corynebacterium diphtheriae

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.

Top Publications

  1. Hirata R, Souza S, Rocha de Souza C, Andrade A, Monteiro Leal L, Formiga L, et al. Patterns of adherence to HEp-2 cells and actin polymerisation by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains. Microb Pathog. 2004;36:125-30 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains displayed different degrees of attachment to HEp-2 cell monolayers with two distinct adherence patterns, termed localised (LA) and diffuse (DA). The LA phenotype predominated over the DA phenotype...
  2. Hirata R, Napoleão F, Monteiro Leal L, Andrade A, Nagao P, Formiga L, et al. Intracellular viability of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains in HEp-2 cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;215:115-9 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae, generally considered an extracellular coloniser, was evaluated for its ability to enter and survive within HEp-2 monolayers by gentamicin protection assay...
  3. Bibb L, Schmitt M. The ABC transporter HrtAB confers resistance to hemin toxicity and is regulated in a hemin-dependent manner by the ChrAS two-component system in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:4606-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of the severe respiratory disease diphtheria, utilizes hemin and hemoglobin as iron sources for growth in iron-depleted environments...
  4. Puliti M, von Hunolstein C, Marangi M, Bistoni F, Tissi L. Experimental model of infection with non-toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and development of septic arthritis. J Med Microbiol. 2006;55:229-35 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a well-known cause of localized respiratory tract infections. However, this micro-organism can also be associated with invasive infections, such as endocarditis, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis...
  5. Kolodkina V, Denisevich T, Titov L. Identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae gene involved in adherence to epithelial cells. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:518-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae the causative pathogen of human diphtheria infects the nasopharynx or skin. Although diphtheria has been extensively studied, little is known about the two key aspects of C...
  6. Guidi Rontani C. Cytotoxic activity of a recombinant chimaeric protein between Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A and Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:1281-7 pubmed
    ..end of domain I and domain II of the toxin (ETA), was genetically fused to the diphtheria toxin gene of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, coding for the N-terminal end of A fragment of diphtheria toxin (DT)...
  7. Kang H, Paterson N, Gaspar A, Ton That H, Baker E. The Corynebacterium diphtheriae shaft pilin SpaA is built of tandem Ig-like modules with stabilizing isopeptide and disulfide bonds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:16967-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the 1.6-A resolution crystal structure of the shaft pilin component SpaA from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, revealing both common and unique features...
  8. Cerdeño Tárraga A, Efstratiou A, Dover L, Holden M, Pallen M, Bentley S, et al. The complete genome sequence and analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC13129. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:6516-23 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a Gram-positive, non-spore forming, non-motile, pleomorphic rod belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and the actinomycete group of organisms...
  9. Ton That H, Marraffini L, Schneewind O. Sortases and pilin elements involved in pilus assembly of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2004;53:251-61 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae SpaA pili are composed of three pilin subunits, SpaA, SpaB and SpaC...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zasada A, Zaleska M, Podlasin R, Seferynska I. The first case of septicemia due to nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Poland: case report. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2005;4:8 pubmed
    Toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are well known agent of diphtheria. Nontoxigenic strains can cause atypical course of the disease. Invasive diseases caused by C. diphtheriae occur very rare...
  2. Mattos Guaraldi A, Duarte Formiga L, Pereira G. Cell surface components and adhesion in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Microbes Infect. 2000;2:1507-12 pubmed
    ..primary approaches and new developments in the study of the molecular basis of the adhesive process of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are reviewed along with a discussion of the potential importance of hemagglutinins, exposed sugar ..
  3. Zasada A, Formińska K, Rzeczkowska M. [Occurence of pili genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 2012;64:19-27 pubmed
    ..Three distinct pilus structures can be produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae: SpaA-, SpaD- and SpaH-type pili...
  4. Sabbadini P, Assis M, Trost E, Gomes D, Moreira L, dos Santos C, et al. Corynebacterium diphtheriae 67-72p hemagglutinin, characterized as the protein DIP0733, contributes to invasion and induction of apoptosis in HEp-2 cells. Microb Pathog. 2012;52:165-76 pubmed publisher
    Although Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been classically described as an exclusively extracellular pathogen, there is growing evidence that it may be internalized by epithelial cells...
  5. Allen C, Burgos J, Schmitt M. Analysis of novel iron-regulated, surface-anchored hemin-binding proteins in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:2852-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes hemin and hemoglobin (Hb) as iron sources during growth in iron-depleted environments, and recent studies have shown that the surface-exposed HtaA protein binds both hemin and Hb and also contributes ..
  6. Wilks A, Moenne Loccoz P. Identification of the proximal ligand His-20 in heme oxygenase (Hmu O) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Oxidative cleavage of the heme macrocycle does not require the proximal histidine. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:11686-92 pubmed
    The coordination and spin-state of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae heme oxygenase (Hmu O) and the proximal Hmu O H20A mutant have been characterized by UV-visible and resonance Raman (RR) spectrophotometry...
  7. Li Y, Syvitski R, Chu G, Ikeda Saito M, Mar G. Solution 1H NMR investigation of the active site molecular and electronic structures of substrate-bound, cyanide-inhibited HmuO, a bacterial heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:6651-63 pubmed
    ..properties of the active site environment of HmuO, a heme oxygenase (HO) from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, have been investigated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy using the human HO (hHO) complex as a homology model...
  8. Grandiere Perez L, Jacqueline C, Lemabecque V, Patey O, Potel G, Caillon J. Eagle effect in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:2118-20 pubmed
    ..We found in vitro a paradoxical bactericidal effect of amoxicillin on 2 strains of nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Then, using an experimental rabbit model of endocarditis, we evaluated the in vivo relevance of this ..
  9. Mokrousov I, Vyazovaya A, Kolodkina V, Limeschenko E, Titov L, Narvskaya O. Novel macroarray-based method of Corynebacterium diphtheriae genotyping: evaluation in a field study in Belarus. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:701-3 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we evaluated a novel macroarray-based spoligotyping method for Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain typing. A total of 20 C...
  10. Allen C, Schmitt M. HtaA is an iron-regulated hemin binding protein involved in the utilization of heme iron in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:2638-48 pubmed publisher
    Many human pathogens, including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, use host compounds such as heme and hemoglobin as essential iron sources...
  11. Wilks A, Schmitt M. Expression and characterization of a heme oxygenase (Hmu O) from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Iron acquisition requires oxidative cleavage of the heme macrocycle. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:837-41 pubmed
    A full-length heme oxygenase gene from the pathogenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli...
  12. Bibb L, Kunkle C, Schmitt M. The ChrA-ChrS and HrrA-HrrS signal transduction systems are required for activation of the hmuO promoter and repression of the hemA promoter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Infect Immun. 2007;75:2421-31 pubmed
    Transcription of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae hmuO gene, which encodes a heme oxygenase involved in heme iron utilization, is activated in a heme- or hemoglobin-dependent manner in part by the two-component system ChrA-ChrS...
  13. Swierczynski A, Ton That H. Type III pilus of corynebacteria: Pilus length is determined by the level of its major pilin subunit. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:6318-25 pubmed
    ..The genome of Corynebacterium diphtheriae contains three pilus gene clusters, two of which have been previously characterized...
  14. Trost E, Blom J, Soares S, Huang I, Al Dilaimi A, Schröder J, et al. Pangenomic study of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that provides insights into the genomic diversity of pathogenic isolates from cases of classical diphtheria, endocarditis, and pneumonia. J Bacteriol. 2012;194:3199-215 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae is one of the most prominent human pathogens and the causative agent of the communicable disease diphtheria...
  15. Sing A, Hogardt M, Bierschenk S, Heesemann J. Detection of differences in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans causing extrapharyngeal infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4848-51 pubmed
    ..diphtheriae DT sequences, mainly in the translocation and receptor-binding domains. C. ulcerans supernatants were much less potent than supernatant from C. diphtheriae. A C. ulcerans DT-specific PCR is described below...
  16. Oguiza J, Tao X, Marcos A, Mart n J, Murphy J. Molecular cloning, DNA sequence analysis, and characterization of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR homolog from Brevibacterium lactofermentum. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:465-7 pubmed
    A homolog of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR gene was isolated from Brevibacterium lactofermentum. The product of the B...
  17. Kunkle C, Schmitt M. Analysis of a DtxR-regulated iron transport and siderophore biosynthesis gene cluster in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2005;187:422-33 pubmed
    This report describes a genetic locus associated with siderophore biosynthesis and transport in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. A BLAST search of the C...
  18. Hadfield T, McEvoy P, Polotsky Y, Tzinserling V, Yakovlev A. The pathology of diphtheria. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S116-20 pubmed
    Diphtheria is an acute, communicable disease caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The disease is generally characterized by local growth of the bacterium in the pharynx with pseudomembrane formation or, less commonly, in the stomach or ..
  19. Qian Y, Lee J, Holmes R. Identification of a DtxR-regulated operon that is essential for siderophore-dependent iron uptake in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:4846-56 pubmed
    ..DtxR) uses Fe(2+) as a corepressor and inhibits transcription from iron-regulated promoters (IRPs) in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. A new IRP, designated IRP6, was cloned from C. diphtheriae by a SELEX-like procedure...
  20. Schmitt M. Utilization of host iron sources by Corynebacterium diphtheriae: identification of a gene whose product is homologous to eukaryotic heme oxygenases and is required for acquisition of iron from heme and hemoglobin. J Bacteriol. 1997;179:838-45 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae was examined for the ability to utilize various host compounds as iron sources. C. diphtheriae C7(-) acquired iron from heme, hemoglobin, and transferrin...
  21. von Hunolstein C, Scopetti F, Efstratiou A, Engler K. Penicillin tolerance amongst non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated from cases of pharyngitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2002;50:125-8 pubmed
    Twenty-four strains of non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype gravis from the throats of patients with pharyngitis/tonsillitis were assayed for susceptibility to penicillin and erythromycin using determination of MIC, MBC and ..
  22. Grimont P, Grimont F, Efstratiou A, De Zoysa A, Mazurova I, Ruckly C, et al. International nomenclature for Corynebacterium diphtheriae ribotypes. Res Microbiol. 2004;155:162-6 pubmed
    The nomenclature of Corynebacterium diphtheriae ribotypes is presented. A total of 86 ribotypes obtained after BstEII digestion were given a geographic name chosen to reflect the place where one of the strains was isolated or studied.
  23. De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Hawkey P. Molecular characterization of diphtheria toxin repressor (dtxR) genes present in nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated in the United Kingdom. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:223-8 pubmed
    Nontoxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae represent a potential reservoir for the emergence of toxigenic C. diphtheriae strains if they possessed functional diphtheria toxin repressor (dtxR) genes...
  24. Efstratiou A, George R. Laboratory guidelines for the diagnosis of infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans. World Health Organization. Commun Dis Public Health. 1999;2:250-7 pubmed
    ..to the re-emergence of diphtheria in eastern Europe and the emergence of other infections caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae and C. ulcerans in the UK and overseas...
  25. Mothershed E, Cassiday P, Pierson K, Mayer L, Popovic T. Development of a real-time fluorescence PCR assay for rapid detection of the diphtheria toxin gene. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4713-9 pubmed
    ..When 23 toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains, 9 nontoxigenic C...
  26. Tauch A, Bischoff N, Brune I, Kalinowski J. Insights into the genetic organization of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae erythromycin resistance plasmid pNG2 deduced from its complete nucleotide sequence. Plasmid. 2003;49:63-74 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the erythromycin resistance plasmid pNG2 from the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae S601 was determined. The plasmid has a total size of 15,100 bp and contains at least 17 coding regions...
  27. Brune I, Brinkrolf K, Kalinowski J, Pühler A, Tauch A. The individual and common repertoire of DNA-binding transcriptional regulators of Corynebacterium glutamicum, Corynebacterium efficiens, Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium deduced from the complete genome sequences. BMC Genomics. 2005;6:86 pubmed
    ..Corynebacterium glutamicum and Corynebacterium efficiens, as well as serious human pathogens, such as Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium jeikeium...
  28. Gaspar A, Ton That H. Assembly of distinct pilus structures on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:1526-33 pubmed
    ..b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae has been shown to assemble a pilus structure, with sortase SrtA essential for the assembly of a major ..
  29. Popovic T, Kim C, Reiss J, Reeves M, Nakao H, Golaz A. Use of molecular subtyping to document long-term persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in South Dakota. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1092-9 pubmed
    ..in a Northern Plains community revealed that approximately 4% of them were infected by toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae of both mitis and gravis biotypes, showing that the organism is still circulating in the United States...
  30. Romney M, Roscoe D, Bernard K, Lai S, Efstratiou A, Clarke A. Emergence of an invasive clone of nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in the urban poor population of Vancouver, Canada. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:1625-9 pubmed
    Invasive disease due to Corynebacterium diphtheriae is rare in North America. Here we describe the emergence of a predominant clone of a nontoxigenic strain of C. diphtheriae in the impoverished population of Vancouver's downtown core...
  31. Oram M, Woolston J, Jacobson A, Holmes R, Oram D. Bacteriophage-based vectors for site-specific insertion of DNA in the chromosome of Corynebacteria. Gene. 2007;391:53-62 pubmed
    In Corynebacterium diphtheriae, diphtheria toxin is encoded by the tox gene of some temperate corynephages such as beta. beta-like corynephages are capable of inserting into the C...
  32. Kunkle C, Schmitt M. Analysis of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR regulon: identification of a putative siderophore synthesis and transport system that is similar to the Yersinia high-pathogenicity island-encoded yersiniabactin synthesis and uptake system. J Bacteriol. 2003;185:6826-40 pubmed
    The diphtheria toxin repressor, DtxR, is a global iron-dependent regulatory protein in Corynebacterium diphtheriae that controls gene expression by binding to 19-bp operator sequences. To further define the DtxR regulon in C...
  33. Mishra B, Dignan R, Hughes C, Hendel N. Corynebacterium diphtheriae endocarditis--surgery for some but not all!. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann. 2005;13:119-26 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae endocarditis was thought to be a rare disease. We reviewed our experience in four cases of this disease treated over a period of 10 years. Seventy cases reported in literature were reviewed...
  34. Pimenta F, Souza M, Pereira G, Hirata R, Camello T, Mattos Guaraldi A. DNase test as a novel approach for the routine screening of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2008;46:307-11 pubmed publisher
    To examine the value of the DNase test as an alternative procedure for differentiating Corynebacterium diphtheriae from Corynebacterium-like colonies.
  35. Soria Guerra R, Rosales Mendoza S, Moreno Fierros L, López Revilla R, Alpuche Solís A. Oral immunogenicity of tomato-derived sDPT polypeptide containing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Bordetella pertussis and Clostridium tetani exotoxin epitopes. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the concept of using transgenic tomatoes expressing sDPT polypeptide as model for edible vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus...
  36. Tauch A, Kassing F, Kalinowski J, P hler A. The Corynebacterium xerosis composite transposon Tn5432 consists of two identical insertion sequences, designated IS1249, flanking the erythromycin resistance gene ermCX. Plasmid. 1995;34:119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..central region is 99% identical to the previously sequenced erythromycin resistance region of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae plasmid pNG2...
  37. Funke G, Altwegg M, Frommelt L, von Graevenitz A. Emergence of related nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis strains in Western Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:477-80 pubmed
    We report on 17 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae biotype mitis with related ribotypes from Switzerland, Germany, and France...
  38. Holmes R. Biology and molecular epidemiology of diphtheria toxin and the tox gene. J Infect Dis. 2000;181 Suppl 1:S156-67 pubmed
    Diphtheria toxin (DT) is an extracellular protein of Corynebacterium diphtheriae that inhibits protein synthesis and kills susceptible cells. The gene that encodes DT (tox) is present in some corynephages, and DT is only produced by C...
  39. Unno M, Matsui T, Chu G, Couture M, Yoshida T, Rousseau D, et al. Crystal structure of the dioxygen-bound heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae: implications for heme oxygenase function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21055-61 pubmed
    HmuO, a heme oxygenase of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, catalyzes degradation of heme using the same mechanism as the mammalian enzyme...
  40. Bibb L, King N, Kunkle C, Schmitt M. Analysis of a heme-dependent signal transduction system in Corynebacterium diphtheriae: deletion of the chrAS genes results in heme sensitivity and diminished heme-dependent activation of the hmuO promoter. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7406-12 pubmed
    The Corynebacterium diphtheriae hmuO gene encodes a heme oxygenase that is involved in the utilization of heme as an iron source. Transcription of hmuO is activated by heme or hemoglobin and repressed by iron and DtxR...
  41. Schiering N, Tao X, Zeng H, Murphy J, Petsko G, Ringe D. Structures of the apo- and the metal ion-activated forms of the diphtheria tox repressor from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:9843-50 pubmed
    The diphtheria tox repressor (DtxR) of Corynebacterium diphtheriae plays a critical role in the regulation of diphtheria toxin expression and the control of other iron-sensitive genes...
  42. Colombo A, Hirata R, de Souza C, Monteiro Leal L, Previato J, Formiga L, et al. Corynebacterium diphtheriae surface proteins as adhesins to human erythrocytes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001;197:235-9 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains express non-fimbrial surface proteins able to recognize and bind to specific host cells receptors...
  43. Schmitt M. Analysis of a DtxR-like metalloregulatory protein, MntR, from Corynebacterium diphtheriae that controls expression of an ABC metal transporter by an Mn(2+)-dependent mechanism. J Bacteriol. 2002;184:6882-92 pubmed
    The DtxR protein is a global iron-dependent repressor in Corynebacterium diphtheriae that regulates transcription from multiple promoters. A search of the partially completed C...
  44. Titov L, Kolodkina V, Dronina A, Grimont F, Grimont P, Lejay Collin M, et al. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from patients in belarus during an epidemic period. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:1285-8 pubmed
    One hundred two Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (93 of the gravis biotype and nine of the mitis biotype) isolated from clinical cases during the Belarus diphtheria epidemic were characterized by biotyping, toxigenicity testing by the ..
  45. Hirotsu S, Chu G, Unno M, Lee D, Yoshida T, Park S, et al. The crystal structures of the ferric and ferrous forms of the heme complex of HmuO, a heme oxygenase of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11937-47 pubmed publisher
    Crystal structures of the ferric and ferrous heme complexes of HmuO, a 24-kDa heme oxygenase of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, have been refined to 1.4 and 1.5 A resolution, respectively...
  46. De Benoist A, White J, Efstratiou A, Kelly C, Mann G, Nazareth B, et al. Imported cutaneous diphtheria, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:511-3 pubmed
    ..Because cutaneous diphtheria causes outbreaks of both cutaneous and pharyngeal forms, early diagnosis is essential for implementing control measures; high diphtheria vaccination coverage must also be maintained...
  47. Zeng Y, Deshmukh R, Caignan G, Bunce R, Rivera M, Wilks A. Mixed regioselectivity in the Arg-177 mutants of Corynebacterium diphtheriae heme oxygenase as a consequence of in-plane heme disorder. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5222-38 pubmed
    ..We have re-examined this issue by studying the corresponding R177 mutants in heme oxygenase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (cd-HO)...
  48. Mokrousov I, Limeschenko E, Vyazovaya A, Narvskaya O. Corynebacterium diphtheriae spoligotyping based on combined use of two CRISPR loci. Biotechnol J. 2007;2:901-6 pubmed
    ..countries underlined the importance of permanent surveillance of the circulating and emerging clones of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and hence there is a need for highly discriminatory, simple and portable typing methods...
  49. Iwaki M, Komiya T, Yamamoto A, Ishiwa A, Nagata N, Arakawa Y, et al. Genome organization and pathogenicity of Corynebacterium diphtheriae C7(-) and PW8 strains. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3791-800 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the causative agent of diphtheria...
  50. Schmitt M. Transcription of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae hmuO gene is regulated by iron and heme. Infect Immun. 1997;65:4634-41 pubmed
    The hmuO gene is required for the utilization of heme and hemoglobin as iron sources by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The product of hmuO has homology to eukaryotic heme oxygenases which are involved in the degradation of heme and the ..
  51. Kombarova S, Kim C, Melnikov V, Reeves M, Borisova O, Mazurova I, et al. Rapid identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae clonal group associated with diphtheria epidemic, Russian Federation. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:133-6 pubmed
    We used 199 Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolated from 1995 to 1997 in Russia to evaluate the ability of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to identify the unique clonal group that emerged there in 1990...
  52. von Hunolstein C, Alfarone G, Scopetti F, Pataracchia M, La Valle R, Franchi F, et al. Molecular epidemiology and characteristics of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans strains isolated in Italy during the 1990s. J Med Microbiol. 2003;52:181-8 pubmed
    ..Three cases were confirmed microbiologically by the isolation of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae (two cases) and Corynebacterium ulcerans (one case). Over the same period, 11 cases of non-toxigenic C...
  53. Ton That H, Schneewind O. Assembly of pili on the surface of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2003;50:1429-38 pubmed
    ..We show here that pili of Corynebacterium diphtheriae are composed of three pilin subunits, SpaA, SpaB and SpaC...
  54. Lolekha R, Supradish P, Kirawittaya T, Srimaharaja S, Chotpitayasunondh T. Subacute infective endocarditis caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae: a case report. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86 Suppl 3:S696-700 pubmed
    ..authors report an 11-year-old boy with septicemia and subacute infective endocarditis due to toxigenic-Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The patient had underlying congenital heart disease and incomplete immunization...
  55. Oram D, Avdalovic A, Holmes R. Analysis of genes that encode DtxR-like transcriptional regulators in pathogenic and saprophytic corynebacterial species. Infect Immun. 2004;72:1885-95 pubmed
    ..DtxR of Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the best characterized of these important metal-dependent regulators...
  56. Dover L, Cerdeño Tárraga A, Pallen M, Parkhill J, Besra G. Comparative cell wall core biosynthesis in the mycolated pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2004;28:225-50 pubmed
    The recent determination of the complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the aetiological agent of diphtheria, has allowed a detailed comparison of its physiology with that of its closest sequenced pathogenic relative ..
  57. Moreira L, Mattos Guaraldi A, Andrade A. Novel lipoarabinomannan-like lipoglycan (CdiLAM) contributes to the adherence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae to epithelial cells. Arch Microbiol. 2008;190:521-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified a novel LAM variant isolated from Corynebacterium diphtheriae named CdiLAM...
  58. Ott L, Höller M, Gerlach R, Hensel M, Rheinlaender J, Schäffer T, et al. Corynebacterium diphtheriae invasion-associated protein (DIP1281) is involved in cell surface organization, adhesion and internalization in epithelial cells. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:2 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, is well-investigated in respect to toxin production, while little is known about C. diphtheriae factors crucial for colonization of the host...
  59. Bolt F, Cassiday P, Tondella M, Dezoysa A, Efstratiou A, Sing A, et al. Multilocus sequence typing identifies evidence for recombination and two distinct lineages of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:4177-85 pubmed publisher
    We describe the development of a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of the potentially fatal upper respiratory disease diphtheria...
  60. Allen C, Schmitt M. Novel hemin binding domains in the Corynebacterium diphtheriae HtaA protein interact with hemoglobin and are critical for heme iron utilization by HtaA. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:5374-85 pubmed publisher
    The human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae utilizes hemin and hemoglobin as iron sources for growth in iron-depleted environments. The use of hemin iron in C...
  61. Schmitt M, Twiddy E, Holmes R. Purification and characterization of the diphtheria toxin repressor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7576-80 pubmed
    ..DtxR exhibited very little binding to the mutant tox-201 operator region and failed to bind to the promoter/operator region of the ferric uptake regulation (fur) gene of E. coli...
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    ..the regulation of tox expression is controlled, to a large extent, by its bacterial host Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Optimal yields of tox gene products are obtained only when iron becomes the growth-rate-limiting ..
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  64. Drazek E, Hammack C, Schmitt M. Corynebacterium diphtheriae genes required for acquisition of iron from haemin and haemoglobin are homologous to ABC haemin transporters. Mol Microbiol. 2000;36:68-84 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans use haemin and haemoglobin as essential sources of iron during growth in iron-depleted medium. C. diphtheriae and C...
  65. Oram D, Avdalovic A, Holmes R. Construction and characterization of transposon insertion mutations in Corynebacterium diphtheriae that affect expression of the diphtheria toxin repressor (DtxR). J Bacteriol. 2002;184:5723-32 pubmed
    ..Due to a scarcity of tools, genetic analysis of Corynebacterium diphtheriae has primarily relied on analysis of chemically induced and spontaneously occurring mutants and on the ..
  66. Oram D, Must L, Spinler J, Twiddy E, Holmes R. Analysis of truncated variants of the iron dependent transcriptional regulators from Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;243:1-8 pubmed
    ..We compared full-length and carboxyl-terminally truncated variants of Corynebacterium diphtheriae DtxR and Mycobacterium tuberculosis IdeR for recognition by antibodies, DNA binding, and repressor ..
  67. Dewinter L, Bernard K, Romney M. Human clinical isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans collected in Canada from 1999 to 2003 but not fitting reporting criteria for cases of diphtheria. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3447-9 pubmed
    A 5-year collection of Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans human clinical isolates yielded nine isolates from blood cultures of patients with invasive infections, stressing the importance of C...
  68. Oram D, Jacobson A, Holmes R. Transcription of the contiguous sigB, dtxR, and galE genes in Corynebacterium diphtheriae: evidence for multiple transcripts and regulation by environmental factors. J Bacteriol. 2006;188:2959-73 pubmed
    The iron-dependent transcriptional regulator DtxR from Corynebacterium diphtheriae is the prototype for a family of metal-dependent regulators found in diverse bacterial species...
  69. Danilova E, Jenum P, Skogen V, Pilnikov V, Sjursen H. Antidiphtheria antibody responses in patients and carriers of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in the Arkhangelsk region of Russia. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:627-32 pubmed
    ..No obvious correlation was revealed between the antibody level or its kinetics and the course of the disease. Antibody levels on admission of >1 IU/ml were associated with a low risk of diphtheria...
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    The cell wall fraction of the gram-positive, nontoxic Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain C8r(-) Tox- (=ATCC 11913) contained a channel-forming protein, as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments...
  71. Hirata R, Pereira G, Filardy A, Gomes D, Damasco P, Rosa A, et al. Potential pathogenic role of aggregative-adhering Corynebacterium diphtheriae of different clonal groups in endocarditis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41:986-91 pubmed
    Invasive diseases caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae have been described increasingly. Several reports indicate the destructive feature of endocarditis attributable to nontoxigenic strains...
  72. Chang C, Mandlik A, Das A, Ton That H. Cell surface display of minor pilin adhesins in the form of a simple heterodimeric assembly in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2011;79:1236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the pilin-specific sortase SrtA catalyses polymerization of the SpaA-type pilus, consisting of the ..
  73. Tai S, Zhu Y. Cloning of a Corynebacterium diphtheriae iron-repressible gene that shares sequence homology with the AhpC subunit of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase of Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:3512-7 pubmed
    To understand how Corynebacterium diphtheriae responds to iron limitation, we compared the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protein profiles of both wild-type cells and iron uptake mutants grown in ..
  74. Reacher M, Ramsay M, White J, De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Mann G, et al. Nontoxigenic corynebacterium diphtheriae: an emerging pathogen in England and Wales?. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:640-5 pubmed
    Confirmed isolates of nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae in England and Wales increased substantially from 1986 to 1994...
  75. Parche S, Thomae A, Schlicht M, Titgemeyer F. Corynebacterium diphtheriae: a PTS view to the genome. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001;3:415-22 pubmed
    We have surveyed the publicly available genome sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (www.sanger.ac.uk) to identify components of the phosphotransferase system (PTS), which plays a central role in carbon metabolism in many bacteria...
  76. Nolden L, Beckers G, Burkovski A. Nitrogen assimilation in Corynebacterium diphtheriae: pathways and regulatory cascades. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;208:287-93 pubmed
    Genes encoding proteins for ammonium uptake, assimilation, and the nitrogen regulatory system in Corynebacterium diphtheriae were studied on basis of homology searches using Corynebacterium glutamicum genes as query sequences...
  77. Skogen V, Cherkasova V, Maksimova N, Marston C, Sjursen H, Reeves M, et al. Molecular characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates, Russia, 1957-1987. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:516-8 pubmed
    ..the former Soviet Union experienced the largest diphtheria outbreak since the 1960s; it was caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains of a unique clonal group...
  78. Tauch A, Kirchner O, Löffler B, Götker S, Pühler A, Kalinowski J. Efficient electrotransformation of corynebacterium diphtheriae with a mini-replicon derived from the Corynebacterium glutamicum plasmid pGA1. Curr Microbiol. 2002;45:362-7 pubmed
    Efficient transformation of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae was achieved with novel cloning vectors consisting of a mini-replicon from the cryptic C...
  79. Mandlik A, Swierczynski A, Das A, Ton That H. Corynebacterium diphtheriae employs specific minor pilins to target human pharyngeal epithelial cells. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:111-24 pubmed
    ..b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae assembles on its surface three distinct pilus structures...
  80. Ito Y, Nakagawa S, Komagata A, Ikeda Saito M, Shiro Y, Nakamura H. Heme-dependent autophosphorylation of a heme sensor kinase, ChrS, from Corynebacterium diphtheriae reconstituted in proteoliposomes. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The UV-Vis spectrum of hemin in the ChrS-proteoliposomes indicated that heme directly interacts with ChrS. This is the first functional reconstitution of a bacterial heme-sensing protein...
  81. Kim S, Oh D, Kwon O, Kang H. Identification and functional characterization of the NanH extracellular sialidase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Biochem. 2010;147:523-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, contains sialic acids on its cell surface, but no genes related to sialic acid decoration or metabolism have been reported in C. diphtheriae...
  82. Hall A, Cassiday P, Bernard K, Bolt F, Steigerwalt A, Bixler D, et al. Novel Corynebacterium diphtheriae in domestic cats. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:688-91 pubmed publisher
    Novel nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a domestic cat with severe otitis...
  83. Zasada A, Baczewska Rej M, Wardak S. An increase in non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections in Poland--molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of strains isolated from past outbreaks and those currently circulating in Poland. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e907-12 pubmed publisher
    An increase in non-toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae infections--mainly invasive infections--has been observed in countries with high vaccination coverage. However, reasons for this situation are unknown...
  84. G nter Seeboth K, Schupp T. Cloning and sequence analysis of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae dtxR homologue from Streptomyces lividans and S. pilosus encoding a putative iron repressor protein. Gene. 1995;166:117-9 pubmed
    ..a region homologous to the iron repressor (DtxR)-binding site of the diphtheria toxin gene promoter in Corynebacterium diphtheriae [Günter et al., J. Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 3295-3302]...
  85. Schmitt M. Identification of a two-component signal transduction system from Corynebacterium diphtheriae that activates gene expression in response to the presence of heme and hemoglobin. J Bacteriol. 1999;181:5330-40 pubmed
    b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of diphtheria, utilizes various host compounds to acquire iron. The C...
  86. Sulakvelidze A, Kekelidze M, Gomelauri T, Deng Y, Khetsuriani N, Kobaidze K, et al. Diphtheria in the Republic of Georgia: use of molecular typing techniques for characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3265-70 pubmed
    Sixty-six Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (62 of the gravis biotype and 4 of the mitis biotype) isolated during the Georgian diphtheria epidemic of 1993 to 1998 and 13 non-Georgian C...
  87. Mattos Guaraldi A, Moreira L, Damasco P, Hirata Junior R. Diphtheria remains a threat to health in the developing world--an overview. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:987-93 pubmed
    ..Vaccine-induced immunity wanes over time unless periodic booster is given or exposure to toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae occurs...
  88. Mokrousov I, Narvskaya O, Limeschenko E, Vyazovaya A. Efficient discrimination within a Corynebacterium diphtheriae epidemic clonal group by a novel macroarray-based method. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1662-8 pubmed
    ..in the 1990s in Russia and neighboring countries was caused by a clonal group of closely related Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains (ribotypes Sankt-Peterburg and Rossija)...
  89. Hansmeier N, Chao T, Kalinowski J, Pühler A, Tauch A. Mapping and comprehensive analysis of the extracellular and cell surface proteome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Proteomics. 2006;6:2465-76 pubmed
    Secreted proteins of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae might be involved in important pathogen-host cell interactions...
  90. Swaminathan A, Mandlik A, Swierczynski A, Gaspar A, Das A, Ton That H. Housekeeping sortase facilitates the cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Mol Microbiol. 2007;66:961-74 pubmed
    ..b>Corynebacterium diphtheriae encodes six sortases, five of which are devoted to the assembly of three distinct types of pilus fibres-..
  91. Smith K, Bibb L, Schmitt M, Oram D. Regulation and activity of a zinc uptake regulator, Zur, in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. J Bacteriol. 2009;191:1595-603 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we describe a Corynebacterium diphtheriae ferric uptake regulator-family protein, Zur, that controls expression of genes involved in zinc uptake...
  92. Wagner K, White J, Neal S, Crowcroft N, Kupreviciene N, Paberza R, et al. Screening for Corynebacterium diphtheriae and Corynebacterium ulcerans in patients with upper respiratory tract infections 2007-2008: a multicentre European study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:519-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Six toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae were identified: two from symptomatic patients in Latvia (the country with the highest reported ..