rhodococcus equi

Summary

Summary: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Lopez A, Hines M, Palmer G, Knowles D, Alperin D, Hines S. Analysis of anamnestic immune responses in adult horses and priming in neonates induced by a DNA vaccine expressing the vapA gene of Rhodococcus equi. Vaccine. 2003;21:3815-25 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi remains one of the most important pathogens of early life in horses, yet conventional vaccines to prevent rhodococcal pneumonia have not been successful...
  2. Cauchard J, Sevin C, Ballet J, Taouji S. Foal IgG and opsonizing anti-Rhodococcus equi antibodies after immunization of pregnant mares with a protective VapA candidate vaccine. Vet Microbiol. 2004;104:73-81 pubmed
    ..Results support further evaluation of VapA protein antigen associated with a water-based nanoparticle adjuvant as a candidate vaccine for immunization of pregnant mares resulting in passive antibody-mediated protection of foals. ..
  3. Kamboj M, Kalra A, Kak V. Rhodococcus equi brain abscess in a patient without HIV. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:423-5 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi, a Gram positive organism, is a cause of infections in immunocompromised individuals...
  4. Cohen N, Carter C, Scott H, Chaffin M, Smith J, Grimm M, et al. Association of soil concentrations of Rhodococcus equi and incidence of pneumonia attributable to Rhodococcus equi in foals on farms in central Kentucky. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:385-95 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether soil concentrations of total or virulent Rhodococcus equi differed among breeding farms with and without foals with pneumonia caused by R equi. 37 farms in central Kentucky...
  5. Muscatello G, Gilkerson J, Browning G. Detection of virulent Rhodococcus equi in exhaled air samples from naturally infected foals. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:734-7 pubmed publisher
    Virulent Rhodococcus equi causes pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia in foals. The route of infection of foals has been considered to be inhalation of aerosolized bacteria from soil that is contaminated with equine feces...
  6. Jacks S, Giguere S. Effects of inoculum size on cell-mediated and humoral immune responses of foals experimentally infected with Rhodococcus equi: a pilot study. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;133:282-6 pubmed publisher
    ..profile as well as cell-mediated and antibody responses of foals infected with a low inoculum of virulent Rhodococcus equi resulting in subclinical pneumonia to that of foals infected with a high inoculum resulting in severe ..
  7. Hooper McGrevy K, Giguere S, Wilkie B, Prescott J. Evaluation of equine immunoglobulin specific for Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated proteins A and C for use in protecting foals against Rhodococcus equi-induced pneumonia. Am J Vet Res. 2001;62:1307-13 pubmed
    To determine whether purified equine immunoglobulin specific for Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated proteins A and C (VapA and VapC) can confer passive protection against R. equi-induced pneumonia in foals.
  8. Takai S, Kobayashi C, Murakami K, Sasaki Y, Tsubaki S. Live virulent Rhodococcus equi, rather than killed or avirulent, elicits protective immunity to R. equi infection in mice. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1999;24:1-9 pubmed
    Mice inoculated intravenously with a sublethal dose of live virulent Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701 that contained an 85-kb virulence plasmid were immune to a lethal intravenous challenge of ATCC 33701...
  9. Chaffin M, Cohen N, Martens R, Edwards R, Nevill M, Smith R. Hematologic and immunophenotypic factors associated with development of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia of foals at equine breeding farms with endemic infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;100:33-48 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi causes severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and in immunocompromised people. In mice, both CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes contribute to host defense against R...

More Information

Publications153 found, 100 shown here

  1. Mizuno Y, Sato F, Sakamoto M, Yoshikawa K, Yoshida M, Shiba K, et al. VapB-positive Rhodococcus equi infection in an HIV-infected patient in Japan. J Infect Chemother. 2005;11:37-40 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi, a bacterium present in soil, is a common cause of pneumonia in foals...
  2. Mealey R, Stone D, Hines M, Alperin D, Littke M, Leib S, et al. Experimental Rhodococcus equi and equine infectious anemia virus DNA vaccination in adult and neonatal horses: effect of IL-12, dose, and route. Vaccine. 2007;25:7582-97 pubmed
    ..Additional work is needed to optimize DNA vaccine-induced Th1 responses in horses, especially in neonates. ..
  3. Taouji S, Breard E, Peyret Lacombe A, Pronost S, Fortier G, Collobert Laugier C. Serum and mucosal antibodies of infected foals recognized two distinct epitopes of VapA of Rhodococcus equi. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2002;34:299-306 pubmed
    Virulence-associated protein A (VapA) of Rhodococcus equi has been proposed for use both as a vaccine and as a target for antibodies in immunotherapy and diagnostic tests...
  4. Halbert N, Cohen N, Slovis N, Faircloth J, Martens R. Variations in equid SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) genes and associations with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in horses. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:974-9 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is an important intracellular pathogen of horses, most commonly causing chronic, suppurative bronchopneumonia in foals. Although most foals likely are exposed to environmental R...
  5. Vanniasinkam T, Barton M, Heuzenroeder M. B-Cell epitope mapping of the VapA protein of Rhodococcus equi: implications for early detection of R. equi disease in foals. J Clin Microbiol. 2001;39:1633-7 pubmed
    Linear B-cell epitopes of the Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein (VapA) were mapped using a synthetic peptide bank in this study...
  6. Makrai L, Takayama S, Denes B, Hajtós I, Sasaki Y, Kakuda T, et al. Characterization of virulence plasmids and serotyping of rhodococcus equi isolates from submaxillary lymph nodes of pigs in Hungary. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1246-50 pubmed
    The plasmid types and serotypes of 164 Rhodococcus equi strains obtained from submaxillary lymph nodes of swine from different piggeries in 28 villages and towns located throughout the country were examined...
  7. Wall D, Duffy P, Dupont C, Prescott J, Meijer W. Isocitrate lyase activity is required for virulence of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2005;73:6736-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals, causing severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia. Virulent R. equi strains grow within macrophages, a process which remains poorly characterized...
  8. Cauchard J, Taouji S, Sevin C, Duquesne F, Bernabé M, Laugier C, et al. Immunogenicity of synthetic Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein peptides in neonate foals. Int J Med Microbiol. 2006;296:389-96 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi infection is considered the most common cause of pneumonia in foals less than 6 months of age. Immunization of foals and/or mares may become a procedure of choice for prevention...
  9. Niwa H, Hobo S, Anzai T. A nucleotide mutation associated with fluoroquinolone resistance observed in gyrA of in vitro obtained Rhodococcus equi mutants. Vet Microbiol. 2006;115:264-8 pubmed
    ..the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) in gyrA and gyrB of in vitro fluoroquinolone-resistant Rhodococcus equi mutants was sequenced. These mutants were selected from four R...
  10. Horin P, Sabakova K, Futas J, Vychodilova L, Necesankova M. Immunity-related gene single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Rhodococcus equi infection in foals. Int J Immunogenet. 2010;37:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..significant associations of horse polymorphic microsatellite and immunity-related (IR) gene markers with Rhodococcus equi infection of foals...
  11. Hooper McGrevy K, Wilkie B, Prescott J. Immunoglobulin G subisotype responses of pneumonic and healthy, exposed foals and adult horses to Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated proteins. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:345-51 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi causes severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and in immunocompromised humans...
  12. Ren J, Prescott J. Analysis of virulence plasmid gene expression of intra-macrophage and in vitro grown Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701. Vet Microbiol. 2003;94:167-82 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a soil organism that infects macrophages of foals and immunocompromised humans...
  13. Heller M, Jackson K, Watson J. Identification of immunologically relevant genes in mare and foal dendritic cells responding to infection by Rhodococcus equi. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;136:144-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of horses; infected foals develop pyogranulomatous pneumonia, however adult horses are largely unaffected. R...
  14. Giguere S, Prescott J. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:313-34 pubmed
    Since the 1986 Rhodococcus equi workshop, there have been major breakthroughs in understanding the epidemiology of, the virulence of, and the immune response to, this intriguing pathogen...
  15. Navas J, Gonzalez Zorn B, Ladrón N, Garrido P, Vazquez Boland J. Identification and mutagenesis by allelic exchange of choE, encoding a cholesterol oxidase from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. J Bacteriol. 2001;183:4796-805 pubmed
    The virulence mechanisms of the facultative intracellular parasite Rhodococcus equi remain largely unknown...
  16. Perkins G, Yeager A, Erb H, Nydam D, Divers T, Bowman J. Survival of foals with experimentally induced Rhodococcus equi infection given either hyperimmune plasma containing R. equi antibody or normal equine plasma. Vet Ther. 2002;3:334-46 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine if colostrum-deprived foals with experimentally induced Rhodococcus equi pneumonia have a decreased severity of the disease and decreased mortality rate when given hyperimmune (HI) R...
  17. Rodríguez Lázaro D, Lewis D, Ocampo Sosa A, Fogarty U, Makrai L, Navas J, et al. Internally controlled real-time PCR method for quantitative species-specific detection and vapA genotyping of Rhodococcus equi. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:4256-63 pubmed
    We developed a novel quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) method for the soil actinomycete Rhodococcus equi, an important horse pathogen and emerging human pathogen...
  18. van der Geize R, De Jong W, Hessels G, Grommen A, Jacobs A, Dijkhuizen L. A novel method to generate unmarked gene deletions in the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi using 5-fluorocytosine conditional lethality. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:e151 pubmed publisher
    A novel method to efficiently generate unmarked in-frame gene deletions in Rhodococcus equi was developed, exploiting the cytotoxic effect of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) by the action of cytosine deaminase (CD) and uracil ..
  19. Bolton T, Kuskie K, Halbert N, Chaffin K, Healy M, Lawhon S, et al. Detection of strain variation in isolates of Rhodococcus equi from an affected foal using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:611-5 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals aged 1-6 months. Evidence exists that foals are exposed to a wide diversity of R. equi strains in their environment...
  20. Roda R, Young M, Timpone J, Rosen J. Rhodococcus equi pulmonary-central nervous system syndrome: brain abscess in a patient on high-dose steroids--a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;63:96-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi has emerged as an opportunistic pathogen usually causing necrotizing pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients but has been found increasingly in extrapulmonary sites. We report the 1st case of R...
  21. Ulivieri S, Oliveri G. Cerebellar abscess due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent patient: case report and literature review. J Neurosurg Sci. 2006;50:127-9 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi (R...
  22. Oliveira A, Ferraz L, Brocchi M, Roque Barreira M. Oral administration of a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain expressing the VapA protein induces protection against infection by Rhodococcus equi. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:382-90 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi remains one of the most important pathogens of foals and vaccination strategies to prevent rhodococcosis are under increasing investigation...
  23. Ferretti F, Boschini A, Iabichino C, Gerevini S, De Nardi P, Guffanti M, et al. Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in HIV infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapy. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:343 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R...
  24. Meeuse J, Sprenger H, Van Assen S, Leduc D, Daenen S, Arends J, et al. Rhodococcus equi infection after alemtuzumab therapy for T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1942-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi, mainly known from veterinary medicine as a pathogen in domestic animals, can also cause infections in immunocompromised humans, especially in those with defects in cellular immunity...
  25. Miranda CasoLuengo R, Coulson G, Miranda Casoluengo A, Vázquez Boland J, Hondalus M, Meijer W. The hydroxamate siderophore rhequichelin is required for virulence of the pathogenic actinomycete Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2012;80:4106-14 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that the facultative intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi produces a nondiffusible and catecholate-containing siderophore (rhequibactin) involved in iron acquisition during saprophytic growth...
  26. Caston S, McClure S, Martens R, Chaffin M, Miles K, Griffith R, et al. Effect of hyperimmune plasma on the severity of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in experimentally infected foals. Vet Ther. 2006;7:361-75 pubmed
    ..of hyperimmune plasma (HIP) as an aid in the prevention of pneumonia caused by experimental infection with Rhodococcus equi. Thirty neonatal foals were administered R...
  27. Hines M, Paasch K, Alperin D, Palmer G, Westhoff N, Hines S. Immunity to Rhodococcus equi: antigen-specific recall responses in the lungs of adult horses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001;79:101-14 pubmed
    ..Since all foals are normally exposed to Rhodococcus equi in their environment, we hypothesized that most develop protective immune responses...
  28. Arya B, Hussian S, Hariharan S. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a renal transplant patient: a case report and review of literature. Clin Transplant. 2004;18:748-52 pubmed
    ..We reviewed the literature with special focus on the clinical features, challenges in diagnosis, and treatment of this rare infection (especially in the transplant patients who are also on immunosuppressive therapy). ..
  29. Tripathi V, Harding W, Willingham Lane J, Hondalus M. Conjugal transfer of a virulence plasmid in the opportunistic intracellular actinomycete Rhodococcus equi. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:6790-801 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular, Gram-positive, soilborne actinomycete which can cause severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia with abscessation in young horses (foals) and in immunocompromised people, such as persons with AIDS...
  30. González Roncero F, Gentil M, Rodriguez Algarra G, Pereira P, Cisneros J, Castilla J, et al. Medical management of pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in a renal transplant recipient. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:E7 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is an animal pathogen that occasionally causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients...
  31. Martens R, Cohen N, Jones S, Moore T, Edwards J. Protective role of neutrophils in mice experimentally infected with Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7040-2 pubmed
    Neutrophils are important in controlling early infections with the intracellular bacterium Rhodococcus equi. Antineutrophil monoclonal antibody (RB6-8C5)-induced neutrophil deficiency during the first week after experimental infection of ..
  32. Hooper McGrevy K, Wilkie B, Prescott J. Virulence-associated protein-specific serum immunoglobulin G-isotype expression in young foals protected against Rhodococcus equi pneumonia by oral immunization with virulent R. equi. Vaccine. 2005;23:5760-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether foals immunized orally from 2 days of age with virulent Rhodococcus equi developed a protective pulmonary immune response and to characterise the antibody response of the immunized foals ..
  33. Gabriels P, Joosen H, Put E, Verhaegen J, Magerman K, Cartuyvels R. Recurrent Rhodococcus equi infection with fatal outcome in an immunocompetent patient. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006;25:46-8 pubmed
    The majority of human Rhodococcus equi infections occur in immunocompromised hosts, especially those with AIDS, and infection in immunocompetent patients is rare. Reported here is a case of R...
  34. Speck D, Koneth I, Diethelm M, Binet I. A pulmonary mass caused by Rhodococcus equi infection in a renal transplant recipient. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2008;4:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..of the lung and a left-sided pleural effusion with septa, and bacterial cultures revealed the presence of Rhodococcus equi. Physical examination, laboratory tests, chest X-ray, CT scan of the chest, bronchoscopy, and bacterial ..
  35. Kuskie K, Smith J, Wang N, Carter C, Chaffin M, Slovis N, et al. Effects of location for collection of air samples on a farm and time of day of sample collection on airborne concentrations of virulent Rhodococcus equi at two horse breeding farms. Am J Vet Res. 2011;72:73-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether airborne concentrations of virulent Rhodococcus equi at 2 horse breeding farms varied on the basis of location, time of day, and month.
  36. Rahman M, Herron L, Kapur V, Meijer W, Byrne B, Ren J, et al. Partial genome sequencing of Rhodococcus equi ATCC 33701. Vet Microbiol. 2003;94:143-58 pubmed
    Preliminary analysis of a partial (30% coverage) genome sequence of Rhodococcus equi has revealed a number of important features. The most notable was the extent of the homology of genes identified with those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis...
  37. Mousel M, Harrison L, Donahue J, Bailey E. Rhodococcus equi and genetic susceptibility: assessing transferrin genotypes from paraffin-embedded tissues. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:470-2 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a bacterial pathogen, ubiquitous in the soil, that infects many foals and is lethal to some. Transferrin is an iron-binding protein that has bacteriostatic properties in the blood...
  38. Haghighi H, Prescott J. Assessment in mice of vapA-DNA vaccination against Rhodococcus equi infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;104:215-25 pubmed
    There is a need to produce a vaccine against Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals in which immunity against infection is largely based on a type 1, cell-mediated, immune response. The VapA protein of the virulence plasmid of R...
  39. Womble A, Giguere S, Murthy Y, Cox C, Obare E. Pulmonary disposition of tilmicosin in foals and in vitro activity against Rhodococcus equi and other common equine bacterial pathogens. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 2006;29:561-8 pubmed
    ..and pulmonary disposition of tilmicosin in foals and to investigate the in vitro activity of the drug against Rhodococcus equi and other common bacterial pathogens of horses...
  40. Zheng H, Tkachuk Saad O, Prescott J. Development of a Rhodococcus equi-Escherichia coli plasmid shuttle vector. Plasmid. 1997;38:180-7 pubmed publisher
    Isolates of Rhodococcus equi from pneumonic foals possess an 85- or 90-kb virulence-associated plasmid. A prominent, thermoregulated surface antigen, VapA, encoded by these plasmids is thought to be important in virulence...
  41. Benoit S, Benachour A, Taouji S, Auffray Y, Hartke A. H(2)O(2), which causes macrophage-related stress, triggers induction of expression of virulence-associated plasmid determinants in Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2002;70:3768-76 pubmed
    The response of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi to H(2)O(2) treatment, a situation potentially encountered after the oxidative burst of alveolar macrophages, was analyzed...
  42. Nasser A, Bizri A. Chronic scalp wound infection due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent patient. J Infect. 2001;42:67-8 pubmed
    A case of chronic scalp wound infection due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent individual following heavily contaminated traumatic injury was successfully treated by combining antibiotics and surgery...
  43. Hong Y, Hondalus M. Site-specific integration of Streptomyces PhiC31 integrase-based vectors in the chromosome of Rhodococcus equi. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;287:63-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PhiC31-based site-specific integration was used to transform the facultative intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The transformation efficiency of vectors incorporating the PhiC31 integrase and attP sites was comparable to ..
  44. Flaminio M, Rush B, Shuman W. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations and immunoglobulin concentrations in healthy foals and foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia. J Vet Intern Med. 1999;13:206-12 pubmed
    ..IgG) concentrations; and to compare these immunologic parameters to values in foals with naturally occurring Rhodococcus equi pneumonia and in adult horses...
  45. Ashour J, Hondalus M. Phenotypic mutants of the intracellular actinomycete Rhodococcus equi created by in vivo Himar1 transposon mutagenesis. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:2644-52 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular opportunistic pathogen of immunocompromised people and a major cause of pneumonia in young horses. An effective live attenuated vaccine would be extremely useful in the prevention of R...
  46. Cauchard S, Bermúdez Humarán L, Blugeon S, Laugier C, Langella P, Cauchard J. Mucosal co-immunization of mice with recombinant lactococci secreting VapA antigen and leptin elicits a protective immune response against Rhodococcus equi infection. Vaccine. 2011;30:95-102 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia in foals and has recently gained attention as a significant opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised humans. However, no effective vaccine to prevent rhodococcosis is currently available...
  47. Ocampo Sosa A, Lewis D, Navas J, Quigley F, Callejo R, Scortti M, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi based on traA, vapA, and vapB virulence plasmid markers. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:763-9 pubmed
    Molecular typing of the actinomycete Rhodococcus equi is insufficiently developed, and little is known about the epidemiology and transmission of this multihost pathogen...
  48. Muscatello G, Leadon D, Klayt M, Ocampo Sosa A, Lewis D, Fogarty U, et al. Rhodococcus equi infection in foals: the science of 'rattles'. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:470-8 pubmed
    ..equi on stud farms in the future. Reliance on vaccines alone, in the absence of management strategies to control the on-farm challenge is likely to be disappointing...
  49. Sekizaki T, Takai S, Egawa Y, Ikeda T, Ito H, Tsubaki S. Sequence of the Rhodococcus equi gene encoding the virulence-associated 15-17-kDa antigens. Gene. 1995;155:135-6 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence of the Rhodococcus equi gene encoding the virulence-associated 15-17-kDa antigens, located on plasmid pREAT701, has been determined...
  50. Pei Y, Parreira V, Nicholson V, Prescott J. Mutation and virulence assessment of chromosomal genes of Rhodococcus equi 103. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71:1-7 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi can cause severe or fatal pneumonia in foals as well as in immunocompromised animals and humans. Its ability to persist in macrophages is fundamental to how it causes disease, but the basis of this is poorly understood...
  51. El Karoui K, Guillet C, Sekkal N, Lanternier F, Mechai F, Hue K, et al. Synergistic effect of carbapenem-teicoplanin combination during severe Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in a kidney transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11:359-62 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a bacterial pathogen of domestic animals that can infect immunocompromised patients, especially those with impaired cellular immunity, such as transplant recipients...
  52. Harris S, Fujiwara N, Mealey R, Alperin D, Naka T, Goda R, et al. Identification of Rhodococcus equi lipids recognized by host cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Microbiology. 2010;156:1836-47 pubmed publisher
    Immune adult horses have CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that recognize and lyse Rhodococcus equi-infected cells in an equine lymphocyte alloantigen (ELA)-A [classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I]-unrestricted ..
  53. Venner M, Rödiger A, Laemmer M, Giguere S. Failure of antimicrobial therapy to accelerate spontaneous healing of subclinical pulmonary abscesses on a farm with endemic infections caused by Rhodococcus equi. Vet J. 2012;192:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of foals with small ultrasonographic pulmonary lesions is common on farms with endemic disease caused by Rhodococcus equi. The objectives of this study were to compare the relative efficacy of three antimicrobial protocols for the ..
  54. Miranda CasoLuengo R, Prescott J, Vazquez Boland J, Meijer W. The intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi produces a catecholate siderophore required for saprophytic growth. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:1631-7 pubmed
    Little is known about the iron acquisition systems of the soilborne facultative intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi. We previously reported that expression of iupABC, encoding a putative siderophore ABC transporter system, is iron ..
  55. Bell K, Philp J, Christofi N, Aw D. Identification of Rhodococcus equi using the polymerase chain reaction. Lett Appl Microbiol. 1996;23:72-4 pubmed
    Two regions in the gene coding for 16S rRNA in Rhodococcus equi were selected as species-specific primer sequences for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR using these primers was tested against 10 strains of R...
  56. Miranda CasoLuengo R, Duffy P, O Connell E, Graham B, Mangan M, Prescott J, et al. The iron-regulated iupABC operon is required for saprophytic growth of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi at low iron concentrations. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:3438-44 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen which proliferates rapidly in both manure-enriched soil and alveolar macrophages...
  57. Weinstock D, Brown A. Rhodococcus equi: an emerging pathogen. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1379-85 pubmed
    More than 100 cases of Rhodococcus equi infection have been reported since the first description of human disease caused by this organism. The vast majority of patients infected with R...
  58. Lührmann A, Mauder N, Sydor T, Fernandez Mora E, Schulze Luehrmann J, Takai S, et al. Necrotic death of Rhodococcus equi-infected macrophages is regulated by virulence-associated plasmids. Infect Immun. 2004;72:853-62 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive intracellular pathogen that can cause severe bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients...
  59. Jacks S, Giguere S, Crawford P, Castleman W. Experimental infection of neonatal foals with Rhodococcus equi triggers adult-like gamma interferon induction. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007;14:669-77 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes pneumonia in young foals but does not induce disease in immunocompetent adult horses. Clearance of R...
  60. Liu T, Nerren J, Liu M, Martens R, Cohen N. Basal and stimulus-induced cytokine expression is selectively impaired in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of newborn foals. Vaccine. 2009;27:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In response to Rhodococcus equi and CpG-ODN stimulation in vitro, PBMCs of neonatal foals showed increased (P<0...
  61. von Bargen K, Polidori M, Becken U, Huth G, Prescott J, Haas A. Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein A is required for diversion of phagosome biogenesis but not for cytotoxicity. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5676-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen that can cause severe bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients...
  62. Lara G, Ribeiro M, Leite C, Paes A, Guazzelli A, da Silva A, et al. Occurrence of Mycobacterium spp. and other pathogens in lymph nodes of slaughtered swine and wild boars (Sus scrofa). Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:185-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In swine with lymphadenitis, Mycobacterium spp. (24.1%) and Rhodococcus equi (13...
  63. Takai S, Tharavichitkul P, Takarn P, Khantawa B, Tamura M, Tsukamoto A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi of intermediate virulence isolated from patients with and without acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Chiang Mai, Thailand. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1717-23 pubmed
    We investigated the prevalence of virulent Rhodococcus equi in clinical isolates from 69 sporadic cases (60 men, 8 women, and 1 patient of unknown sex) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, between 1993 and 2001...
  64. Muscatello G, Anderson G, Gilkerson J, Browning G. Associations between the ecology of virulent Rhodococcus equi and the epidemiology of R. equi pneumonia on Australian thoroughbred farms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:6152-60 pubmed
    The ecology of virulent strains of Rhodococcus equi on horse farms is likely to influence the prevalence and severity of R. equi pneumonia in foals. This study examined the association between the ecology of virulent R...
  65. Flaminio M, Nydam D, MARQUIS H, Matychak M, Giguere S. Foal monocyte-derived dendritic cells become activated upon Rhodococcus equi infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:176-83 pubmed publisher
    Susceptibility of foals to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is exclusive to the first few months of life...
  66. Chen X, Xu F, Xia J, Cheng Y, Yang Y. Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi: a case report and review of the literature. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2009;10:933-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi, previously known as Corynebacterium equi, is one of the most important causes of zoonotic infections in grazing animals. Increased cases of human infection with R...
  67. Ribeiro M, Takai S, de Vargas A, Mattos Guaraldi A, Ferreira Camello T, Ohno R, et al. Short report: Identification of virulence-associated plasmids in Rhodococcus equi in humans with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:510-3 pubmed publisher
    Virulence of Rhodococcus equi strains from 20 humans in Brazil was investigated by using a polymerase chain reaction to characterize isolates as virulent (VapA), intermediately virulent (VapB), and avirulent...
  68. Giguere S, Cohen N, Chaffin M, Hines S, Hondalus M, Prescott J, et al. Rhodococcus equi: clinical manifestations, virulence, and immunity. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:1221-30 pubmed publisher
    Pneumonia is a major cause of disease and death in foals. Rhodococcus equi, a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen, is a common cause of pneumonia in foals...
  69. Takai S. Epidemiology of Rhodococcus equi infections: a review. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:167-76 pubmed
    ..equi, so regular examination of foals and their environment by virulence markers might be the most practical approach to control R. equi infection on endemic farms...
  70. Giguere S, Gaskin J, Miller C, Bowman J. Evaluation of a commercially available hyperimmune plasma product for prevention of naturally acquired pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;220:59-63 pubmed
    ..a commercially available hyperimmune plasma product for prevention of naturally acquired pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi in foals. Randomized clinical trial. 165 foals...
  71. Yoshimoto T, Nagai F, Fujimoto J, Watanabe K, Mizukoshi H, Makino T, et al. Degradation of estrogens by Rhodococcus zopfii and Rhodococcus equi isolates from activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:5283-9 pubmed
    ..Strains Y 50155, Y 50156, and Y 50157, identified as Rhodococcus equi, showed degradation activities comparable with that of Y 50158...
  72. Ribeiro M, Seki I, Yasuoka K, Kakuda T, Sasaki Y, Tsubaki S, et al. Molecular epidemiology of virulent Rhodococcus equi from foals in Brazil: virulence plasmids of 85-kb type I, 87-kb type I, and a new variant, 87-kb type III. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;28:53-61 pubmed
    We investigated the prevalence of virulent Rhodococcus equi in clinical isolates from 41 foals (19 sporadic and seven endemic cases) in Brazil between 1991 and 2003...
  73. Hsu F, Soehl K, Turk J, Haas A. Characterization of mycolic acids from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Anal Biochem. 2011;409:112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study revealed that the mycolic acids isolated from pathogenic Rhodococcus equi 103 contained a series of homologous ions having C(30) to C(50) chain with 0-2 double bonds...
  74. Hondalus M. Pathogenesis and virulence of Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:257-68 pubmed
    Inhalation of the soil-borne organism, Rhodococcus equi, can lead to a chronic and severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in young horses and immunocompromised people...
  75. Meijer W, Prescott J. Rhodococcus equi. Vet Res. 2004;35:383-96 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is an important cause of subacute or chronic abscessating bronchopneumonia of foals up to 3-5 months of age...
  76. Napoleão F, Damasco P, Camello T, do Vale M, de Andrade A, Hirata R, et al. Pyogenic liver abscess due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent host. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1002-4 pubmed
    A case of pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent individual was successfully treated by combining surgery and antibiotics. The R...
  77. Oliveira A, Ruas L, Cardoso S, Soares S, Roque Barreira M. Vaccination of mice with salmonella expressing VapA: mucosal and systemic Th1 responses provide protection against Rhodococcus equi infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8644 pubmed publisher
    Conventional vaccines to prevent the pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi have not been successful. We have recently demonstrated that immunization with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium expressing the VapA antigen protects mice against R...
  78. Heller M, Drew C, Jackson K, Griffey S, Watson J. A potential role for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in Rhodococcus equi infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;138:174-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of foals and immunocompromised humans that infects and proliferates within host macrophages and dendritic cells (DC)...
  79. Hines S, Kanaly S, Byrne B, Palmer G. Immunity to Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol. 1997;56:177-85 pubmed
    ..It remains to be determined how the cellular immunity experiments reported in mice relate to horses and humans. Likewise, the role of specific R. equi antigens in protective immunity has not been determined. ..
  80. Sydor T, von Bargen K, Becken U, Spuerck S, Nicholson V, Prescott J, et al. A mycolyl transferase mutant of Rhodococcus equi lacking capsule integrity is fully virulent. Vet Microbiol. 2008;128:327-41 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is a mucoid Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen which can cause severe bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients. A polysaccharide capsule which gives R...
  81. Coulson G, Agarwal S, Hondalus M. Characterization of the role of the pathogenicity island and vapG in the virulence of the intracellular actinomycete pathogen Rhodococcus equi. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3323-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi, a facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages, causes severe, life-threatening pneumonia in young foals and in people with underlying immune deficiencies. R...
  82. Devi P, Malhotra S, Chadha A. Bacteremia due to Rhodococcus equi in an immunocompetent infant. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2011;29:65-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi , previously known as Corynebacterium equi, is one of the most important causes of zoonotic infection in grazing animals. Increased cases of human infection with R...
  83. Phumoonna T, Barton M, Vanniasinkam T, Heuzenroeder M. Chimeric vapA/groEL2 DNA vaccines enhance clearance of Rhodococcus equi in aerosol challenged C3H/He mice. Vaccine. 2008;26:2457-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi remains a significant bacterial pathogen, causing severe pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals aged 1-3 months. There is no effective vaccine currently available for the prevention of R. equi pneumonia...
  84. Cohen N, Kuskie K, Smith J, Slovis N, Brown S, Stepusin R, et al. Association of airborne concentration of virulent Rhodococcus equi with location (stall versus paddock) and month (January through June) on 30 horse breeding farms in central Kentucky. Am J Vet Res. 2012;73:1603-9 pubmed
    To determine whether the concentration of airborne virulent Rhodococcus equi varied by location (stall vs paddock) and month on horse farms.
  85. Horowitz M, Cohen N, Takai S, Becu T, Chaffin M, Chu K, et al. Application of Sartwell's model (lognormal distribution of incubation periods) to age at onset and age at death of foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia as evidence of perinatal infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2001;15:171-5 pubmed
    ..In this study Sartwell's model was applied to the age at onset and age at death of foals with Rhodococcus equi pneumonia...
  86. Ren J, Prescott J. The effect of mutation on Rhodococcus equi virulence plasmid gene expression and mouse virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2004;103:219-30 pubmed
    An 81 kb virulence plasmid containing a pathogenicity island (PI) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals but its specific function in virulence and regulation of plasmid-encoded virulence genes is ..
  87. Nerren J, Martens R, Payne S, Murrell J, Butler J, Cohen N. Age-related changes in cytokine expression by neutrophils of foals stimulated with virulent Rhodococcus equi in vitro. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;127:212-9 pubmed publisher
    Although evidence exists that neutrophils play a vital role in resistance to infection with Rhodococcus equi, the means by which neutrophils exert their effects have not been clearly defined...
  88. van der Geize R, Grommen A, Hessels G, Jacobs A, Dijkhuizen L. The steroid catabolic pathway of the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi is important for pathogenesis and a target for vaccine development. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002181 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodococcus equi causes fatal pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised animals and humans. Despite its importance, there is currently no effective vaccine against the disease. The actinobacteria R...
  89. Mosser D, Hondalus M. Rhodococcus equi: an emerging opportunistic pathogen. Trends Microbiol. 1996;4:29-33 pubmed
    b>Rhodococcus equi is emerging as a cause of pneumonia in immunocompromised people, especially those with AIDS. Like mycobacteria, R. equi is phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages and replicates within them...
  90. Takai S, Shoda M, Sasaki Y, Tsubaki S, Fortier G, Pronost S, et al. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of virulence plasmids in Rhodococcus equi. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3417-20 pubmed
    Virulent Rhodococcus equi, which is a well-known cause of pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals, possesses a large plasmid encoding virulence-associated 15- to 17-kDa antigens...
  91. Asoh N, Watanabe H, Fines Guyon M, Watanabe K, Oishi K, Kositsakulchai W, et al. Emergence of rifampin-resistant Rhodococcus equi with several types of mutations in the rpoB gene among AIDS patients in northern Thailand. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2337-40 pubmed
    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of 30 Rhodococcus equi isolates obtained from 30 patients between 1993 and 2001 in northern Thailand were investigated...
  92. Pei Y, Dupont C, Sydor T, Haas A, Prescott J. Cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) is not important in the virulence of Rhodococcus equi. Vet Microbiol. 2006;118:240-6 pubmed
    To analyze further the role in virulence of the prominent cholesterol oxidase (ChoE) of Rhodococcus equi, an allelic exchange choE mutant from strain 103+ was constructed and assessed for virulence in macrophages, in mice, and in foals...