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Immunization with purified outer membranes of this organism induces protection against acute anaplasmosis...
  55. Zivkovic Z, Nijhof A, De La Fuente J, Kocan K, Jongejan F. Experimental transmission of Anaplasma marginale by male Dermacentor reticulatus. BMC Vet Res. 2007;3:32 pubmed
    ..anaplasmosis has been reported in several European countries, but the vector competency of tick species for Anaplasma marginale from these localities has not been determined...
  56. Albarrak S, Brown W, Noh S, Reif K, Scoles G, Turse J, et al. Subdominant antigens in bacterial vaccines: AM779 is subdominant in the Anaplasma marginale outer membrane vaccine but does not associate with protective immunity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e46372 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunization with Anaplasma marginale outer membranes or a cross-linked surface complex induces protection against bacteremia, however the ..
  57. Pierle S, Dark M, Dahmen D, Palmer G, Brayton K. Comparative genomics and transcriptomics of trait-gene association. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:669 pubmed publisher
    ..important tick-borne pathogens, from Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever, to Anaplasma marginale, the most prevalent vector-borne pathogen of cattle...
  58. Kocan K, de la Fuente J, Blouin E, Garcia Garcia J. Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae): recent advances in defining host-pathogen adaptations of a tick-borne rickettsia. Parasitology. 2004;129 Suppl:S285-300 pubmed
    The tick-borne intracellular pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) develops persistent infections in cattle and tick hosts. While erythrocytes appear to be the only site of infection in cattle, A...
  59. Abbott J, Palmer G, Kegerreis K, Hetrick P, Howard C, Hope J, et al. Rapid and long-term disappearance of CD4+ T lymphocyte responses specific for Anaplasma marginale major surface protein-2 (MSP2) in MSP2 vaccinates following challenge with live A. marginale. J Immunol. 2005;174:6702-15 pubmed
    ..This study tested the hypothesis that challenge of cattle with Anaplasma marginale expressing MSP2 variants to which the animals had been immunized, would stimulate variant epitope-specific ..
  60. Munderloh U, Lynch M, Herron M, Palmer A, Kurtti T, Nelson R, et al. Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet Microbiol. 2004;101:53-64 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum are obligate intracellular, tick-borne pathogens that target erythrocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, respectively...
  61. Herndon D, Ueti M, Reif K, Noh S, Brayton K, Agnes J, et al. Identification of multilocus genetic heterogeneity in Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale and its restriction following tick-borne transmission. Infect Immun. 2013;81:1852-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma marginale subsp. centrale was the first vaccine used to protect against a rickettsial disease and is still in widespread use a century later...
  62. Hammac G, Ku P, Galletti M, Noh S, Scoles G, Palmer G, et al. Protective immunity induced by immunization with a live, cultured Anaplasma marginale strain. Vaccine. 2013;31:3617-22 pubmed publisher
    Despite significant economic losses resulting from infection with Anaplasma marginale, a tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogen of cattle, available vaccines provide, at best, only partial protection against clinical disease...
  63. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Blouin E, Garcia Garcia J. Adaptations of the tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, for survival in cattle and ticks. Exp Appl Acarol. 2002;28:9-25 pubmed
    The tick-borne cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) multiplies within membrane-bound inclusions in host cell cytoplasm. Many geographic isolates of A...
  64. Estrada Pena A, Naranjo V, Acevedo Whitehouse K, Mangold A, Kocan K, De La Fuente J. Phylogeographic analysis reveals association of tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, MSP1a sequences with ecological traits affecting tick vector performance. BMC Biol. 2009;7:57 pubmed publisher
    The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, which is endemic worldwide, is the type species of the genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important tick vector of A...
  65. Palmer G, Brayton K. Gene conversion is a convergent strategy for pathogen antigenic variation. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:408-13 pubmed
    Recent studies on three unrelated vector-borne pathogens, Anaplasma marginale, Borrelia hermsii and Trypanosoma brucei, illustrate the central importance of gene conversion as a mechanism for antigenic variation, which results in ..
  66. Esteves E, Bastos C, Zivkovic Z, de la Fuente J, Kocan K, Blouin E, et al. Propagation of a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale with appendage in a tick cell line (BME26) derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161:150-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen of cattle responsible for the disease anaplasmosis. Data suggest that Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus may be the major tick vectors of A...
  67. Fyumagwa R, Simmler P, Meli M, Hoare R, Hofmann Lehmann R, Lutz H. Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in different tick species from Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161:154-7 pubmed publisher
    ..acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring Anaplasma marginale. The real-time PCR was used in the amplification of rickettsia DNA in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified ..
  68. Marana E, Kano F, Vicentini J, Spurio R, Ribeiro M, Coelho A, et al. [Cloning, expression, molecular characterization of the MSP5 protein from PR1 strain of Anaplasma marginale and its application in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent test]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2009;18:5-12 pubmed
    ..enzyme-linked immunosorbent test using the PR1 recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5-PR1-ELISA) of Anaplasma marginale was standardized and validated using sera from anaplasmosis free and endemic regions...
  69. Shkap V, Kocan K, Molad T, Mazuz M, Leibovich B, Krigel Y, et al. Experimental transmission of field Anaplasma marginale and the A. centrale vaccine strain by Hyalomma excavatum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus ticks. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:254-60 pubmed publisher
    The cattle rickettsia Anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only Rhipicephalus simus, a strictly African tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of A. centrale...
  70. Leverich C, Palmer G, Knowles D, Brayton K. Tick-borne transmission of two genetically distinct Anaplasma marginale strains following superinfection of the mammalian reservoir host. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4066-70 pubmed publisher
    ..has recently been shown to occur for two genetically distinct strains of the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale that encode distinctly different surface protein variants...
  71. Kawasaki P, Kano F, Tamekuni K, Garcia J, Marana E, Vidotto O, et al. Immune response of BALB/c mouse immunized with recombinant MSPs proteins of Anaplasma marginale binding to immunostimulant complex (ISCOM). Res Vet Sci. 2007;83:347-54 pubmed
    Anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, results in significant economic losses of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide...
  72. Lopez J, Palmer G, Brayton K, Dark M, Leach S, Brown W. Immunogenicity of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system proteins in a protective outer membrane vaccine. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2333-42 pubmed
    ..Immunization with purified outer membranes induces protection against acute Anaplasma marginale infection and disease, and a proteomic and genomic approach recently identified 21 proteins within the ..
  73. Silva V, Araújo F, Madruga C, Soares C, Kessler R, Almeida M, et al. Comparison between indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Anaplasma marginale antibodies with recombinant major surface protein 5 and initial body antigens. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:511-6 pubmed
    ..on recombinant major surface protein 5 (rMSP5) and initial body (IB) antigens from a Brazilian isolate of Anaplasma marginale were developed to detect antibodies against this rickettsia in cattle...
  74. de Andrade G, Machado R, Vidotto M, Vidotto O. Immunization of bovines using a DNA vaccine (pcDNA3.1/MSP1b) prepared from the Jaboticabal strain of Anaplasma marginale. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1026:257-66 pubmed
    ..In the present study, a total of 11 Anaplasma marginale seronegative calves were assigned into two groups: one immunized (G1, n = 6) and one nonimmunized-control (..
  75. Santos P, Nascimento R, Rodrigues L, Santos F, Faria P, Martins J, et al. Functional epitope core motif of the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a and its incorporation onto bioelectrodes for antibody detection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33045 pubmed publisher
    Anaplasmosis, a persistent intraerythrocytic infection of cattle by Anaplasma marginale, causes severe anemia and a higher rate of abortion, resulting in significant loss to both dairy and beef industries...
  76. Han S, Norimine J, Brayton K, Palmer G, Scoles G, Brown W. Anaplasma marginale infection with persistent high-load bacteremia induces a dysfunctional memory CD4+ T lymphocyte response but sustained high IgG titers. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Anaplasma marginale is a persistent infection of cattle characterized by acute and chronic high-load bacteremia...
  77. Ueti M, Reagan J, Knowles D, Scoles G, Shkap V, Palmer G. Identification of midgut and salivary glands as specific and distinct barriers to efficient tick-borne transmission of Anaplasma marginale. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2959-64 pubmed
    ..Using the highly transmissible St. Maries strain of Anaplasma marginale in Dermacentor andersoni as a positive control and two unrelated nontransmissible strains, we identified ..
  78. Torina A, Agnone A, Blanda V, Alongi A, D Agostino R, Caracappa S, et al. Development and validation of two PCR tests for the detection of and differentiation between Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:283-7 pubmed publisher
    Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma marginale are tick-transmitted bacteria that cause anaplasmosis in domestic and wild animals. Recent results show that some domestic and wild animals and ticks are susceptible to both A. ovis and A...
  79. Carreño A, Alleman A, Barbet A, Palmer G, Noh S, Johnson C. In vivo endothelial cell infection by Anaplasma marginale. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:116-8 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale has recently been shown to infect endothelial cells in vitro, but it remains unknown as to whether endothelial infection also occurs in vivo...
  80. Scoles G, Ueti M, Palmer G. Variation among geographically separated populations of Dermacentor andersoni (Acari: Ixodidae) in midgut susceptibility to Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). J Med Entomol. 2005;42:153-62 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle that is endemic throughout large areas of the United States. Cattle that survive acute infection become life-long persistently infected carriers...