anaplasma

Summary

Summary: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.

Top Publications

  1. Dergousoff S, Chilton N. Novel genotypes of Anaplasma bovis, "Candidatus Midichloria" sp. and Ignatzschineria sp. in the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:100-6 pubmed publisher
    Bovine anaplasmosis, caused by Anaplasma marginale, is a vector-borne disease that is enzootic in many parts of the USA. Although Dermacentor andersoni, a major vector of A...
  2. Bowman D. Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma. Top Companion Anim Med. 2011;26:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii...
  3. Inokuma H, Fujii K, Okuda M, Onishi T, Beaufils J, Raoult D, et al. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of heat shock operon groESL and the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys for phylogenetic and diagnostic studies. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9:1132-6 pubmed
    ..sequence of the heat shock operon groESL and the 1,236-bp sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys were determined...
  4. Baldridge G, Scoles G, Burkhardt N, Schloeder B, Kurtti T, Munderloh U. Transovarial transmission of Francisella-like endosymbionts and Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants in Dermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae). J Med Entomol. 2009;46:625-32 pubmed
    ..albipictus ticks collected from Minnesota white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for bacteria of the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Francisella, and Rickettsia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gene amplification and sequence ..
  5. Lane R, Mun J, Peribáñez M, Fedorova N. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..infected occasionally with the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of B. burgdorferi...
  6. Liu Z, Ma M, Wang Z, Wang J, Peng Y, Li Y, et al. Molecular survey and genetic identification of Anaplasma species in goats from central and southern China. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:464-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogens that impact the health of humans and animals. Few studies have been carried out on Anaplasma infections in central and southern China...
  7. Dumler J, Barbet A, Bekker C, Dasch G, Palmer G, Ray S, et al. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species . Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2001;51:2145-65 pubmed
    The genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Cowdria, Neorickettsia and Wolbachia encompass a group of obligate intracellular bacteria that reside in vacuoles of eukaryotic cells and were previously placed in taxa based upon morphological, ..
  8. Bekker C, de Vos S, Taoufik A, Sparagano O, Jongejan F. Simultaneous detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in ruminants and detection of Ehrlichia ruminantium in Amblyomma variegatum ticks by reverse line blot hybridization. Vet Microbiol. 2002;89:223-38 pubmed
    The detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species is usually based on species-specific PCR assays, since no assay is yet available which can detect and identify these species simultaneously...
  9. Lew A, Bock R, Minchin C, Masaka S. A msp1alpha polymerase chain reaction assay for specific detection and differentiation of Anaplasma marginale isolates. Vet Microbiol. 2002;86:325-35 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale is the causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, a disease which can be protected by vaccination with the less pathogenic Anaplasma species, A. centrale...

More Information

Publications96

  1. Schulze T, Jordan R, Schulze C, Mixson T, Papero M. Relative encounter frequencies and prevalence of selected Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma infections in Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from central New Jersey. J Med Entomol. 2005;42:450-6 pubmed
    ..lonestari. Infection prevalences in 147 I. scapularis adults were 50.3% for B. burgdorferi, 6.1% for Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum, and 1...
  2. Mokhtar A, Lim S, Tay S. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Babesia gibsoni in dogs in Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2013;30:345-8 pubmed
    This study reports for the first time molecular detection of Anaplasma platys infection in 4 (13.3%) of 30 Malaysian dogs investigated. A low occurrence (3.3%) of Babesia gibsoni was also noted, being detected in one of the 30 dogs...
  3. Parola P, Cornet J, Sanogo Y, Miller R, Thien H, Gonzalez J, et al. Detection of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., and other eubacteria in ticks from the Thai-Myanmar border and Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1600-8 pubmed
    ..They were tested by PCR to detect DNA of bacteria of the order RICKETTSIALES: Three Anaplasma spp. were detected in ticks collected in Thailand, including (i) Anaplasma sp...
  4. Cardoso L, Tuna J, Vieira L, Yisaschar Mekuzas Y, Baneth G. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the North of Portugal. Vet J. 2010;183:232-3 pubmed publisher
    Tick-transmitted rickettsial pathogens belonging to the Ehrlichia and Anaplasma genera can infect dogs and humans...
  5. Aktas M, Altay K, Dumanli N. Molecular detection and identification of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species in cattle from Turkey. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2011;2:62-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the presence and distribution of Anaplasma spp. in cattle from 6 provinces in Turkey...
  6. Lew A, Gale K, Minchin C, Shkap V, de Waal D. Phylogenetic analysis of the erythrocytic Anaplasma species based on 16S rDNA and GroEL (HSP60) sequences of A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis and the specific detection of A. centrale vaccine strain. Vet Microbiol. 2003;92:145-60 pubmed
    Phenotypic criteria for the identification of erythrocytic ruminant Anaplasma species has relied on subjective identification methods such as host pathogenicity (virulence for cattle or sheep) and/or the location of Anaplasma inclusion ..
  7. Sirigireddy K, Ganta R. Multiplex detection of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species pathogens in peripheral blood by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Mol Diagn. 2005;7:308-16 pubmed
    ..These include human infections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Ehrlichia ewingii...
  8. Futse J, Ueti M, Knowles D, Palmer G. Transmission of Anaplasma marginale by Boophilus microplus: retention of vector competence in the absence of vector-pathogen interaction. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3829-34 pubmed
    ..distributions, for genetically distinct tropical- and temperate-region strains of the cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale...
  9. Mott J, Rikihisa Y, Tsunawaki S. Effects of Anaplasma phagocytophila on NADPH oxidase components in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1359-66 pubmed
    The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, Anaplasma phagocytophila, resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. A...
  10. de la Fuente J, Van Den Bussche R, Kocan K. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of North American isolates of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiaceae: Ehrlichieae). Vet Parasitol. 2001;97:65-76 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale (A. marginale) is a tick-borne ehrlichial pathogen of cattle that causes the disease anaplasmosis. Six major surface proteins (MSPs) have been identified on A...
  11. Kawahara M, Rikihisa Y, Lin Q, Isogai E, Tahara K, Itagaki A, et al. Novel genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma centrale, and a novel Ehrlichia sp. in wild deer and ticks on two major islands in Japan. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:1102-9 pubmed
    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of several species of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma that cause human ehrlichiosis or anaplasmosis in the United States and Europe...
  12. Jilintai -, Seino N, Hayakawa D, Suzuki M, Hata H, Kondo S, et al. Molecular survey for Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in Hokkaido, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:73-5 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection were examined by species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction in cattle in a pastureland where sika deer appear in Hokkaido, Japan...
  13. Hulinska D, Langrová K, Pejcoch M, Pavlasek I. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in animals by real-time polymerase chain reaction. APMIS. 2004;112:239-47 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild and domesticated animals and to identify the phylogenetic relationships of different strains of this bacterium...
  14. Chomel B, Carniciu M, Kasten R, Castelli P, Work T, Jessup D. Antibody prevalence of eight ruminant infectious diseases in California mule and black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus). J Wildl Dis. 1994;30:51-9 pubmed
    ..Overall antibody prevalence was 56% for Anaplasma marginale, 31% for Borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic ..
  15. Sashika M, Abe G, Matsumoto K, Inokuma H. Molecular survey of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infections of feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:349-54 pubmed publisher
    Infection by Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Hokkaido, Japan, was examined by molecular methods. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screen for Anaplasmataceae, based on 16S rRNA, showed that 38 (5...
  16. Okuthe O, Buyu G. Prevalence and incidence of tick-borne diseases in smallholder farming systems in the western-Kenya highlands. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:307-12 pubmed
    ..05). The difference in disease frequencies in two areas in close proximity shows the importance of monitoring disease events in order to understand and advice farmers in different production and farming systems appropriately...
  17. de Caprariis D, Dantas Torres F, Capelli G, Mencke N, Stanneck D, Breitschwerdt E, et al. Evolution of clinical, haematological and biochemical findings in young dogs naturally infected by vector-borne pathogens. Vet Microbiol. 2011;149:206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 10 4-month-old beagles were enrolled in each group and used as sentinel dogs. At baseline, Anaplasma platys was the most frequently detected pathogen, followed by Babesia vogeli, Bartonella spp...
  18. Blouin E, Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Saliki J. Effect of tetracycline on development of Anaplasma marginale in cultured Ixodes scapularis cells. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:115-26 pubmed
    Infections of the tick-borne ehrlichial pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, in cattle have been controlled, in part, by administration of low doses of tetracycline. Recently, a cell culture system was developed for A...
  19. Eddlestone S, Gaunt S, Neer T, Boudreaux C, Gill A, Haschke E, et al. PCR detection of Anaplasma platys in blood and tissue of dogs during acute phase of experimental infection. Exp Parasitol. 2007;115:205-10 pubmed
    Four dogs were experimentally infected with Anaplasma platys to determine changes in real-time TaqMan PCR detection in blood and tissue, microscopically detectable parasitemia, and platelet concentrations during the first 28 days of ..
  20. Shpynov S, Fournier P, Rudakov N, Tarasevich I, Raoult D. Detection of members of the genera Rickettsia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia in ticks collected in the Asiatic part of Russia. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:378-83 pubmed
    ..heilongjiangensis, R. helvetica, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum...
  21. Dumler J. Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1063:361-73 pubmed
    ..the first recognition and implementation of diagnostic methods for human infection by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the incidence of infections has linearly increased...
  22. Palmer G, Abbott J, French D, McElwain T. Persistence of Anaplasma ovis infection and conservation of the msp-2 and msp-3 multigene families within the genus Anaplasma. Infect Immun. 1998;66:6035-9 pubmed
    Goats which have recovered from acute Anaplasma ovis infection remain seropositive, although infected erythrocytes cannot be detected by microscopic examination. Persistence of A...
  23. De La Fuente J, Torina A, Naranjo V, Nicosia S, Alongi A, La Mantia F, et al. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma platys strains from dogs in Sicily, Italy. BMC Vet Res. 2006;2:24 pubmed
    The genetic diversity of Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) strains is currently poorly defined. The present study was designed to characterize A...
  24. Brown W, Zhu D, Shkap V, McGuire T, Blouin E, Kocan K, et al. The repertoire of Anaplasma marginale antigens recognized by CD4(+) T-lymphocyte clones from protectively immunized cattle is diverse and includes major surface protein 2 (MSP-2) and MSP-3. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5414-22 pubmed
    Major surface proteins of Anaplasma marginale are vaccine candidates. We recently demonstrated that immunization of calves with outer membranes of the Florida strain of A...
  25. Liu Z, Luo J, Bai Q, Ma M, Guan G, Guan G, et al. Amplification of 16S rRNA genes of Anaplasma species in China for phylogenetic analysis. Vet Microbiol. 2005;107:145-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, a phylogenetic tree was inferred through comparing five 16S rRNA gene sequences of four isolates of Anaplasma ovis and one of Anaplasma marginale in China with all nineteen 16S rRNA gene sequences deposited in GenBank (12 ..
  26. LOHR C, Rurangirwa F, McElwain T, Stiller D, Palmer G. Specific expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 salivary gland variants occurs in the midgut and is an early event during tick transmission. Infect Immun. 2002;70:114-20 pubmed
    Infectivity of Anaplasma spp. develops when infected ticks feed on a mammalian host (transmission feed)...
  27. Masuzawa T, Uchishima Y, Fukui T, Okamoto Y, Muto M, Koizumi N, et al. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Wild Boars and Deer in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:333-6 pubmed
    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and geographic distribution of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, in wild deer and boars in Japan...
  28. Derdakova M, Stefancikova A, Spitalska E, Taragelova V, Košťálová T, Hrkľová G, et al. Emergence and genetic variability of Anaplasma species in small ruminants and ticks from Central Europe. Vet Microbiol. 2011;153:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..are common tick-borne zoonotic bacterial diseases of livestock and free-living ungulates from the genus Anaplasma that are recently emerging in Central Europe...
  29. Hildebrandt A, Schmidt K, Wilske B, Dorn W, Straube E, Fingerle V. Prevalence of four species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and coinfection with Anaplasma phagocytophila in Ixodes ricinus ticks in central Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:364-7 pubmed
    ..of Thuringia in central Germany were investigated for infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species and Anaplasma phagocytophila. Overall, 11.1% were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi and 2.3% with Anaplasma phagocytophila...
  30. Visser E, McGuire T, Palmer G, Davis W, Shkap V, Pipano E, et al. The Anaplasma marginale msp5 gene encodes a 19-kilodalton protein conserved in all recognized Anaplasma species. Infect Immun. 1992;60:5139-44 pubmed
    Immunization with Anaplasma marginale outer membranes induced immunity against clinical disease which correlated with antibody titer to outer membrane proteins, including a 19-kDa protein (N. Tebele, T. C. McGuire, and G. H...
  31. Alberti A, Zobba R, Chessa B, Addis M, Sparagano O, Pinna Parpaglia M, et al. Equine and canine Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains isolated on the island of Sardinia (Italy) are phylogenetically related to pathogenic strains from the United States. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6418-22 pubmed
    The presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, a tick-transmitted zoonotic pathogen, was investigated in Sardinia using a molecular approach...
  32. Kelly P, Lucas H. Failure to demonstrate Babesia, Anaplasma or Ehrlichia in thrombocytopenic dogs from St Kitts. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:561-3 pubmed
    Thrombocytopenia is common in dogs on St Kitts but there is no data on the possible etiological role played by infections with Anaplasma, Babesia and Ehrlichia, other than E. canis, which are known to occur in the Caribbean.
  33. Kocan K, De La Fuente J, Blouin E. Advances toward understanding the molecular biology of the Anaplasma-tick interface. Front Biosci. 2008;13:7032-45 pubmed
    The genus Anaplasma includes a diverse group of tick-borne pathogens found exclusively within membrane-bound vacuoles in host cells. While A. marginale, A. centrale and A...
  34. Harrus S, Perlman Avrahami A, Mumcuoglu K, Morick D, Eyal O, Baneth G. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma bovis, Anaplasma platys, Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii and Babesia canis vogeli in ticks from Israel. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:459-63 pubmed publisher
    ..ticks were collected. Screening by molecular techniques revealed the presence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, Anaplasma bovis and Babesia canis vogeli DNA in R. turanicus ticks. E. canis, A. bovis, B...
  35. De La Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Barbet A, Blouin E, Kocan K. Adhesion of outer membrane proteins containing tandem repeats of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) to tick cells. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:313-22 pubmed
    ..Major surface protein (MSP) 1a of Anaplasma marginale, the type species for the genus Anaplasma, was shown previously to be an adhesin for tick cells. The A...
  36. Sparagano O, de Vos A, Paoletti B, Cammà C, de Santis P, Otranto D, et al. Molecular detection of Anaplasma platys in dogs using polymerase chain reaction and reverse line blot hybridization. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:527-34 pubmed
    ..Several polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and a reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) method were used to identify Anaplasma platys in dogs held in a kennel in Italy. Whereas PCR techniques confirmed the presence of A...
  37. Munderloh U, Tate C, Lynch M, Howerth E, Kurtti T, Davidson W. Isolation of an Anaplasma sp. organism from white-tailed deer by tick cell culture. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4328-35 pubmed
    ..Buffy coat cells were added to ISE6 tick cell cultures and incubated at 34 degrees C, and 8 days later, Anaplasma-like inclusions were demonstrated in Giemsa-stained culture samples...
  38. Massung R, Lee K, Mauel M, Gusa A. Characterization of the rRNA genes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila. DNA Cell Biol. 2002;21:587-96 pubmed publisher
    The rRNA genes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila have been analyzed. The 16S rRNA genes were previously characterized for both of these agents...
  39. Unver A, Rikihisa Y, Kawahara M, Yamamoto S. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys, and Wolbachia species from canine blood in Japan. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:692-8 pubmed
    ..sequencing the 16S rRNA genes, each dog was found to be infected either with Ehrlichia canis (Kagoshima 1), Anaplasma platys (Okinawa 1), or Wolbachia sp. (Okinawa 2). Phylogenic analysis was performed on these sequences...
  40. Aguero Rosenfeld M, Donnarumma L, Zentmaier L, Jacob J, Frey M, Noto R, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies that react with Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, in different populations in Westchester County, New York. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2612-5 pubmed
    We determined the frequencies of antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE), in different groups of adults and children from Westchester County, New York...
  41. De La Fuente J, Van Den Bussche R, Prado T, Kocan K. Anaplasma marginale msp1alpha genotypes evolved under positive selection pressure but are not markers for geographic isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1609-16 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale (order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae), a tick-borne pathogen of cattle, is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Many geographic isolates of A...
  42. Brown W, Brayton K, Styer C, Palmer G. The hypervariable region of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 (MSP2) contains multiple immunodominant CD4+ T lymphocyte epitopes that elicit variant-specific proliferative and IFN-gamma responses in MSP2 vaccinates. J Immunol. 2003;170:3790-8 pubmed
    Major surface protein 2 (MSP2) is an immunodominant outer membrane protein of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum pathogens that cause bovine anaplasmosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively...
  43. Lin Q, Zhi N, Ohashi N, Horowitz H, Aguero Rosenfeld M, Raffalli J, et al. Analysis of sequences and loci of p44 homologs expressed by Anaplasma phagocytophila in acutely infected patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2981-8 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma phagocytophila is an obligatory intragranulocytic bacterium that causes human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Immunodominant 44-kDa outer membrane proteins of A. phagocytophila are encoded by a p44 multigene family...
  44. Bradway D, Torioni de Echaide S, Knowles D, Hennager S, McElwain T. Sensitivity and specificity of the complement fixation test for detection of cattle persistently infected with Anaplasma marginale. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:79-81 pubmed
    The complement fixation (CF) test commonly is used to identify cattle infected with Anaplasma marginale prior to interstate or international movement...
  45. Aguirre E, Tesouro M, Ruiz L, Amusategui I, Sainz A. Genetic characterization of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys in dogs in Spain. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2006;53:197-200 pubmed
    This paper reports the first genetic characterization of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys in Spain from a naturally infected dog. The dog presented clinical signs compatible with canine ehrlichiosis...
  46. De La Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, Kocan K. Characterization of the functional domain of major surface protein 1a involved in adhesion of the rickettsia Anaplasma marginale to host cells. Vet Microbiol. 2003;91:265-83 pubmed
    The major surface protein (MSP) 1a of the genus type species Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) has been shown to mediate adhesion, infection and transmission of the organism, as well as to contribute to protective ..
  47. Stuen S, Van de Pol I, Bergstrom K, Schouls L. Identification of Anaplasma phagocytophila (formerly Ehrlichia phagocytophila) variants in blood from sheep in Norway. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3192-7 pubmed
    A total of 41 blood samples were collected from 40 Anaplasma phagocytophila-infected sheep in 11 sheep flocks from four different counties of southern Norway...
  48. Lee M, Yu D, Yoon J, Li Y, Lee J, Park J. Natural co-infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma bovis in a deer in South Korea. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:101-3 pubmed
    ..White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are important hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma-like organisms...
  49. Martin A, Brown G, Dunstan R, Roberts T. Anaplasma platys: an improved PCR for its detection in dogs. Exp Parasitol. 2005;109:176-80 pubmed
    This study compares two PCR assays for the detection of Anaplasma platys in dog blood using primers based on the A. platys 16S rRNA gene...
  50. Aktas M, Altay K, Dumanli N, Kalkan A. Molecular detection and identification of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species in ixodid ticks. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:1243-8 pubmed publisher
    ..followed by partial sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed for the presence of Ehrlichia and/or Anaplasma. A total of 242 ixodid ticks were collected from domestic ruminants and their shelters, as well as humans, and ..
  51. Ybañez A, Matsumoto K, Kishimoto T, Inokuma H. Molecular analyses of a potentially novel Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:232-6 pubmed publisher
    An Anaplasma species closely related to Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in sika deer in Hokkaido, Japan was molecularly analyzed using 16S rRNA, citrate synthase (gltA), and heat-shock operon (groEL) gene sequences...
  52. Cohn L. Ehrlichiosis and related infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2003;33:863-84 pubmed
    ..reclassification has resulted in the transfer of several species previously known as Ehrlichia to the genus Anaplasma or Neorickettsia...
  53. Cringoli G, Otranto D, Testini G, Buono V, Di Giulio G, Traversa D, et al. Epidemiology of bovine tick-borne diseases in southern Italy. Vet Res. 2002;33:421-8 pubmed
    ..Serum samples were tested for antibodies of Bahesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale with an ELISA technique. Eight farms (9.8%) out of the 81 examined were positive for B...
  54. De La Fuente J, Van Den Bussche R, Garcia Garcia J, Rodríguez S, Garcia M, Guglielmone A, et al. Phylogeography of New World isolates of Anaplasma marginale based on major surface protein sequences. Vet Microbiol. 2002;88:275-85 pubmed
    Gene and protein sequences of major surface proteins (MSP) 1a and 4 of Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) were used to infer phylogenetic relationships between New World isolates from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the ..
  55. Inokuma H, Beppu T, Okuda M, Shimada Y, Sakata Y. Epidemiological survey of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis using ticks collected from dogs in Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2003;115:343-8 pubmed
    Detection of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis in ticks recovered from dogs in Japan was attempted using a species-specific nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene...
  56. Pinyoowong D, Jittapalapong S, Suksawat F, Stich R, Thamchaipenet A. Molecular characterization of Thai Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys strains detected in dogs. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:433-8 pubmed
    ..of this study was to characterize and establish molecular structure and phylogeny of Thai Ehrlichia and Anaplasma strains...
  57. De La Fuente J, Kocan K, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, Claypool P, Saliki J. Vaccination of cattle with Anaplasma marginale derived from tick cell culture and bovine erythrocytes followed by challenge-exposure with infected ticks. Vet Microbiol. 2002;89:239-251 pubmed
    Anaplasmosis, a hemolytic disease of cattle caused by the tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) has been controlled using killed vaccines made with antigen harvested from infected bovine erythrocytes...
  58. Barbet A, Blentlinger R, Yi J, Lundgren A, Blouin E, Kocan K. Comparison of surface proteins of Anaplasma marginale grown in tick cell culture, tick salivary glands, and cattle. Infect Immun. 1999;67:102-7 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale, a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle, infects bovine erythrocytes, resulting in mild to severe hemolytic disease that causes economic losses in domestic livestock worldwide. Recently, the Virginia isolate of A...
  59. Dyachenko V, Pantchev N, Balzer H, Meyersen A, Straubinger R. First case of Anaplasma platys infection in a dog from Croatia. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:49 pubmed publisher
    It is known that Anaplasma (A.) platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is endemic in countries of the Mediterranean basin. However, few reports are available from the Balkans...
  60. Brown W, McGuire T, Mwangi W, Kegerreis K, Macmillan H, Lewin H, et al. Major histocompatibility complex class II DR-restricted memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes recognize conserved immunodominant epitopes of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5521-32 pubmed
    Native major surface protein 1 (MSP1) of Anaplasma marginale, composed of covalently associated MSP1a and MSP1b proteins, stimulates protective immunity in cattle against homologous and heterologous strain challenge...
  61. de la Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, McEwen B, Clawson D, Kocan K. Major surface protein 1a effects tick infection and transmission of Anaplasma marginale. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:1705-14 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale, an ehrlichial pathogen of cattle and wild ruminants, is transmitted biologically by ticks. A developmental cycle of A...
  62. de la Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Blouin E, Rodriguez S, Garcia M, Kocan K. Evolution and function of tandem repeats in the major surface protein 1a of the ehrlichial pathogen Anaplasma marginale. Anim Health Res Rev. 2001;2:163-73 pubmed
    The major surface protein (MSP) 1a of the ehrlichial cattle pathogen Anaplasma marginale, encoded by the single-copy gene msp1alpha, has been shown to have a neutralization-sensitive epitope and to be an adhesin for bovine erythrocytes ..
  63. Inokuma H, Fujii K, Matsumoto K, Okuda M, Nakagome K, Kosugi R, et al. Demonstration of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys inclusions in peripheral blood platelets of a dog in Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2002;110:145-52 pubmed
    A free-roaming dog in Okinawa island showed Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) platys-like inclusions within the platelets of peripheral blood samples. The inclusions were positive in indirect fluorescence test with anti-A. phagocytophila serum...
  64. Meeus P, Brayton K, Palmer G, Barbet A. Conservation of a gene conversion mechanism in two distantly related paralogues of Anaplasma marginale. Mol Microbiol. 2003;47:633-43 pubmed
    ..b>Anaplasma marginale establishes persistent infection characterized by sequential cycles of rickettsaemia in which new ..
  65. Rar V, Livanova N, Panov V, Doroschenko E, Pukhovskaya N, Vysochina N, et al. Genetic diversity of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia in the Asian part of Russia. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2010;1:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..silvarum ticks--exclusively adults--from the Far East were examined for the presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Both Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia muris were found in I...
  66. Barbet A, Lundgren A, Yi J, Rurangirwa F, Palmer G. Antigenic variation of Anaplasma marginale by expression of MSP2 mosaics. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6133-8 pubmed
    b>Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen, one of several closely related ehrlichial organisms that cause disease in animals and humans...
  67. Figueroa J, Chieves L, Johnson G, Buening G. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction based assay for the detection of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Anaplasma marginale DNA in bovine blood. Vet Parasitol. 1993;50:69-81 pubmed
    ..Bovine blood containing equal parasitemias of Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale infected erythrocytes was mixed to standardize the test...
  68. Rurangirwa F, Brayton K, McGuire T, Knowles D, Palmer G. Conservation of the unique rickettsial rRNA gene arrangement in Anaplasma. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2002;52:1405-9 pubmed
    The organization of the rRNA genes of Anaplasma marginale, the type species of the genus Anaplasma, was identified to determine if the atypical rRNA gene arrangement identified in rickettsiae preceded divergence of the order ..
  69. Allred D, McGuire T, Palmer G, Leib S, Harkins T, McElwain T, et al. Molecular basis for surface antigen size polymorphisms and conservation of a neutralization-sensitive epitope in Anaplasma marginale. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:3220-4 pubmed
    ..Cattle can be protected from anaplasmosis by immunization with major surface protein 1, a surface protein of Anaplasma marginale carrying a neutralization-sensitive epitope...
  70. Estrada Pena A, Acevedo P, Ruiz Fons F, Gortazar C, De La Fuente J. Evidence of the importance of host habitat use in predicting the dilution effect of wild boar for deer exposure to Anaplasma spp. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2999 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to explain changes in the exposure rate (ER) of red deer to Anaplasma spp...
  71. Sun J, Liu Q, Lu L, Ding G, Guo J, Fu G, et al. Coinfection with four genera of bacteria (Borrelia, Bartonella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia) in Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes sinensis ticks from China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:791-5 pubmed publisher
    We studied coinfection with four genera of bacteria--Borrelia, Bartonella, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia--in ticks collected between December 2005 and November 2006 from Zhejiang Province and Liaoning Province...
  72. Chae J, Kim C, Kim E, Hur E, Klein T, Kang T, et al. Molecular epidemiological study for tick-borne disease (Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp.) surveillance at selected U.S. military training sites/installations in Korea. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:118-25 pubmed
    Vector-borne diseases are a potential public health threat to U.S. Forces Korea (USFK). Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., transmitted by ticks, are only two of several diseases that may affect military readiness and operations...
  73. Santos F, Coppede J, Pereira A, Oliveira L, Roberto P, Benedetti R, et al. Molecular evaluation of the incidence of Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in dogs from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Vet J. 2009;179:145-8 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR were used to study the presence of E. canis, Anaplasma platys and Babesia spp. in thrombocytopenic and non-thrombocytopenic dogs from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil...
  74. LOHR C, Brayton K, Shkap V, Molad T, Barbet A, Brown W, et al. Expression of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 2 operon-associated proteins during mammalian and arthropod infection. Infect Immun. 2002;70:6005-12 pubmed
    The antigenically variant major surface protein 2 (MSP2) of Anaplasma marginale is expressed from a 3.5-kb operon that contains, in a 5'-to-3' direction, four open reading frames, opag3, opag2, opag1, and msp2...
  75. Arraga Alvarado C, Palmar M, Parra O, Salas P. Ehrlichia platys (Anaplasma platys) in dogs from Maracaibo, Venezuela: an ultrastructural study of experimental and natural infections. Vet Pathol. 2003;40:149-56 pubmed
    Since 1982 Ehrlichia platys, now emended as Anaplasma platys, has been diagnosed in dogs from Maracaibo, Venezuela, using buffy coat smears stained with Dip Quick. Three dogs were inoculated with an A. platys strain...
  76. Goethert H, Telford S. Enzootic transmission of Anaplasma bovis in Nantucket cottontail rabbits. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3744-7 pubmed
    ..have suggested exposure to at least two ehrlichiae. The agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) is intensely enzootic in rabbits there, but the identity of the other ehrlichial infection ..
  77. Maggi R, Mascarelli P, Havenga L, Naidoo V, Breitschwerdt E. Co-infection with Anaplasma platys, Bartonella henselae and Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum in a veterinarian. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior diagnostic testing resulted in findings that were inconclusive or within normal reference ranges and no etiological diagnosis had been obtained to explain the patient's symptoms...
  78. Blouin E, De La Fuente J, Garcia Garcia J, Sauer J, Saliki J, Kocan K. Applications of a cell culture system for studying the interaction of Anaplasma marginale with tick cells. Anim Health Res Rev. 2002;3:57-68 pubmed
    A cell culture system for the tick-borne rickettsia Anaplasma marginale offers new opportunities for research on this economically important pathogen of cattle. A. marginale multiplies in membrane-bound inclusions in host cells...
  79. Palmer G, Rurangirwa F, McElwain T. Strain composition of the ehrlichia Anaplasma marginale within persistently infected cattle, a mammalian reservoir for tick transmission. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:631-5 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we examined the strain structure of Anaplasma marginale, a genogroup II ehrlichial pathogen, in both an acute outbreak and in persistently infected cattle ..
  80. Bowie M, De La Fuente J, Kocan K, Blouin E, Barbet A. Conservation of major surface protein 1 genes of Anaplasma marginale during cyclic transmission between ticks and cattle. Gene. 2002;282:95-102 pubmed
    Bovine anaplasmosis is a rickettsial disease of world-wide economic importance caused by Anaplasma marginale...
  81. Otranto D, Testini G, Dantas Torres F, Latrofa M, Diniz P, de Caprariis D, et al. Diagnosis of canine vector-borne diseases in young dogs: a longitudinal study. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3316-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, PCR detected the highest number of dogs infected with Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, and Ehrlichia canis, whereas seroconversion was a more sensitive indicator of exposure ..
  82. Awad H, Antunes S, Galindo R, Do Rosario V, De La Fuente J, Domingos A, et al. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Babesia and Anaplasma species in cattle in Sudan. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:146-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Sudan were collected from apparently healthy cattle (n=692), DNA was extracted and the prevalence of Babesia and Anaplasma species was analyzed by PCR...
  83. De La Fuente J, Torina A, Caracappa S, Tumino G, Furlá R, Almazan C, et al. Serologic and molecular characterization of Anaplasma species infection in farm animals and ticks from Sicily. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:357-62 pubmed
    Although Anaplasma marginale was known to be endemic in Italy, the diversity of Anaplasma spp. from this area have not been characterized. In this study, the prevalence of Anaplasma spp...
  84. Kang J, Ko S, Kim Y, Yang H, Lee H, Shin N, et al. New genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma bovis from Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus). Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:929-38 pubmed publisher
    Wild deer are one of the important natural reservoir hosts of Anaplasma species, which cause granulocytic anaplasmosis in equines, canines, and humans...
  85. Taillardat Bisch A, Raoult D, Drancourt M. RNA polymerase beta-subunit-based phylogeny of Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Neorickettsia spp. and Wolbachia pipientis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:455-8 pubmed publisher
    ..was used in a phylogenetic investigation of nine species from the genera Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Wolbachia and Anaplasma. The complete nucleotide sequences obtained for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (HGE agent), Ehrlichia chaffeensis, ..
  86. Mtshali M, De Waal D, Mbati P. A sero-epidemiological survey of blood parasites in cattle in the north-eastern Free State, South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2004;71:67-75 pubmed
    ..were sero-positive for Babesia bigemina by indirect fluorescent antibody test while 87% were sero-positive for Anaplasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
  87. Ooshiro M, Zakimi S, Matsukawa Y, Katagiri Y, Inokuma H. Detection of Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum from cattle on Yonaguni Island, Okinawa, Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:360-4 pubmed publisher
    DNA fragments of Anaplasma bovis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were detected in cattle on Yonaguni Island, Okinawa, Japan...