mycobacterium leprae

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.

Top Publications

  1. Bochud P, Sinsimer D, Aderem A, Siddiqui M, Saunderson P, Britton S, et al. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are associated with protection against leprosy. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:1055-65 pubmed publisher
    ..5% of controls, respectively (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.06--.40, P < 0.001, dominant model). We found that Mycobacterium leprae stimulation of monocytes partially inhibited their subsequent response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ..
  2. Tanigawa K, Suzuki K, Kimura H, Takeshita F, Wu H, Akama T, et al. Tryptophan aspartate-containing coat protein (CORO1A) suppresses Toll-like receptor signalling in Mycobacterium leprae infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2009;156:495-501 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae is an intracellular pathogen that survives within the phagosome of host macrophages. Several host factors are involved in producing tolerance, while others are responsible for killing the mycobacterium...
  3. Rodrigues L, da Silva Maeda E, Moreira M, Tempone A, Lobato L, Ribeiro Resende V, et al. Mycobacterium leprae induces insulin-like growth factor and promotes survival of Schwann cells upon serum withdrawal. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:42-54 pubmed publisher
    ..nerve lesions are considered the most relevant symptoms of leprosy, a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The strategies employed by M...
  4. Suzuki K, Takigawa W, Tanigawa K, Nakamura K, Ishido Y, Kawashima A, et al. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA from archaeological skeletal remains in Japan using whole genome amplification and polymerase chain reaction. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12422 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate Mycobacterium leprae DNA from archaeological skeletal remains in Japan by polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing and single ..
  5. Fukutomi Y, Maeda Y, Matsuoka M, Makino M. Temperature dependency for survival of Mycobacterium leprae in macrophages. Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2009;78:7-16 pubmed
    Hansen's disease is caused by an infection with an intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium leprae, which mainly inhabits macrophages and Schwann cells...
  6. Alter A, Grant A, Abel L, Alcais A, Schurr E. Leprosy as a genetic disease. Mamm Genome. 2011;22:19-31 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy (Hansen's disease) is a human infectious disease whose etiological agent, Mycobacterium leprae, was identified by G. H. A. Hansen in the 19th century. Despite the high efficacy of multidrug therapy (<0...
  7. Tanigawa K, Degang Y, Kawashima A, Akama T, Yoshihara A, Ishido Y, et al. Essential role of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the maintenance of lipid storage in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages. Microb Pathog. 2012;52:285-91 pubmed
    b>Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae), the causative agent of leprosy, parasitizes within the foamy or enlarged phagosome of macrophages where rich lipids accumulate...
  8. Xing Y, Liu J, Sakamuri R, Wang Z, Wen Y, Vissa V, et al. VNTR typing studies of Mycobacterium leprae in China: assessment of methods and stability of markers during treatment. Lepr Rev. 2009;80:261-71 pubmed
    ..Taken together, VNTR strain typing is a useful tool for study of short range transmission in leprosy. ..
  9. Lahiri R, Krahenbuhl J. The role of free-living pathogenic amoeba in the transmission of leprosy: a proof of principle. Lepr Rev. 2008;79:401-9 pubmed
    ..Problematic in any transmission hypothesis is the fastidious nature of Mycobacterium leprae outside its host cell and the requirement for temporary survival in the environment, soil or water...

More Information

Publications134 found, 100 shown here

  1. Montoya D, Cruz D, Teles R, Lee D, Ochoa M, Krutzik S, et al. Divergence of macrophage phagocytic and antimicrobial programs in leprosy. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that macrophage programs for phagocytosis and antimicrobial responses are distinct and differentially regulated in innate immunity to bacterial infections. ..
  2. Wiker H, Tomazella G, De Souza G. A quantitative view on Mycobacterium leprae antigens by proteomics. J Proteomics. 2011;74:1711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the availability of Mycobacterium leprae genomic information showed an intriguing genome reduction which is now largely used in comparative genomics...
  3. Kimura M, Sakamuri R, Groathouse N, Rivoire B, Gingrich D, Krueger Koplin S, et al. Rapid variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping for Mycobacterium leprae clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1757-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae is the noncultivable pathogen of leprosy. Since the genome sequence of an isolate of M...
  4. Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Sawanpanyalert P, Sittiwakin T, Likanonsakul S, Pasadorn S, et al. LightCycler real-time PCR for rapid detection and quantitation of Mycobacterium leprae in skin specimens. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;54:263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mycobacterium leprae is not cultivable and bacterial enumeration by microscopic examination is required for leprosy ..
  5. Martínez A, Ribeiro Alves M, Sarno E, Moraes M. Evaluation of qPCR-based assays for leprosy diagnosis directly in clinical specimens. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1354 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results are encouraging and suggest that RLEP assay could be useful as a sensitive diagnostic test to detect M. leprae infection before major clinical manifestations...
  6. Han X, Sizer K, Thompson E, Kabanja J, Li J, Hu P, et al. Comparative sequence analysis of Mycobacterium leprae and the new leprosy-causing Mycobacterium lepromatosis. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:6067-74 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of its 16S rRNA gene and a few other gene segments revealed significant divergence from Mycobacterium leprae, a well-known cause of leprosy, that justifies the status of M. lepromatosis as a new species...
  7. Gupta U, Katoch K, Katoch V. Study of rifampicin resistance and comparison of dapsone resistance of M. leprae in pre- and post-MDT era. Indian J Lepr. 2009;81:131-4 pubmed
    ..1%). MDT appears to have been useful in reducing the prevalence of dapsone resistance in leprosy patients reporting to a tertiary care hospital. ..
  8. Spencer J, Brennan P. The role of Mycobacterium leprae phenolic glycolipid I (PGL-I) in serodiagnosis and in the pathogenesis of leprosy. Lepr Rev. 2011;82:344-57 pubmed
    ..leprae/leprosy. ..
  9. Brito e Cabral P, Júnior J, de Macedo A, Alves A, Gonçalves T, Brito e Cabral T, et al. Anti-PGL1 salivary IgA/IgM, serum IgG/IgM, and nasal Mycobacterium leprae DNA in individuals with household contact with leprosy. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e1005-10 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy household contacts represent a group at high risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to detect Mycobacterium leprae subclinical infection in this group through serological and molecular parameters.
  10. Bobosha K, Tang S, van der Ploeg van Schip J, Bekele Y, Martins M, Lund O, et al. Mycobacterium leprae virulence-associated peptides are indicators of exposure to M. leprae in Brazil, Ethiopia and Nepal. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107 Suppl 1:112-23 pubmed
    Silent transmission of Mycobacterium leprae, as evidenced by stable leprosy incidence rates in various countries, remains a health challenge despite the implementation of multidrug therapy worldwide...
  11. Matsuoka M, Gonzalez A, Estrada I, Carreño Martinez C, Fafutis Morris M. Various genotypes of Mycobacterium leprae from Mexico reveal distinct geographic distribution. Lepr Rev. 2009;80:322-6 pubmed
    To classify Mycobacterium leprae isolates from multiple areas in Mexico based on variable number of tandem repeats of 6 base within the rpoT gene and three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and to analyse their geographic distribution ..
  12. Ribeiro Resende V, Ribeiro Guimarães M, Lemes R, Nascimento I, Alves L, Mendez Otero R, et al. Involvement of 9-O-Acetyl GD3 ganglioside in Mycobacterium leprae infection of Schwann cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34086-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae (ML), the etiologic agent of leprosy, mainly affects the skin and peripheral nerves, leading to demyelization and loss of axonal conductance...
  13. Yokoyama K, Kim H, Mukai T, Matsuoka M, Nakajima C, Suzuki Y. Amino acid substitutions at position 95 in GyrA can add fluoroquinolone resistance to Mycobacterium leprae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:697-702 pubmed publisher
    Amino acid substitutions at position 89 or 91 in GyrA of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycobacterium leprae clinical isolates have been reported. In contrast, those at position 94 in M. tuberculosis, equivalent to position 95 in M...
  14. Young S, Ponnighaus J, Jain S, Lucas S, Suneetha S, Lockwood D, et al. Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e214 pubmed publisher
    Inadequate understanding of the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae makes it difficult to predict the impact of leprosy control interventions...
  15. Caleffi K, Hirata R, Hirata M, Caleffi E, Siqueira V, Cardoso R. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycobacterium leprae in urine. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012;45:153-7 pubmed
    Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been applied to detect M. leprae in different clinical samples and urine seems to be attractive for this purpose...
  16. Fontes A, Gomes H, Araujo M, Albuquerque E, Baptista I, Moura M, et al. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present on Ziehl-Neelsen-stained microscopic slides and in skin biopsy samples from leprosy patients in different geographic regions of Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107 Suppl 1:143-9 pubmed
    We analysed 16 variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in Mycobacterium leprae present on 115 Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N)-stained slides and in 51 skin biopsy samples derived from leprosy patients ..
  17. Feenstra S, Pahan D, Moet F, Oskam L, Richardus J. Patient-related factors predicting the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis in contacts: 6 year follow up of the COLEP cohort in Bangladesh. Lepr Rev. 2012;83:292-304 pubmed
    ..We assessed the impact of this intervention after 6 years and identified characteristics of the leprosy index patients predicting the effectiveness of this intervention...
  18. Geluk A, van der Ploeg van Schip J, van Meijgaarden K, Commandeur S, Drijfhout J, Benckhuijsen W, et al. Enhancing sensitivity of detection of immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae peptides in whole-blood assays. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:993-1004 pubmed publisher
    ..This calls for new efforts, among which is development of assays that can identify subclinical/early-stage Mycobacterium leprae-infected subjects, a likely source of transmission...
  19. Schuenemann V, Singh P, Mendum T, Krause Kyora B, Jäger G, Bos K, et al. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae. Science. 2013;341:179-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark...
  20. Matsuoka M. History and characteristics of isolates maintained at the leprosy research center. Nihon Hansenbyo Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;79:247-56 pubmed
    ..The Leprosy Research Center provides bacillary materials as experimental resources at researchers' request. ..
  21. Rodrigues L, Lockwood D. Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..for research on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as further use of molecular analysis of the Mycobacterium leprae genome, implementation of BCG vaccination, and administration of chemoprophylaxis to household contacts...
  22. Kaushal P, Singh P, Sharma A, Muniyappa K, Vijayan M. X-ray and molecular-dynamics studies on Mycobacterium leprae single-stranded DNA-binding protein and comparison with other eubacterial SSB structures. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2010;66:1048-58 pubmed publisher
    The crystal structures of two forms of Mycobacterium leprae single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) have been determined at 2.05 and 2.8 Å resolution...
  23. Tabouret G, Astarie Dequeker C, Demangel C, Malaga W, Constant P, Ray A, et al. Mycobacterium leprae phenolglycolipid-1 expressed by engineered M. bovis BCG modulates early interaction with human phagocytes. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001159 pubmed publisher
    ..critical role in the pathogenesis of leprosy, a chronic disease of the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Based on studies using the purified compound, PGL-1 was proposed to mediate the tropism of M...
  24. Zhang F, Huang W, Chen S, Sun L, Liu H, Li Y, et al. Genomewide association study of leprosy. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:2609-18 pubmed publisher
    The narrow host range of Mycobacterium leprae and the fact that it is refractory to growth in culture has limited research on and the biologic understanding of leprosy...
  25. Pinheiro R, de Souza Salles J, Sarno E, Sampaio E. Mycobacterium leprae-host-cell interactions and genetic determinants in leprosy: an overview. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:217-30 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae in which susceptibility to the mycobacteria and its clinical manifestations are attributed to the host immune response...
  26. Misch E, Macdonald M, Ranjit C, Sapkota B, Wells R, Siddiqui M, et al. Human TLR1 deficiency is associated with impaired mycobacterial signaling and protection from leprosy reversal reaction. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e231 pubmed publisher
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important regulators of the innate immune response to pathogens, including Mycobacterium leprae, which is recognized by TLR1/2 heterodimers...
  27. Alter A, de Léséleuc L, Van Thuc N, Thai V, Huong N, Ba N, et al. Genetic and functional analysis of common MRC1 exon 7 polymorphisms in leprosy susceptibility. Hum Genet. 2010;127:337-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, 293-MR failed to bind and internalize viable Mycobacterium leprae and BCG. We propose that the MR-M...
  28. da Silva Rocha A, Cunha Dos Santos A, Pignataro P, Nery J, de Miranda A, Soares D, et al. Genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae from Brazilian leprosy patients suggests the occurrence of reinfection or of bacterial population shift during disease relapse. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:1441-6 pubmed publisher
    We performed genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae present in skin biopsy samples that were collected during the first and the second disease occurrences from eight leprosy patients, seven of whom were diagnosed as suffering from disease ..
  29. Yokoyama K, Kim H, Mukai T, Matsuoka M, Nakajima C, Suzuki Y. Impact of amino acid substitutions in B subunit of DNA gyrase in Mycobacterium leprae on fluoroquinolone resistance. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1838 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, potential use of sitafloxacin for the treatment of problematic cases of leprosy by FQ resistant M. leprae was suggested. ..
  30. Kai M, Nguyen Phuc N, Nguyen H, Pham T, Nguyen K, Miyamoto Y, et al. Analysis of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium leprae in an endemic area of Vietnam. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:e127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the rate of reduction has decelerated over the years, giving early detection of Mycobacterium leprae and epidemiological study of relapse renewed relevance in attempts to eliminate the disease...
  31. Cardoso C, Pereira A, Brito de Souza V, Duraes S, Ribeiro Alves M, Nery J, et al. TNF -308G>A single nucleotide polymorphism is associated with leprosy among Brazilians: a genetic epidemiology assessment, meta-analysis, and functional study. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1256-63 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a key role in the host response...
  32. da Silva Rocha A, Cunha M, Diniz L, Salgado C, Aires M, Nery J, et al. Drug and multidrug resistance among Mycobacterium leprae isolates from Brazilian relapsed leprosy patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1912-7 pubmed publisher
    ..five different regions in Brazil were submitted for sequence analysis of part of the genes associated with Mycobacterium leprae drug resistance. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these genes were observed in M...
  33. Masaki T, Qu J, Cholewa Waclaw J, Burr K, Raaum R, Rambukkana A. Reprogramming adult Schwann cells to stem cell-like cells by leprosy bacilli promotes dissemination of infection. Cell. 2013;152:51-67 pubmed publisher
  34. Marques M, Neves Ferreira A, da Silveira E, Valente R, Chapeaurouge A, Perales J, et al. Deciphering the proteomic profile of Mycobacterium leprae cell envelope. Proteomics. 2008;8:2477-91 pubmed publisher
    The complete sequence of the Mycobacterium leprae genome, an obligate intracellular pathogen, shows a dramatic reduction of functional genes, with a coding capacity of less than 50%...
  35. Singh P, Busso P, Paniz Mondolfi A, Aranzazu N, Monot M, Honoré N, et al. Molecular drug susceptibility testing and genotyping of Mycobacterium leprae strains from South America. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:2971-3 pubmed publisher
    Possible drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae strains from Venezuela and three other South American countries was surveyed by molecular methods...
  36. Taylor G, Donoghue H. Multiple loci variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) of Mycobacterium leprae isolates amplified from European archaeological human remains with lepromatous leprosy. Microbes Infect. 2011;13:923-9 pubmed publisher
    ..single nucleotides and short tandem repeat motifs have been developed as epidemiological typing tools for Mycobacterium leprae. We have used a variable number tandem repeat method based on three variable loci to identify strain ..
  37. Lavania M, Katoch K, Katoch V, Gupta A, Chauhan D, Sharma R, et al. Detection of viable Mycobacterium leprae in soil samples: insights into possible sources of transmission of leprosy. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..However, new cases of leprosy continue to occur. Mycobacterium leprae cannot be grown in any acceptable culture medium and besides the wild armadillos, there is no known animal ..
  38. Fischer E, Pahan D, Chowdhury S, Oskam L, Richardus J. The spatial distribution of leprosy in four villages in Bangladesh: an observational study. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:125 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, in highly endemic areas, it appears to be more effective to target complete villages for contact tracing, rather than narrowly defined contact groups such as households. ..
  39. Martinez A, Lahiri R, Pittman T, Scollard D, Truman R, Moraes M, et al. Molecular determination of Mycobacterium leprae viability by use of real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2124-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae, the etiological agent of leprosy, is noncultivable on axenic media. Therefore, the viability of M. leprae for clinical or experimental applications is often unknown. To provide new tools for M...
  40. Sakamuri R, Kimura M, Li W, Kim H, Lee H, Kiran M, et al. Population-based molecular epidemiology of leprosy in Cebu, Philippines. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2844-54 pubmed publisher
    ..variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing for Mycobacterium leprae in biopsied skin lesion samples...
  41. Monot M, Honoré N, Garnier T, Zidane N, Sherafi D, Paniz Mondolfi A, et al. Comparative genomic and phylogeographic analysis of Mycobacterium leprae. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1282-9 pubmed publisher
    Reductive evolution and massive pseudogene formation have shaped the 3.31-Mb genome of Mycobacterium leprae, an unculturable obligate pathogen that causes leprosy in humans. The complete genome sequence of M...
  42. Richardus J, Habbema J. The impact of leprosy control on the transmission of M. leprae: is elimination being attained?. Lepr Rev. 2007;78:330-7 pubmed
    ..leprae and practical diagnostic tools to detect levels of infection that can lead to transmission. This requires extensive research in the areas of epidemiology and microbiology. ..
  43. Mattos K, Lara F, Oliveira V, Rodrigues L, D Avila H, Melo R, et al. Modulation of lipid droplets by Mycobacterium leprae in Schwann cells: a putative mechanism for host lipid acquisition and bacterial survival in phagosomes. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:259-73 pubmed publisher
    The predilection of Mycobacterium leprae (ML) for Schwann cells (SCs) leads to peripheral neuropathy, a major concern in leprosy...
  44. Marengo E, de Moraes L, Faria M, Fernandes B, Carvalho L, Tambourgi D, et al. Administration of M. leprae Hsp65 interferes with the murine lupus progression. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3025 pubmed publisher
    ..This study gives new insights into the general biological role of Hsp and the significant impact of environmental factors during the pathogenesis of this autoimmune process. ..
  45. Duthie M, Goto W, Ireton G, Reece S, Sampaio L, Grassi A, et al. Antigen-specific T-cell responses of leprosy patients. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2008;15:1659-65 pubmed publisher
    The identification of human T-cell antigens of Mycobacterium leprae could improve treatment and help to disrupt the transmission of leprosy by directing diagnosis and vaccine programs. This study screened a panel of M...
  46. Pereira A, Brito de Souza V, Cardoso C, Dias Baptista I, Parelli F, Venturini J, et al. Genetic, epidemiological and biological analysis of interleukin-10 promoter single-nucleotide polymorphisms suggests a definitive role for -819C/T in leprosy susceptibility. Genes Immun. 2009;10:174-80 pubmed publisher
    ..40; P=0.01). Finally, we tested IL-10 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Mycobacterium leprae antigens and found that -819T carriers produced lower levels of IL-10 when compared with non-carriers...
  47. Trindade M, Palermo M, Pagliari C, Valente N, Naafs B, Massarollo P, et al. Leprosy in transplant recipients: report of a case after liver transplantation and review of the literature. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The dilemmas in diagnosis and management of such a case are discussed and the literature on leprosy in transplant recipients is reviewed. ..
  48. Truman R, Singh P, Sharma R, Busso P, Rougemont J, Paniz Mondolfi A, et al. Probable zoonotic leprosy in the southern United States. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the same region, as well as in Mexico, wild armadillos are infected with Mycobacterium leprae.
  49. Dagur P, Sharma B, Upadhyay R, Dua B, Rizvi A, Khan N, et al. Phenolic-glycolipid-1 and lipoarabinomannan preferentially modulate TCR- and CD28-triggered proximal biochemical events, leading to T-cell unresponsiveness in mycobacterial diseases. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11:119 pubmed publisher
  50. Sharma R, Lavania M, Katoch K, Chauhan D, Gupta A, Gupta U, et al. Development and evaluation of real-time RT-PCR assay for quantitative estimation of viable Mycobacterium leprae in clinical samples. Indian J Lepr. 2008;80:315-21 pubmed
    ..All smear positive cases were positive by this assay. This assay appears to be a promising tool for detection and quantification of viable bacilli in selected clinical situations and should be of use even in smear negative cases also. ..
  51. Nandi S, Rehna E, Panda A, Shiburaj S, Dharmalingam K, Biswas A. A S52P mutation in the '?-crystallin domain' of Mycobacterium leprae HSP18 reduces its oligomeric size and chaperone function. FEBS J. 2013;280:5994-6009 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae HSP18 is a small heat shock protein (sHSP). It is a major immunodominant antigen of M. leprae pathogen. Previously, we have reported the existence of two M. leprae HSP18 variants in various leprotic patients...
  52. Matsuoka M, Aye K, Kyaw K, Tan E, Balagon M, Saunderson P, et al. A novel method for simple detection of mutations conferring drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae, based on a DNA microarray, and its applicability in developing countries. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:1213-9 pubmed publisher
    A simple method to detect mutations in the genome of Mycobacterium leprae that confer resistance to key drugs for leprosy was exploited on the basis of a reverse hybridization system...
  53. De Souza G, Søfteland T, Koehler C, Thiede B, Wiker H. Validating divergent ORF annotation of the Mycobacterium leprae genome through a full translation data set and peptide identification by tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2009;9:3233-43 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae has undergone extensive degenerative evolution, with a large number of pseudogenes. It is also the organism with the greatest divergence between gene annotations from independent institutes. Therefore, M...
  54. Hall B, Salipante S. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium leprae as determined by structure-neighbor clustering. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1997-2008 pubmed publisher
    It has proven challenging to investigate the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, due to difficulties with culturing of the organism and a lack of genetic heterogeneity between strains...
  55. Matsuoka M, Suzuki Y, Garcia I, Fafutis Morris M, Vargas Gonzalez A, Carreño Martinez C, et al. Possible mode of emergence for drug-resistant leprosy is revealed by an analysis of samples from Mexico. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010;63:412-6 pubmed
    ..In this study, molecular analysis of Mycobacterium leprae was employed to clarify the spread of drug-resistant leprosy...
  56. Aggarwal S, Ali S, Chopra R, Srivastava A, Kalaiarasan P, Malhotra D, et al. Genetic variations and interactions in anti-inflammatory cytokine pathway genes in the outcome of leprosy: a study conducted on a MassARRAY platform. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1264-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae is the etiologic pathogen that causes leprosy. The outcome of disease is dependent on the host genetic background...
  57. Souza P, Zárate Bladés C, Hori J, Ramos S, Lima D, Schneider T, et al. Protective efficacy of different strategies employing Mycobacterium leprae heat-shock protein 65 against tuberculosis. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2008;8:1255-64 pubmed
    ..Among the immunization protocols tested, liposomes containing DNAhsp65 represent the most promising strategy for the development of a new anti-TB vaccine. ..
  58. Mattos K, D Avila H, Rodrigues L, Oliveira V, Sarno E, Atella G, et al. Lipid droplet formation in leprosy: Toll-like receptor-regulated organelles involved in eicosanoid formation and Mycobacterium leprae pathogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 2010;87:371-84 pubmed publisher
  59. Gillis T, Vissa V, Matsuoka M, Young S, Richardus J, Truman R, et al. Characterisation of short tandem repeats for genotyping Mycobacterium leprae. Lepr Rev. 2009;80:250-60 pubmed
    Establish a typing system for Mycobacterium leprae based on polymorphic DNA structures known as short tandem repeats (STR)...
  60. Akama T, Tanigawa K, Kawashima A, Wu H, Ishii N, Suzuki K. Analysis of Mycobacterium leprae gene expression using DNA microarray. Microb Pathog. 2010;49:181-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, does not grow under in vitro condition, making molecular analysis of this bacterium difficult. For this reason, bacteriological information regarding M...
  61. Martins M, Guimarães M, Spencer J, Hacker M, Costa L, Carvalho F, et al. Pathogen-specific epitopes as epidemiological tools for defining the magnitude of Mycobacterium leprae transmission in areas endemic for leprosy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1616 pubmed publisher
    During recent years, comparative genomic analysis has allowed the identification of Mycobacterium leprae-specific genes with potential application for the diagnosis of leprosy...
  62. Walsh G, Dela Cruz E, Abalos R, Tan E, Fajardo T, Villahermosa L, et al. Limited susceptibility of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) to leprosy after experimental administration of Mycobacterium leprae. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1-19 years) ..
  63. Morgado de Abreu M, Roselino A, Enokihara M, Nonogaki S, Prestes Carneiro L, Weckx L, et al. Mycobacterium leprae is identified in the oral mucosa from paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014;20:59-64 pubmed publisher
    In leprosy, the nasal mucosa is considered as the principal route of transmission for the bacillus Mycobacterium leprae. The objective of this study was to identify M...
  64. Matsuoka M, Budiawan T, Aye K, Kyaw K, Tan E, Cruz E, et al. The frequency of drug resistance mutations in Mycobacterium leprae isolates in untreated and relapsed leprosy patients from Myanmar, Indonesia and the Philippines. Lepr Rev. 2007;78:343-52 pubmed
    The magnitude of drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae to dapsone, rifampicin, and ofloxacin was studied in three Southeast Asian countries with a high prevalence of leprosy.
  65. Geluk A, Spencer J, Bobosha K, Pessolani M, Pereira G, Banu S, et al. From genome-based in silico predictions to ex vivo verification of leprosy diagnosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:352-9 pubmed publisher
    The detection of hundreds of thousands of new cases of leprosy every year suggests that transmission of Mycobacterium leprae infection still continues. Unfortunately, tools for identification of asymptomatic disease and/or early-stage M...
  66. Katoch K, Katoch V, Natarajan M, Gupta U, Sharma V, Singh H. Long term follow-up results of 1 year MDT in MB leprosy patients treated with standard MDT + once a month Minocycline and Ofloxacin. Indian J Lepr. 2008;80:331-44 pubmed
    ..It was also envisaged to see if the addition of newer bactericidal drugs would be beneficial...
  67. Duthie M, Truman R, Goto W, O Donnell J, Hay M, Spencer J, et al. Insight toward early diagnosis of leprosy through analysis of the developing antibody responses of Mycobacterium leprae-infected armadillos. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:254-9 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy is a debilitating chronic disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. A World Health Organization-directed control strategy based upon the identification and treatment of patients has resulted in a marked reduction in ..
  68. Maheshwari J, Dharmalingam K. Protective role of Mycobacterium leprae small heat-shock protein in heterologous hosts, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis, grown under stress. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:959-67 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to examine the in vivo role of a small heat-shock protein (sHsp18) from Mycobacterium leprae in the survival of heterologous recombinant hosts carrying the gene encoding this protein under different environmental ..
  69. Pe a M, Adams J, Adams L, Gillis T, Williams D, Spencer J, et al. Expression and characterization of recombinant interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) from the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) and its effect on Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages. Cytokine. 2008;43:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..manifest the full histopathological spectrum of leprosy, and are hosts of choice for in vivo propagation of Mycobacterium leprae. Though potentially useful as a model of leprosy pathogenesis, few armadillo-specific reagents exist...
  70. Akama T, Suzuki K, Tanigawa K, Kawashima A, Wu H, Nakata N, et al. Whole-genome tiling array analysis of Mycobacterium leprae RNA reveals high expression of pseudogenes and noncoding regions. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:3321-7 pubmed publisher
    Whole-genome sequence analysis of Mycobacterium leprae has revealed a limited number of protein-coding genes, with half of the genome composed of pseudogenes and noncoding regions. We previously showed that some M...
  71. Alban S, Sella S, Miranda R, Mira M, Soccol V. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis as a tool for Mycobacterium species identification in lepromas for lepromin production. Lepr Rev. 2009;80:129-42 pubmed
  72. Watson C, Lockwood D. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of European archaeological M. leprae DNA. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7547 pubmed publisher
    ..leprae ancient DNA (aDNA) from medieval bones and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typed the DNA, this provides insight into the pattern of leprosy transmission in Europe and may assist in the understanding of M. leprae evolution...
  73. Bhamidi S, Scherman M, Jones V, Crick D, Belisle J, Brennan P, et al. Detailed structural and quantitative analysis reveals the spatial organization of the cell walls of in vivo grown Mycobacterium leprae and in vitro grown Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:23168-77 pubmed publisher
    ..and to begin to study the differences between bacteria grown in animals and cultures, the cell walls of Mycobacterium leprae grown in armadillos was characterized and compared with that of M. tuberculosis grown in culture...
  74. Manca C, Peixoto B, Malaga W, Guilhot C, Kaplan G. Modulation of the cytokine response in human monocytes by mycobacterium leprae phenolic glycolipid-1. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2012;32:27-33 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy is a chronic but treatable infectious disease caused by the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium leprae. M. leprae cell wall is characterized by a unique phenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) reported to have several immune functions...
  75. Cruz A, Furini R, Roselino A. Comparison between microsatellites and Ml MntH gene as targets to identify Mycobacterium leprae by PCR in leprosy. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:651-6 pubmed
    ..To compare the results of PCR with four pairs of Mycobacterium leprae specific primers as well as to compare these results to multibacillary (MB) and paucibacillary (PB) leprosy ..
  76. Adams L, Pena M, Sharma R, Hagge D, Schurr E, Truman R. Insights from animal models on the immunogenetics of leprosy: a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2012;107 Suppl 1:197-208 pubmed
    ..of host immunogenetic factors appear to influence both an individual's susceptibility to infection with Mycobacterium leprae and the pathologic course of the disease...
  77. Truman R, Andrews P, Robbins N, Adams L, Krahenbuhl J, Gillis T. Enumeration of Mycobacterium leprae using real-time PCR. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e328 pubmed publisher
    b>Mycobacterium leprae is not cultivable in axenic media, and direct microscopic enumeration of the bacilli is complex, labor intensive, and suffers from limited sensitivity and specificity...
  78. Cardona Castro N, Beltrán Alzate J, Romero Montoya I, Meléndez E, Torres F, Sakamuri R, et al. Identification and comparison of Mycobacterium leprae genotypes in two geographical regions of Colombia. Lepr Rev. 2009;80:316-21 pubmed
    ..To evaluate and establish genomic strain typing markers suitable for the identification of transmission patterns of leprosy in different regions of Colombia...
  79. Montoya D, Modlin R. Learning from leprosy: insight into the human innate immune response. Adv Immunol. 2010;105:1-24 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors that detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns of the bacterium that causes leprosy, Mycobacterium leprae. From this knowledge, it has been possible to determine the cytokine responses as well as macrophage and ..
  80. Shanmugam A, Natarajan J. Comparative modeling of UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-glycyl-D-glutamate-2, 6-diaminopimelate ligase from Mycobacterium leprae and analysis of its binding features through molecular docking studies. J Mol Model. 2012;18:115-25 pubmed publisher
    Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The increasing drug and multi-drug resistance of M. leprae enforce the importance of finding new drug targets...
  81. Woodall P, Scollard D, Rajan L. Hansen disease among Micronesian and Marshallese persons living in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1202-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased case finding and management, and avoidance of leprosy-labeled stigma, is needed for this population...
  82. Alban S, de Moura J, Minozzo J, Mira M, Soccol V. Identification of mimotopes of Mycobacterium leprae as potential diagnostic reagents. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Aiming at identifying new reagents to be used in skin tests, candidate antigens were investigated...
  83. Silva C, Danelishvili L, McNamara M, Berredo Pinho M, Bildfell R, Biet F, et al. Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with human airway epithelial cells: adherence, entry, survival, and identification of potential adhesins by surface proteome analysis. Infect Immun. 2013;81:2645-59 pubmed publisher
    This study examined the in vitro interaction between Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, and human alveolar and nasal epithelial cells, demonstrating that M...
  84. Raman V, O Donnell J, Bailor H, Goto W, Lahiri R, Gillis T, et al. Vaccination with the ML0276 antigen reduces local inflammation but not bacterial burden during experimental Mycobacterium leprae infection. Infect Immun. 2009;77:5623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently identified several Mycobacterium leprae antigens that stimulate gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion upon incubation with blood from ..
  85. Dagur P, Sharma B, Kumar G, Khan N, Katoch V, Sengupta U, et al. Mycobacterial antigen(s) induce anergy by altering TCR- and TCR/CD28-induced signalling events: insights into T-cell unresponsiveness in leprosy. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:943-52 pubmed publisher
    Present study investigates the role of Mycobacterium leprae (M...
  86. Cardoso C, Pereira A, de Sales Marques C, Moraes M. Leprosy susceptibility: genetic variations regulate innate and adaptive immunity, and disease outcome. Future Microbiol. 2011;6:533-49 pubmed publisher
    ..possibly interacts with lipid droplet-related events, also plays a role in the early immune responses to Mycobacterium leprae. Together, the activation of these pathways regulates cellular metabolism upon infection, activating ..
  87. de Souza Sales J, Lara F, Amadeu T, de Oliveira Fulco T, da Costa Nery J, Sampaio E, et al. The role of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase in lepromatous leprosy immunosuppression. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;165:251-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Tests revealed an increased IDO message in Mycobacterium leprae-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ..
  88. Chaduvula M, Murtaza A, Misra N, Narayan N, Ramesh V, Prasad H, et al. Lsr2 peptides of Mycobacterium leprae show hierarchical responses in lymphoproliferative assays, with selective recognition by patients with anergic lepromatous leprosy. Infect Immun. 2012;80:742-52 pubmed publisher
    Lsr2 protein of Mycobacterium leprae was shown earlier to elicit B and T cell responses in leprosy patients (20, 28). Lymphoproliferation to M...
  89. Geluk A, Duthie M, Spencer J. Postgenomic Mycobacterium leprae antigens for cellular and serological diagnosis of M. leprae exposure, infection and leprosy disease. Lepr Rev. 2011;82:402-21 pubmed
    ..Here we provide an overview of the nearly 200 recombinant single proteins that were investigated during the last decade for their potential to be applied in field-friendly tests for the early diagnosis of leprosy...
  90. Davis G, Ray N, Lahiri R, Gillis T, Krahenbuhl J, Williams D, et al. Molecular assays for determining Mycobacterium leprae viability in tissues of experimentally infected mice. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2404 pubmed publisher
    The inability of Mycobacterium leprae to grow on axenic media has necessitated specialized techniques in order to determine viability of this organism...
  91. Bang P, Suzuki K, Phuong L, Chu T, Ishii N, Khang T. Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Mycobacterium leprae for the diagnosis of leprosy. J Dermatol. 2009;36:269-76 pubmed publisher
    Because Mycobacterium leprae cannot be cultivated in vitro, laboratory diagnosis of leprosy is generally made by microscopic and histopathological examination...
  92. Williams D, Slayden R, Amin A, Martinez A, Pittman T, Mira A, et al. Implications of high level pseudogene transcription in Mycobacterium leprae. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:397 pubmed publisher
    The Mycobacterium leprae genome has less than 50% coding capacity and 1,133 pseudogenes. Preliminary evidence suggests that some pseudogenes are expressed...