mycobacterium avium complex

Summary

Summary: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.

Top Publications

  1. Kobashi Y, Yoshida K, Miyashita N, Niki Y, Oka M. Relationship between clinical efficacy of treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease and drug-sensitivity testing of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates. J Infect Chemother. 2006;12:195-202 pubmed
    We prospectively investigated the relationship between the clinical efficacy of treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease and drug-sensitivity testing of MAC isolates for antituberculous drugs, new quinolone ..
  2. Hasegawa N, Nishimura T, Ohtani S, Takeshita K, Fukunaga K, Tasaka S, et al. Therapeutic effects of various initial combinations of chemotherapy including clarithromycin against Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Chest. 2009;136:1569-1575 pubmed publisher
    ..initial combination chemotherapy that includes clarithromycin (CAM) for treatment-naive patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease, as assessed by microbiological conversion using a Mycobacterium growth ..
  3. Hibiya K, Kasumi Y, Sugawara I, Fujita J. Histopathological classification of systemic Mycobacterium avium complex infections in slaughtered domestic pigs. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;31:347-66 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to classify the histopathological features of pigs infected with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). We used slaughtered pig organs systemically infected with MAC...
  4. Sapkota B, Hijikata M, Matsushita I, Tanaka G, Ieki R, Kobayashi N, et al. Association of SLC11A1 (NRAMP1) polymorphisms with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with mycobacterial diseases, these findings have not been extensively validated in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection...
  5. Hahm C, Park H, Jeon K, Um S, Suh G, Chung M, et al. Solitary pulmonary nodules caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex. Lung. 2010;188:25-31 pubmed publisher
    ..and radiographic findings of tuberculomas to those of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)...
  6. Rodrigues L, Sampaio D, Couto I, Machado D, Kern W, Amaral L, et al. The role of efflux pumps in macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009;34:529-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that efflux pumps play an important role in MAC resistance to antibiotics. ..
  7. Kitada S, Levin A, Hiserote M, Harbeck R, Czaja C, Huitt G, et al. Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in the USA. Eur Respir J. 2013;42:454-60 pubmed publisher
    Diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) can be difficult. A previous study from Japan reported the usefulness of a serodiagnostic test for MAC-PD...
  8. Sadek M, Yue F, Lee E, Gyenes G, Jones R, Hoffstein V, et al. Clinical and immunologic features of an atypical intracranial mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection compared with those of pulmonary MAC infections. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1580-9 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may cause chronic pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy elderly persons but rarely invade parts of the body outside of the lungs in immunocompetent hosts...
  9. Phillips P, Lee J, Wang C, Yoshida E, Lima V, Montaner J. Chylous ascites: a late complication of intra-abdominal Mycobacterium avium complex immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients. Int J STD AIDS. 2009;20:285-7 pubmed publisher
    Chylous ascites related to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in HIV-infected patients is rare, with only six cases reported in the English literature. We report a series of six cases from a single institution...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Wallace R, Iakhiaeva E, Williams M, Brown Elliott B, Vasireddy S, Vasireddy R, et al. Absence of Mycobacterium intracellulare and presence of Mycobacterium chimaera in household water and biofilm samples of patients in the United States with Mycobacterium avium complex respiratory disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:1747-52 pubmed publisher
    ..if this is true for Mycobacterium intracellulare, household water sources for 36 patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease were evaluated...
  2. Tateishi Y, Hirayama Y, Ozeki Y, Nishiuchi Y, Yoshimura M, Kang J, et al. Virulence of Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from immunocompetent patients. Microb Pathog. 2009;46:6-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease has been increasing worldwide not only in immunocompromised but also in immunocompetent humans...
  3. Chung J, Cha Y, Oh D, Nam W, Kim S, Lee M, et al. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a non-HIV-infected patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Korean J Lab Med. 2010;30:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we encountered a case of bone marrow Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, which presented as a fever of unknown origin shortly after starting continuous ..
  4. Uthman M, Uthman O, Yahaya I. Interventions for the prevention of mycobacterium avium complex in adults and children with HIV. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD007191 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a common complication of advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease and is an independent predictor of mortality and shortened survival...
  5. Ben Salah I, Drancourt M. Surviving within the amoebal exocyst: the Mycobacterium avium complex paradigm. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:99 pubmed publisher
    ..The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises of environmental organisms that inhabit a wide variety of ecological niches and exhibit ..
  6. Fujita Y, Doi T, Maekura R, Ito M, Yano I. Differences in serological responses to specific glycopeptidolipid-core and common lipid antigens in patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:189-99 pubmed
    Disease due to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is one of the most important opportunistic pulmonary infections...
  7. Bai X, Ovrutsky A, Kartalija M, Chmura K, Kamali A, Honda J, et al. IL-32 expression in the airway epithelial cells of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Int Immunol. 2011;23:679-91 pubmed publisher
    Lung disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms is increasing. A greater understanding of the host immune response to MAC organisms will provide a foundation to develop novel therapies for these recalcitrant infections...
  8. Lam P, Griffith D, Aksamit T, Ruoss S, Garay S, Daley C, et al. Factors related to response to intermittent treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173:1283-9 pubmed
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is associated with substantial morbidity, and standard daily multidrug therapy is difficult to tolerate.
  9. Park J, Shim T, Lee S, Lee H, Lee I, Kim K, et al. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium intracellulare-related strains based on the sequence analysis of hsp65, internal transcribed spacer and 16S rRNA genes. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1037-43 pubmed publisher
    ..051). ..
  10. Cohen Y, Amir J, Ashkenazi S, Eidlitz Markus T, Samra Z, Kaufmann L, et al. Mycobacterium haemophilum and lymphadenitis in immunocompetent children, Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1437-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed a 4-fold increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates during 1985-2006, which was attributable mainly to increased detection of Mycobacterium haemophilum starting in 1996...
  11. Thegerström J, Romanus V, Friman V, Brudin L, Haemig P, Olsen B. Mycobacterium avium lymphadenopathy among children, Sweden. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:661-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Seasonal variation in the frequency of the disease, with a peak in October and a low point in April, suggests cyclic environmental factors. We also found a higher incidence of the disease in children who live close to water. ..
  12. Cai S, Shimizu T, Tomioka H. Comparative studies on the roles of mediator molecules in expression of the suppressor activity of Mycobacterium avium complex-induced immunosuppressive macrophages against T cell and B cell mitogenic responses. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143:560-71 pubmed
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex-induced immunosuppressive macrophages (MAC-MPhis) exhibit suppressor activity against concanavalin A-induced T cell mitogenesis (T cell Con A mitogenesis)...
  13. Okumura M, Iwai K, Ogata H, Ueyama M, Kubota M, Aoki M, et al. Clinical factors on cavitary and nodular bronchiectatic types in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Intern Med. 2008;47:1465-72 pubmed
    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease is the most common pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM)...
  14. Pfaller S, Aronson T, Holtzman A, Covert T. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates recovered from southern California. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1152-60 pubmed
    ..in order to identify possible sources of human exposure to opportunistic pathogens belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)...
  15. Griffith D, Brown Elliott B, Langsjoen B, Zhang Y, Pan X, Girard W, et al. Clinical and molecular analysis of macrolide resistance in Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:928-34 pubmed
    The clinical features and outcome of macrolide-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease are not known.
  16. Nishiuchi Y, Maekura R, Kitada S, Tamaru A, Taguri T, Kira Y, et al. The recovery of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) from the residential bathrooms of patients with pulmonary MAC. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:347-51 pubmed
    ..01). For 2 patients, the genotypes of environmental isolates were identical to their respective clinical isolates...
  17. Ben Salah I, Cayrou C, Raoult D, Drancourt M. Mycobacterium marseillense sp. nov., Mycobacterium timonense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium bouchedurhonense sp. nov., members of the Mycobacterium avium complex. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:2803-8 pubmed publisher
    An rpoB sequence-based evaluation of 100 Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) clinical isolates led to the identification of five respiratory tract isolates that were potential representatives of three novel MAC species...
  18. Turenne C, Wallace R, Behr M. Mycobacterium avium in the postgenomic era. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2007;20:205-29 pubmed
    The past several years have witnessed an upsurge of genomic data pertaining to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)...
  19. Tatano Y, Shimizu T, Tomioka H. Properties of immunosuppressive macrophages generated by Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in M. intracellulare-susceptible and resistant mice. New Microbiol. 2010;33:87-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, the bcg gene may be related to the generation of Min-M(phi)s in host mice. ..
  20. Ichikawa K, Yagi T, Inagaki T, Moriyama M, Nakagawa T, Uchiya K, et al. Molecular typing of Mycobacterium intracellulare using multilocus variable-number of tandem-repeat analysis: identification of loci and analysis of clinical isolates. Microbiology. 2010;156:496-504 pubmed publisher
    In addition to its known status as a disseminated disease in HIV-positive patients, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is increasingly recognized as a causative pathogen of respiratory disease in HIV-negative patients...
  21. Hilborn E, Covert T, Yakrus M, Harris S, Donnelly S, Rice E, et al. Persistence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in a drinking water system after addition of filtration treatment. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:5864-9 pubmed
    ..This suggests that cold water POU outlets need to be considered as a potential source of chronic human exposure to NTM...
  22. van Ingen J, Boeree M, Kösters K, Wieland A, Tortoli E, Dekhuijzen P, et al. Proposal to elevate Mycobacterium avium complex ITS sequevar MAC-Q to Mycobacterium vulneris sp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009;59:2277-82 pubmed publisher
    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) consists of four recognized species, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium chimaera, and a variety of other strains that may be members of ..
  23. Roux A, Catherinot E, Ripoll F, Soismier N, Macheras E, Ravilly S, et al. Multicenter study of prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis in france. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:4124-8 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (in the greater Paris area). Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC; 50 patients) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; 23 patients) species were the most common NTM, and the only ones associated with fulfillment of ..
  24. Ito Y, Hirai T, Maekawa K, Fujita K, Imai S, Tatsumi S, et al. Predictors of 5-year mortality in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Kyoto, Japan...
  25. Kenmotsu H, Honda A, Baba T, Matsumoto Y, Shichi I, Eto T, et al. [A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium avium from a home bath with a circulating water system]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2005;43:689-92 pubmed
    ..Sputum culture showed the growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Culture of water from the bath tub of his home showed MAC...
  26. Semret M, Bakker D, Smart N, Olsen I, Haslov K, Behr M. Genetic analysis of Mycobacterium avium complex strains used for producing purified protein derivatives. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:991-6 pubmed
    ..Among these, reagents to detect infections by Mycobacterium avium complex organisms have been produced, but the utility of these reagents has not been clearly established due in ..
  27. Cayrou C, Turenne C, Behr M, Drancourt M. Genotyping of Mycobacterium avium complex organisms using multispacer sequence typing. Microbiology. 2010;156:687-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) currently comprises eight species of environmental and animal-associated, slowly-growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium chimaera, Mycobacterium colombiense,..
  28. Hayes S, Sivaganesan M, White K, Pfaller S. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;47:386-92 pubmed publisher
    To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus.
  29. Koschel D, Pietrzyk C, Sennekamp J, Muller Wening D. [Swimming pool lung -- extrinsic allergic alveolitis or mycobacterial disease?]. Pneumologie. 2006;60:285-9 pubmed
    There have been several recent reports of pulmonary disease resulting from exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in indoor hot tubs. The disease is thought to be due either to infection or extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA)...
  30. Balseiro A, Merediz I, Sevilla I, García Castro C, Gortazar C, Prieto J, et al. Infection of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria. Vet J. 2011;188:231-3 pubmed publisher
    There are few reports of infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria in badgers...
  31. Nishiuchi Y, Tamura A, Kitada S, Taguri T, Matsumoto S, Tateishi Y, et al. Mycobacterium avium complex organisms predominantly colonize in the bathtub inlets of patients' bathrooms. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:182-6 pubmed
    Medical treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease does not always provide curative effects and is frequently hampered by recurrence...
  32. Waller E, Roy A, Brumble L, Khoor A, Johnson M, Garland J. The expanding spectrum of Mycobacterium avium complex-associated pulmonary disease. Chest. 2006;130:1234-41 pubmed
  33. Kendall B, Winthrop K. Update on the epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;34:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) accounts for the majority of NTM infections worldwide, but there is significant regional ..
  34. Dirac M, Horan K, Doody D, Meschke J, Park D, Jackson L, et al. Environment or host?: A case-control study of risk factors for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;186:684-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease is an increasingly common and chronically debilitating problem. Several host traits have been suggested or confirmed as risk factors...
  35. Hayashi M, Takayanagi N, Kanauchi T, Miyahara Y, Yanagisawa T, Sugita Y. Prognostic factors of 634 HIV-negative patients with Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012;185:575-83 pubmed publisher
    The prognostic factors of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease (MAC-LD) are not clearly defined.
  36. Shin S, Lee B, Koh W, Manning E, Anklam K, Sreevatsan S, et al. Efficient differentiation of Mycobacterium avium complex species and subspecies by use of five-target multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4057-62 pubmed publisher
    Infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are on the rise in both human and veterinary medicine...
  37. Maugein J, Dailloux M, Carbonnelle B, Vincent V, Grosset J. Sentinel-site surveillance of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2005;26:1092-6 pubmed
    The incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease in HIV-negative patients was studied prospectively from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002 through 32 sentinel sites distributed all over France...
  38. Pedro H, Pereira M, Goloni M, Ueki S, Chimara E. Nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated in São José do Rio Preto, Brazil between 1996 and 2005. J Bras Pneumol. 2008;34:950-5 pubmed
  39. Ramirez J, Mason C, Ali J, Lopez F. Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: management options in HIV-negative patients. J La State Med Soc. 2008;160:248-54; quiz 254, 293 pubmed
    We present a case series and review of the literature of the management options in non-HIV-infected patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) with a focus on treatment failure and drug resistant disease.
  40. Thomson R, Armstrong J, Looke D. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, acid suppression, and Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Chest. 2007;131:1166-72 pubmed
    ..Microaspiration of contaminated water is a potential portal of entry for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms into the respiratory tract, and acid-suppression therapy may enhance the survival of ..
  41. Koya T, Tsubata C, Kagamu H, Koyama K, Hayashi M, Kuwabara K, et al. Anti-interferon-gamma autoantibody in a patient with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex. J Infect Chemother. 2009;15:118-22 pubmed publisher
    We report the case of a 44-year-old woman with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection involving multiple bone lesions despite a normal healthy status until 6 months previously...
  42. Adams L, Waddell R, von Reyn C. T-SPOT.TB Test(R) results in adults with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we tested the T-SPOT.TB Test in patients with pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), the most common disease-causing NTM...
  43. Falkinham J, Iseman M, de Haas P, van Soolingen D. Mycobacterium avium in a shower linked to pulmonary disease. J Water Health. 2008;6:209-13 pubmed publisher
    ..avium isolates from the hot and cold water and showerhead sediment demonstrated a clonal relationship with the patient's M. avium isolate. The data provide evidence that showers may serve as sources of infection by waterborne M. avium...
  44. Tanaka G, Shojima J, Matsushita I, Nagai H, Kurashima A, Nakata K, et al. Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection: association with NRAMP1 polymorphisms. Eur Respir J. 2007;30:90-6 pubmed
    The present study aimed to elucidate risk factors for nonimmunocompromised pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection...
  45. Tomioka H, Shimizu T, Tatano Y. Effects of picolinic acid on the antimicrobial functions of host macrophages against Mycobacterium avium complex. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007;29:460-4 pubmed
    Picolinic acid (PA) potentiates macrophage (MPhi) antimicrobial activity against intracellular Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Here, we studied the mechanisms of this phenomenon using human THP-1 MPhis...
  46. Lazaro E, Coureau G, Guedj J, Blanco P, Pellegrin I, Commenges D, et al. Change in T-lymphocyte count after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with history of Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Antivir Ther. 2006;11:343-50 pubmed
    To compare changes in CD4+, CD8+ and total lymphocyte counts after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between HIV-infected patients with and without a recent history of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.
  47. Jaworowski A, Ellery P, Maslin C, Naim E, Heinlein A, Ryan C, et al. Normal CD16 expression and phagocytosis of Mycobacterium avium complex by monocytes from a current cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:693-7 pubmed
    ..difference in the prevalence of CD16+ monocytes or the capacity of monocytes to ingest heat-killed Mycobacterium avium complex between these individuals and HIV-uninfected control subjects, regardless of viral load, current CD4+ T ..
  48. Ra S, Lyu J, Choi C, Oh Y, Lee S, Kim W, et al. Distinguishing tuberculosis from Mycobacterium avium complex disease using an interferon-gamma release assay. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011;15:635-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, the first-generation QFT-G test, employs a non-specific PPD antigen, avium sensitin is also used as a stimulating antigen...
  49. Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet L, de Haas P, Lindeboom J, Kuijper E, van Soolingen D. Lymphadenitis in children is caused by Mycobacterium avium hominissuis and not related to 'bird tuberculosis'. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:293-9 pubmed publisher
    ..avium isolates, and all belonged to the M. avium hominissuis subspecies. A relation to pet birds in the etiology of mycobacterial lymphadenitis could not be established, and the source of the infections may be environmental...
  50. Vuorenmaa K, Ben Salah I, Barlogis V, Chambost H, Drancourt M. Mycobacterium colombiense and pseudotuberculous lymphadenopathy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:619-20 pubmed publisher
  51. Ben Salah I, Adekambi T, Raoult D, Drancourt M. rpoB sequence-based identification of Mycobacterium avium complex species. Microbiology. 2008;154:3715-23 pubmed publisher
    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises slowly growing mycobacteria responsible for opportunistic infections and zoonoses...
  52. Zeharia A, Eidlitz Markus T, Haimi Cohen Y, Samra Z, Kaufman L, Amir J. Management of nontuberculous mycobacteria-induced cervical lymphadenitis with observation alone. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:920-2 pubmed publisher
    ..The recommended treatment is total excision of the affected lymph node. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with an observational approach...
  53. Turenne C, Semret M, Cousins D, Collins D, Behr M. Sequencing of hsp65 distinguishes among subsets of the Mycobacterium avium complex. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:433-40 pubmed
    The Mycobacterium avium complex consists of epidemiologically distinct subsets...
  54. Ohashi R, Akagawa S, Kurashima A, Tsuchiya K, Miyamoto M, Masuda K, et al. [Case of pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex disease, showing hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like diffuse shadow]. Kekkaku. 2006;81:19-23 pubmed
    ..Although we did not examine the presence of Mycobacterium avium in the water of sauna bath, we suspected this case as Hot Tub Lung based on clinical features and the response to treatment...
  55. Reed C, von Reyn C, Chamblee S, Ellerbrock T, Johnson J, Marsh B, et al. Environmental risk factors for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex. Am J Epidemiol. 2006;164:32-40 pubmed
    Infection with Mycobacterium avium complex is acquired from the environment, but risk factors for M. avium complex infection and disease are poorly understood...
  56. Khan K, Wang J, Marras T. Nontuberculous mycobacterial sensitization in the United States: national trends over three decades. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;176:306-13 pubmed
    ..Temporal changes in the epidemiology of Mycobacterium intracellulare sensitization may help explain recently observed trends in pulmonary NTM infections...
  57. Kawata N, Kawahara S, Tada A, Takigawa N, Shibayama T, Soda R, et al. [Antimycobacterial susceptibility against nontuberculous mycobacteria using brothmic NTM]. Kekkaku. 2006;81:329-35 pubmed
    ..We compared the in vitro antimicrobial activities of five antituberculous drugs, clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones against 92 clinical isolates belonging to three species of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria...
  58. Mackenzie N, Alexander D, Turenne C, Behr M, De Buck J. Genomic comparison of PE and PPE genes in the Mycobacterium avium complex. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1002-11 pubmed publisher
    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) comprises genomically similar but phenotypically divergent bacteria that inhabit diverse environments and that cause disease in different hosts...
  59. Kajiki A. [Non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis. What has been coming out]. Kekkaku. 2011;86:113-25 pubmed
    ..Hospital Organization, Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases) Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is refractory to therapy, containing rifampicin (RFP), ethambutol (EB), and clarithromycin (CAM)...
  60. Horan K, Freeman R, Weigel K, Semret M, Pfaller S, Covert T, et al. Isolation of the genome sequence strain Mycobacterium avium 104 from multiple patients over a 17-year period. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:783-9 pubmed
    ..Although M. avium is known for its genetic plasticity, these observations also show that strains of the pathogen can be genotypically stable over extended time periods...
  61. Kobashi Y, Matsushima T, Oka M. A double-blind randomized study of aminoglycoside infusion with combined therapy for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease. Respir Med. 2007;101:130-8 pubmed
    ..the clinical efficacy of an aminoglycoside antibiotic (streptomycin, SM) for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease was carried out...
  62. Shimizu T, Tomioka H. Activity of picolinic acid in combination with the antiprotozoal drug quinacrine against Mycobacterium avium complex. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50:3186-8 pubmed
    ..of picolinic acid (PA) in combination with the antiprotozoal drug quinacrine against intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)...
  63. Ward C, Jyonouchi H, Kotenko S, Smirnov S, Patel R, Aguila H, et al. Adjunctive treatment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection with interferon alpha-2b in a patient with complete interferon-gamma receptor R1 deficiency. Eur J Pediatr. 2007;166:981-5 pubmed
    ..complete interferon-gamma receptor R1 (IFNGR1) deficiency suffering from disseminated infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) resistant to multiple anti-mycobacterial agents...
  64. Tanaka Y, Hori T, Ito K, Fujita T, Ishikawa T, Uchiyama T. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a patient with autoantibody to interferon-gamma. Intern Med. 2007;46:1005-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was detected in sputum, gastric juice, bone marrow liquid, pleural effusion by acid-fast bacillus ..
  65. Esparcia O, Navarro F, Quer M, Coll P. Lymphadenopathy caused by Mycobacterium colombiense. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1885-7 pubmed publisher
    ..M. colombiense is a nonpigmented slow grower that is included in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used for species identification.
  66. Sato M, Hiyama T, Kaito K, Hayashi Y, Okumura T. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the assessment of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. Ann Nucl Med. 2009;23:757-62 pubmed publisher
    A patient showing abnormal fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake due to disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is presented...
  67. Kim S, Koh W, Park H, Jeon K, Kwon O, Cho S, et al. Changes in serum immunomolecules during antibiotic therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 2014;176:93-101 pubmed publisher
    Little information is available regarding changes in immune status for patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease during antibiotic therapy...
  68. Whiley H, Keegan A, Giglio S, Bentham R. Mycobacterium avium complex--the role of potable water in disease transmission. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:223-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of opportunistic pathogens of major public health concern. It is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease dependent on subspecies, route of infection and patients pre-existing conditions...
  69. Tomioka H, Sano C, Sato K, Ogasawara K, Akaki T, Sano K, et al. Combined effects of ATP on the therapeutic efficacy of antimicrobial drug regimens against Mycobacterium avium complex infection in mice and roles of cytosolic phospholipase A2-dependent mechanisms in the ATP-mediated potentiation of antimycobacteria. J Immunol. 2005;175:6741-9 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined the effects of ATP in potentiating host resistance to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in mice undergoing treatment with a drug regimen using clarithromycin and rifamycin and ..
  70. Al Houqani M, Jamieson F, Mehta M, Chedore P, May K, Marras T. Aging, COPD, and other risk factors do not explain the increased prevalence of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex in Ontario. Chest. 2012;141:190-197 pubmed publisher
    The cause of observed increases in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (pMAC) isolation and disease is unexplained...
  71. Babady N, Hall L, Abbenyi A, Eisberner J, Brown Elliott B, Pratt C, et al. Evaluation of Mycobacterium avium complex clarithromycin susceptibility testing using SLOMYCO Sensititre panels and JustOne strips. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1749-52 pubmed publisher
    ..strip (both from TREK Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH) were evaluated for susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates against clarithromycin...
  72. Nishimura T, Hasegawa N, Fujita Y, Yano I, Ishizaka A. Serodiagnostic contributions of antibody titers against mycobacterial lipid antigens in Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:529-35 pubmed publisher
    ..the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis is decreasing, the number of immunocompetent patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is steadily increasing...
  73. Corti M, Palmero D. Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6:351-63 pubmed publisher
    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease...
  74. Murcia M, Tortoli E, Menendez M, Palenque E, Garcia M. Mycobacterium colombiense sp. nov., a novel member of the Mycobacterium avium complex and description of MAC-X as a new ITS genetic variant. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:2049-54 pubmed
    ..strains isolated from 23 Colombian HIV-positive patients were identified as members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and were characterized using different molecular approaches...
  75. Kobashi Y, Matsushima T. The microbiological and clinical effects of combined therapy according to guidelines on the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease in Japan - including a follow-up study. Respiration. 2007;74:394-400 pubmed
    The difficulty of treatment for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in Japan.
  76. Cai S, Sato K, Shimizu T, Yamabe S, Hiraki M, Sano C, et al. Antimicrobial activity of picolinic acid against extracellular and intracellular Mycobacterium avium complex and its combined activity with clarithromycin, rifampicin and fluoroquinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2006;57:85-93 pubmed
    ..Here, we studied the antimicrobial activity of PA against extracellular and intramacrophage Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms.
  77. Thomson R. Changing epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1576-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Mycobacterium intracellulare is the main pathogen associated with the increase in isolates speciated in Queensland...
  78. Wu U, Chen M, Hu R, Hsieh S, Sheng W, Lo Y, et al. Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex in patients with AIDS: report of five cases and review of the literature. Int J Infect Dis. 2009;13:285-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) often causes disseminated infection in patients at an advanced stage of HIV infection; however, peritonitis associated with disseminated MAC infection is rare.
  79. Kasperbauer S, Daley C. Diagnosis and treatment of infections due to Mycobacterium avium complex. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2008;29:569-76 pubmed publisher
    b>MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM complex (MAC) consists of nontuberculous mycobacteria that cause disease in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts...
  80. Watanabe M, Hasegawa N, Ishizaka A, Asakura K, Izumi Y, Eguchi K, et al. Early pulmonary resection for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease treated with macrolides and quinolones. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006;81:2026-30 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to examine the postoperative outcomes of patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung lesions persisting despite treatment with multiple antibiotics.
  81. O Neil R, Bennett G, Kapoor C. High-resolution computed tomography of 'hot tub' pneumonitis. Australas Radiol. 2006;50:52-4 pubmed
    ..Pathological correlation showed interstitial and bronchiolocentric granulomata. Biopsy cultures grew M. avium intracellulare. The patient condition improved following cessation of hot tub use...