gram negative bacteria


Summary: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.

Top Publications

  1. Samudrala R, Heffron F, McDermott J. Accurate prediction of secreted substrates and identification of a conserved putative secretion signal for type III secretion systems. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000375 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach provides a new way to identify secreted effectors in a broad range of pathogenic bacteria for further experimental characterization and provides insight into the nature of the type III secretion signal...
  2. Beddek A, Schryvers A. The lactoferrin receptor complex in Gram negative bacteria. Biometals. 2010;23:377-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The lactoferrin receptors in these species appear to be essential for survival and thus may serve as potential vaccine targets...
  3. Viera G, Mourão J, Angelo A, Costa R, Vieira R. Antibacterial effect (in vitro) of Moringa oleifera and Annona muricata against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010;52:129-32 pubmed
    ..The aqueous extracts of soursop showed an antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae, but the antibacterial activity by the ethanol extracts of this plant was not demonstrated...
  4. Alves E, Costa L, Carvalho C, Tomé J, Faustino M, Neves M, et al. Charge effect on the photoinactivation of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria by cationic meso-substituted porphyrins. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:70 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study complements our previous work on the search for photosensitizers that might be considered good candidates for the photoinactivation of a large spectrum of environmental microorganisms...
  5. Arnold R, Brandmaier S, Kleine F, Tischler P, Heinz E, Behrens S, et al. Sequence-based prediction of type III secreted proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000376 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will facilitate further studies on and improve our understanding of type III secretion and its role in pathogen-host interactions...
  6. Wang Y, Zhang L, Picking W, Picking W, De Guzman R. Structural dissection of the extracellular moieties of the type III secretion apparatus. Mol Biosyst. 2008;4:1176-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this highlight, the structure-function of TTSA needle and tip complex proteins are described and common themes discussed...
  7. Löwer M, Schneider G. Prediction of type III secretion signals in genomes of gram-negative bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5917 pubmed publisher
    ..Although a special targeting signal at the N-terminal end of effector proteins has been proposed in literature its exact characteristics remain unknown...
  8. Mamelli L, Petit S, Chevalier J, Giglione C, Lieutaud A, Meinnel T, et al. New antibiotic molecules: bypassing the membrane barrier of gram negative bacteria increases the activity of peptide deformylase inhibitors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6443 pubmed publisher
    ..The bacterial susceptibility to such a cytoplasmic target primarily depends on the capacity of the compound to reach and accumulate in the cytosol...
  9. Klekotka R, Mizgała E, Król W. The etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in people with diabetes. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2015;83:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetes, especially the uncontrolled one, predisposes to fungal infection, the most common candidiasis and mucormycosis. ..

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Guzek A, Korzeniewski K, Tomaszewski D, Rybicki Z, Zwolińska E. Bacteriological Assessment of Pneumonia Caused by Gram-Negative Bacteria in Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;955:39-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Colistin remains the most effective drug against the majority of Gram-negative bacteria. Therapeutic problems are common in the course of treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii infections. ..
  2. Dwidar M, Im H, Seo J, Mitchell R. Attack-Phase Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus Responses to Extracellular Nutrients Are Analogous to Those Seen During Late Intraperiplasmic Growth. Microb Ecol. 2017;74:937-946 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteriovorus genes during predation. ..
  3. Dehhaghi M, Mohammadipanah F, Guillemin G. Myxobacterial natural products: An under-valued source of products for drug discovery for neurological disorders. Neurotoxicology. 2018;66:195-203 pubmed publisher
  4. Jing Z, Xiu K, Ren X, Sun Y. Cationic polymeric N-halamines bind onto biofilms and inactivate adherent bacteria. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2018;166:210-217 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetics of the Cl-PMPQ binding onto the preexisting biofilms were studied with UV analyses. The data fitted well to the bimodal model. The binding kinetic parameters of Cl-PMPQ onto the bacterial biofilms were thus determined. ..
  5. Farrokhi M, Etemadifar M, Jafary Alavi M, Zarkesh Esfahani S, Behjati M, Rezaei A, et al. TNF-alpha Production by Peripheral Blood Monocytes in Multiple Sclerosis Patients and Healthy Controls. Immunol Invest. 2015;44:590-601 pubmed publisher
    ..However, other characteristics of monocyte activation such as IL-6 or TLRs can elucidate implication of peripheral blood monocytes in MS pathogenesis. ..
  6. Rojas Rengifo D, Jaramillo C, Haas R, Jiménez Soto L. Detection of cytoplasmic proteins from Helicobacter pylori in Colony Lift Immunoassay. J Microbiol Methods. 2015;119:145-6 pubmed publisher
    Use of the Colony Lift Immunoassay has been described for several Gram negative bacteria of medical interest. In all cases detection was limited to the use of antibodies against outer membrane proteins...
  7. Trappetti C, McAllister L, Chen A, Wang H, Paton A, Oggioni M, et al. Autoinducer 2 Signaling via the Phosphotransferase FruA Drives Galactose Utilization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Resulting in Hypervirulence. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..This identifies the highly conserved FruA phosphotransferase system as a target for new antimicrobials based on the disruption of this generic quorum-sensing system. ..
  8. Ataei Kachooei S, Ranjbar M, Ataei Kachooei S. Evaluation of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 resistance to immune serum and complement system. Vet Res Forum. 2017;8:179-184 pubmed
    ..Results were indicative of the presence of inhibitory mechanism(s) in P. multocida B:2 against bactericidal activity of immune calf serum and complement system...
  9. Sacha P, Ostas A, Jaworowska J, Wieczorek P, Ojdana D, Ratajczak J, et al. The KPC type beta-lactamases: new enzymes that confer resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacilli. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2009;47:537-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic options to treat infections caused by multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria producing KPC-carbapenemases could be used polymyxin B or tigecycline. ..
  10. Samuel R, Gillmor S. Membrane phase characteristics control NA-CATH activity. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1858:1974-1982 pubmed publisher
    ..From these studies, we observe that NA-CATH changes from membrane disruption to pore-based lysing, depending on phases and lipid composition. This behavior also plays a major role in its kinetics. ..
  11. Gamalier J, Silva T, Zarantonello V, Dias F, Melo R. Increased production of outer membrane vesicles by cultured freshwater bacteria in response to ultraviolet radiation. Microbiol Res. 2017;194:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This means that degenerating bacteria release OMVs before lysis and that this secretion might be an adaptive/protective response to rapid changes in environmental conditions such as UV radiation. ..
  12. Tacconelli E, Carrara E, Savoldi A, Harbarth S, Mendelson M, Monnet D, et al. Discovery, research, and development of new antibiotics: the WHO priority list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and tuberculosis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18:318-327 pubmed publisher
    ..The global strategy should include antibiotic-resistant bacteria responsible for community-acquired infections such as Salmonella spp, Campylobacter spp, N gonorrhoeae, and H pylori. World Health Organization. ..
  13. Chen K, Malo M, Moss A, Zeller S, Johnson P, Ebrahimi F, et al. Identification of specific targets for the gut mucosal defense factor intestinal alkaline phosphatase. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G467-75 pubmed publisher
    ..IAP likely targets these bacterially derived molecules in its role as a gut mucosal defense factor. ..
  14. Jin J, Lee Y, Ding Y, Koh L, Lim S, Lim R, et al. Prospective audit of febrile neutropenia management at a tertiary university hospital in Singapore. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2010;39:453-9 pubmed
    ..A better method for predicting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant GNB is urgently required, and antibiotic resistance trends should be monitored to enable the implementation of more appropriate antibiotic regimens over time. ..
  15. Medeot D, Romina Rivero M, Cendoya E, Contreras Moreira B, Rossi F, Fischer S, et al. Sinorhizobium meliloti low molecular mass phosphotyrosine phosphatase SMc02309 modifies activity of the UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase ExoN involved in succinoglycan biosynthesis. Microbiology. 2016;162:552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a mutation in the SMc02309 gene decreases EPS I production and delays nodulation on Medicago sativa roots. ..
  16. Jové T, Da Re S, Denis F, Mazel D, Ploy M. Inverse correlation between promoter strength and excision activity in class 1 integrons. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000793 pubmed publisher
    ..Dissemination of integron-driven drug resistance is therefore more complex than previously thought. ..
  17. Li Y, Li C, Liu J, Guo M, Zhang T, Sun L, et al. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,3-diaryl pyrazole derivatives as potential antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25:5052-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, compound 7l showed the greatest anti-inflammatory activity (93.59% inhibition, 30 min after intraperitoneal administration), which was more potent than the reference drugs ibuprofen and indomethacin. ..
  18. Patra K, Choudhury B, Matthias M, Baga S, Bandyopadhya K, Vinetz J. Comparative analysis of lipopolysaccharides of pathogenic and intermediately pathogenic Leptospira species. BMC Microbiol. 2015;15:244 pubmed publisher
  19. Robinson C, Timofte D, Singer E, Rimmington L, Rubio Martínez L. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from horses with synovial sepsis: A cross-sectional study of 95 cases. Vet J. 2016;216:117-21 pubmed publisher
  20. Santisteban N, Morrow M, Booth V. Protocols for Studying the Interaction of MSI-78 with the Membranes of Whole Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria by NMR. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1548:217-230 pubmed publisher
    ..Such experiments have the potential to provide important information about how non-lipidic cell envelope components modulate AMP interactions with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. ..
  21. Yang X, Li Z, Gao Z, Wang W, Geng Z, Xu J, et al. Structural and SAXS analysis of Tle5-Tli5 complex reveals a novel inhibition mechanism of H2-T6SS in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Protein Sci. 2017;26:2083-2091 pubmed publisher
    ..We also distinguished the structural features of Tle5 and Tle5B family immunity proteins. Together, our work provided insights into a novel inhibition mechanism that may enhance our understanding of phospholipase D family proteins. ..
  22. Luthra A, Anand A, Radolf J. Treponema pallidum in Gel Microdroplets: A Method for Topological Analysis of BamA (TP0326) and Localization of Rare Outer Membrane Proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1329:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..pallidum antigen, herein we describe a protocol for immunolabeling of encapsulated treponemes using antibodies directed against the β-barrel and POTRA domains of TP0326, the spirochete's BamA ortholog. ..
  23. Chen J, HUDDLESTON J, Buckley R, Malig M, Lawhon S, Skow L, et al. Bovine NK-lysin: Copy number variation and functional diversification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E7223-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Mani S, Wierzba T, Walker R. Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella. Vaccine. 2016;34:2887-2894 pubmed publisher
    ..A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). ..
  25. Ben Hsouna A, Ben Halima N, Smaoui S, Hamdi N. Citrus lemon essential oil: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with its preservative effect against Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in minced beef meat. Lipids Health Dis. 2017;16:146 pubmed publisher
    ..It was suggested that the ClEO may be a new potential source as natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agents applied in food systems and pharmaceutical industry. ..
  26. Dreyer J, Malan A, Dicks L. First report of a symbiotic relationship between Xenorhabdus griffiniae and an unknown Steinernema from South Africa. Arch Microbiol. 2018;200:349-353 pubmed publisher
    ..griffiniae. Strain WS9 has antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This is the first report of an association between X. griffiniae and an unknown Steinernema species from South Africa. ..
  27. Tang K, Jiao N, Liu K, Zhang Y, Li S. Distribution and functions of TonB-dependent transporters in marine bacteria and environments: implications for dissolved organic matter utilization. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41204 pubmed publisher
  28. Balusek C, GUMBART J. Role of the Native Outer-Membrane Environment on the Transporter BtuB. Biophys J. 2016;111:1409-1417 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the importance of including realistic membrane models when simulating outer-membrane proteins. ..
  29. Meneghini L, Tripathi S, Woodworth M, Majumdar S, Poulos T, Weiss G. Dissecting binding of a ?-barrel membrane protein by phage display. Mol Biosyst. 2017;13:1438-1447 pubmed publisher
    ..The results identify a loop susceptible to antibody binding, and also a small molecule motif capable of disrupting ShuA from S. dysenteriae. The approach is generalizable to the dissection of other phage-displayed TBDTs and MPs. ..
  30. Ke F, Zhang H, Wang Y, Hou L, Dong H, Wang Z, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a C-type lectin in yellow catfish Tachysurus fulvidraco. J Fish Biol. 2016;89:1692-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that Ctl might be a C-type lectin of T. fulvidraco involved in innate immune responses as receptors (PRR). ..
  31. Bakelar J, Buchanan S, Noinaj N. Structural snapshots of the ?-barrel assembly machinery. FEBS J. 2017;284:1778-1786 pubmed publisher
  32. Townsend L, Williams R, Anuforom O, Berwick M, Halstead F, Hughes E, et al. Antimicrobial peptide coatings for hydroxyapatite: electrostatic and covalent attachment of antimicrobial peptides to surfaces. J R Soc Interface. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..The dual approach gives an efficacious coating which is stable for over 12 months and can prevent colonization of the surface by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ..
  33. Zhou X, Spittau B. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglia Activation Promotes the Survival of Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons In Vitro. Neurotox Res. 2018;33:856-867 pubmed publisher
  34. Zeytuni N, Flanagan K, Worrall L, Massoni S, Camp A, Strynadka N. Structural characterization of SpoIIIAB sporulation-essential protein in Bacillus subtilis. J Struct Biol. 2018;202:105-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data provides new insight into the possible roles of SpoIIIAB protein within the secretion-like apparatus essential to bacterial sporulation. ..
  35. Ruiz N, Gronenberg L, Kahne D, Silhavy T. Identification of two inner-membrane proteins required for the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5537-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these two proteins, which we have renamed LptF and LptG, respectively, are the missing transmembrane components of the ABC transporter that, together with LptB, functions to extract LPS from the IM en route to the OM...
  36. Sato M, Ahmed A, Noda A, Watanabe H, Fukumoto Y, Shimamoto T. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from imported flamingos in Japan. Acta Vet Scand. 2009;51:46 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the role of animal importation in the dissemination of multidrug-resistant bacteria, integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes from one country to another. ..
  37. Yildirim A, Karakaş F, Turker A. In vitro antibacterial and antitumor activities of some medicinal plant extracts, growing in Turkey. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:616-24 pubmed publisher
    ..lantana and aqueous extract of V. minor leaves exhibited strong tumor inhibitions. In near future works, identification of active components can be studied for plant extracts having strong bioactivity. ..
  38. Guo X, Sun Y. New Insights into the Non-orthodox Two Component Rcs Phosphorelay System. Front Microbiol. 2017;8:2014 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we review the latest advances on the Rcs system proteins, and discuss the roles that the Rcs system plays in the environmental adaptation of various Enterobacteriaceae species...
  39. Rajkovic A, Hummels K, Witzky A, Erickson S, Gafken P, Whitelegge J, et al. Translation Control of Swarming Proficiency in Bacillus subtilis by 5-Amino-pentanolylated Elongation Factor P. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:10976-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data show that, in B. subtilis, a previously uncharacterized posttranslational modification of EF-P can modulate the synthesis of specific diprolyl motifs present in proteins required for swarming motility. ..
  40. Stöckli M, Lin C, Sieber R, Plaza D, Ohm R, Künzler M. Coprinopsis cinerea intracellular lactonases hydrolyze quorum sensing molecules of Gram-negative bacteria. Fungal Genet Biol. 2017;102:49-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The occurrence of orthologous genes in genomes of other basidiomycetes appears to correlate with a saprotrophic lifestyle. ..
  41. Aulakh J, Lobana T, Sood H, Arora D, Garcia Santos I, Hundal G, et al. Variable coordination and C-S bond cleavage activity of N-substituted imidazolidine-2-thiones towards copper: synthesis, spectroscopy, structures, ESI-mass and antimicrobial studies. Dalton Trans. 2017;46:1324-1339 pubmed publisher
    ..bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC740), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Gram negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC109), Salmonella typhimurium (MTCC741) and Candida albicans (MTCC227)- a yeast...
  42. Bakht J, Khan S, Shafi M, Iqbal A. Fractionation of crude extracts from controlled dried and commercially available stem bark of Juglans regia and their antimicrobial effects. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2017;30:1581-1588 pubmed
    ..aureus while Bacillus subtilis was the most resistant one. Among Gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most susceptibility while Klebsella pneumonia showed some resistively...
  43. Yasuda M, Iguchi Yokoyama A, Matsuyama S, Tokuda H, Narita S. Membrane topology and functional importance of the periplasmic region of ABC transporter LolCDE. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:2310-6 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of the release of lipoproteins by the sulfhydryl reagent supported a previous proposal that LolC and LolE have distinct functions...
  44. Willcox M, Carnt N, Diec J, Naduvilath T, Evans V, Stapleton F, et al. Contact lens case contamination during daily wear of silicone hydrogels. Optom Vis Sci. 2010;87:456-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences are not simply because of the types of disinfectants used, suggesting that other excipients in, or formulation of, the solution affect contact lens storage case contamination. ..
  45. Borisova M, Gaupp R, Duckworth A, Schneider A, Dalügge D, Mühleck M, et al. Peptidoglycan Recycling in Gram-Positive Bacteria Is Crucial for Survival in Stationary Phase. MBio. 2016;7: pubmed publisher
    ..aureus and B. subtilis, respectively. Importantly, we showed that MurNAc recycling and salvaging does not sustain growth in these bacteria but is used to enhance survival during late stationary phase. ..
  46. Guzmán Flores J, Alvarez A, Poggio S, Gavilanes Ruiz M, Georgellis D. Isolation of detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) from Escherichia coli. Anal Biochem. 2017;518:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of isolated membrane microdomains might provide important information on the nature and function of these bacterial structures and permit their comparison with the ones of eukaryotic cells. ..
  47. Divya M, Vaseeharan B, Abinaya M, Vijayakumar S, Govindarajan M, Alharbi N, et al. Biopolymer gelatin-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles showed high antibacterial, antibiofilm and anti-angiogenic activity. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2018;178:211-218 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, based on the results, Ge-ZnO NPs may be used as a novel agent for the control of biofilm-forming microbial pathogens. ..
  48. Abinaya M, Vaseeharan B, Divya M, Sharmili A, Govindarajan M, Alharbi N, et al. Bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS)-coated ZnO nanoparticles showed high antibiofilm activity and larvicidal toxicity against malaria and Zika virus vectors. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018;45:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The multipurpose properties of EPS-ZnO NPs revealed in the present study can be further considered for pharmaceutical, parasitological and entomological applications. ..
  49. McKeating K, Couture M, Dinel M, Garneau Tsodikova S, Masson J. High throughput LSPR and SERS analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Analyst. 2016;141:5120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally we provide evidence that tobramycin can be detected in spiked human serum using only functionalised nanoparticles and SERS analysis. ..
  50. Sawa T, Hamaoka S, Kinoshita M, Kainuma A, Naito Y, Akiyama K, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretory Toxin ExoU and Its Predicted Homologs. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8: pubmed
    ..Further comparative studies of the predicted ExoU homologs should provide us with more detailed information about the unique characteristics of the Ps. aeruginosa ExoU toxin. ..
  51. Paech F, Messner S, Spickermann J, Wind M, Schmitt Hoffmann A, Witschi A, et al. Mechanisms of hepatotoxicity associated with the monocyclic ?-lactam antibiotic BAL30072. Arch Toxicol. 2017;91:3647-3662 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired hepatic mitochondrial function and inhibition of glycolysis can explain liver injury observed in human subjects receiving long-term treatment with this compound. ..
  52. Menchetti L, Barbato O, Filipescu I, Traina G, Leonardi L, Polisca A, et al. Effects of local lipopolysaccharide administration on the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in uterus and oviduct of rabbit does. Theriogenology. 2018;107:162-174 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the rabbit could be a useful animal model for studying the local mechanisms involved in reproductive dysfunctions caused by subclinical infections. ..
  53. Hanson M, Hamilton P, Perlman S. Immune genes and divergent antimicrobial peptides in flies of the subgenus Drosophila. BMC Evol Biol. 2016;16:228 pubmed
    ..Our study lends support to the idea that invertebrate AMPs evolve rapidly, and that Drosophila harbor a diverse repertoire of AMPs with potentially important functional consequences. ..
  54. Facey S, Kuhn A. Biogenesis of bacterial inner-membrane proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2343-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will highlight the most recent developments on the structure and function of bacterial membrane proteins, focusing on the journey that integral membrane proteins take to find their final destination in the inner membrane...
  55. Petrosillo N, Capone A, Di Bella S, Taglietti F. Management of antibiotic resistance in the intensive care unit setting. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:289-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent issues on strategies to minimize resistance development and to appropriately manage critically ill patients with infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms in the intensive care unit setting are discussed in this article...
  56. Cooper V, Vohr S, Wrocklage S, Hatcher P. Why genes evolve faster on secondary chromosomes in bacteria. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1000732 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, secondary chromosomes in bacteria are evolutionary test beds where genes are weakly preserved and evolve more rapidly, likely because they are used less frequently...
  57. Amsler K, Santoro C, Foleno B, Bush K, Flamm R. Comparison of broth microdilution, agar dilution, and Etest for susceptibility testing of doripenem against gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Etest MIC values demonstrated 98% agreement within +/-2 log(2) dilutions compared to the reference broth microdilution method...
  58. Spitsmeister M, Adamberg K, Vilu R. UPLC/MS based method for quantitative determination of fatty acid composition in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;82:288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that the membranes of slowly growing cells are more rigid and that the fatty acid fraction of the cells of L. lactis diminishes considerably with increasing growth rate...
  59. Roongpoovapatr P, Suankratay C. Causative pathogens of fever in neutropenic patients at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93:776-83 pubmed
    ..However, Gram-positive bacteria have become more commonly isolated etiologic pathogens, and the incidence of fungal infection has been increasing since 2005...
  60. Muangchana C, Chunsuttiwat S, Rerks Ngarm S, Kunasol P. Bacterial meningitis incidence in Thai children estimated by a rapid assessment tool (RAT). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:553-62 pubmed
    ..This study gives an interval of possible incidences of bacterial meningitis in children under age five, which is between the unadjusted (low estimate) and adjusted (high estimate) incidences...
  61. Wang H, Chen M, Ni Y, Liu Y, Sun H, Yu Y, et al. Antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates from the Chinese Meropenem Surveillance Study (CMSS), 2003-2008. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;35:227-34 pubmed publisher carbapenems, resulting from the spread of highly resistant clones. Continued surveillance studies, including CMSS, as well as potent measures for controlling the spread of resistant clones are required...
  62. Carmeli Y, Akova M, Cornaglia G, Daikos G, Garau J, Harbarth S, et al. Controlling the spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negatives: therapeutic approach and infection control. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:102-11 pubmed publisher
  63. Al Hasan M, Eckel Passow J, Baddour L. Recurrent gram-negative bloodstream infection: a 10-year population-based cohort study. J Infect. 2010;61:28-33 pubmed publisher
  64. Pan C, Rajanbabu V, Chen J, Her G, Nan F. Evaluation of the epinecidin-1 peptide as an active ingredient in cleaning solutions against pathogens. Peptides. 2010;31:1449-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Given its simple structure and antimicrobial activity, epinecidin-1 may be a useful component of microbicides designed to prevent pathogen infections and/or remediate abnormal vaginal or skin flora...
  65. Matti K, Savanurmath C, Hinchigeri S. A promising broad spectrum antimicrobial red fluorescent protein present in silkworm excreta. Biol Pharm Bull. 2010;33:1143-7 pubmed
    ..The SE-RFP being an aqua-soluble, economically feasible and eco-friendly protein, it can therefore be used for the practical applications as an effective antimicrobial agent...
  66. Nisnevitch M, Nakonechny F, Nitzan Y. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy by liposome-encapsulated water-soluble photosensitizers. Bioorg Khim. 2010;36:396-402 pubmed
    ..We suggest that encapsulation of PhS can increase the photoinactivation of bacteria...
  67. Schastak S, Ziganshyna S, Gitter B, Wiedemann P, Claudepierre T. Efficient photodynamic therapy against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using THPTS, a cationic photosensitizer excited by infrared wavelength. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11674 pubmed publisher
  68. Knothe H, Dette G. The in-vitro activity of ceftazidime against clinically important pathogens. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1981;8 Suppl B:33-41 pubmed
    ..The activity of ceftazidime against Staphylococcus aureus is limited and, like other cephalosporins, it is inactive against Streptococcus faecalis...
  69. Vicent M, Cascales L, Carbajo R, Cortés N, Messeguer A, Perez Paya E. Nanoconjugates as intracorporeal neutralizers of bacterial endotoxins. J Control Release. 2010;142:277-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This proves that nanoconjugate-based endotoxin neutralizers can function as intracorporeal neutralizers of bacterial endotoxins...
  70. Hussein A, Ahmed A, Sato M, Shimamoto T. Characterization of integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria from Palestinian hospitals. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) isolates, respectively. In this study various types of antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in Gram-negative bacteria from Palestinian hospitals, many of which are reported in the Middle East area for the first time...
  71. Akinpelu D, Aiyegoro A, Okoh A. Studies on the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of stem bark extracts of Afzelia africana (Smith). Biol Res. 2009;42:339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..5 microg/ml of proteins from the same organisms at the same concentration and exposure time. We propose that the stem bark of Afzelia africana is a potential source of bioactive compounds of importance to the pharmaceutical industry...
  72. Piroth L, Pechinot A, Minello A, Jaulhac B, Patry I, Hadou T, et al. Bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance in ascitic fluid: a 2-year retrospective study. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:847-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated epidemiological surveys and new clinical trials are thus needed...
  73. Eames T, Grabein B, Kroth J, Wollenberg A. Microbiological analysis of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy-associated paronychia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2010;24:958-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Although bacterial and fungal infections as well as mechanical trauma may play a role as co-pathogens, there is no good basis for an empirical antimicrobial chemotherapy in these patients...
  74. Baron C. Antivirulence drugs to target bacterial secretion systems. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010;13:100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Antivirulence drugs that disarm bacterial pathogens have the potential to be an important alternative or addition to classical antibiotics in future...
  75. Fu X, Kim S. Agarase: review of major sources, categories, purification method, enzyme characteristics and applications. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:200-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The paper reviews the category, source, purification method, major characteristics, and application fields of these native and gene cloned agarases in the past, present, and future...
  76. Ellis T, Kuehn M. Virulence and immunomodulatory roles of bacterial outer membrane vesicles. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2010;74:81-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Vesicles display antigens and can elicit potent inflammatory and immune responses. In sum, OM vesicles are likely to play a significant role in the virulence of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens...
  77. Bornstein E, Gridley S, Wengender P, Robbins A. Photodamage to multidrug-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria by 870 nm/930 nm light potentiates erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86:617-27 pubmed publisher
    ..With erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, attenuation of energy-dependent efflux systems is also a possibility...
  78. Cote J, Taylor E. The Glycosyltransferases of LPS Core: A Review of Four Heptosyltransferase Enzymes in Context. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Finding new and smarter methods to inhibit bacterial growth is crucial, and the Heptosyltransferases may provide an important model for how to inhibit many GT-B enzymes. ..
  79. Kofteridis D, Valachis A, Perakis K, Maraki S, Daphnis E, Samonis G. Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: clinical features and predictors of outcome. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to identify the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological factors affecting the outcome of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis...
  80. Peterson G, Bai J, Nagaraja T, Narayanan S. Diagnostic microarray for human and animal bacterial diseases and their virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes. J Microbiol Methods. 2010;80:223-30 pubmed publisher
  81. Hsu L, Tan T, Tam V, Kwa A, Fisher D, Koh T. Surveillance and correlation of antibiotic prescription and resistance of Gram-negative bacteria in Singaporean hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In areas where Gram-negative bacterial resistance is endemic and prescription of broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents is high, factors other than antimicrobial usage may be equally important in maintaining high resistance rates...
  82. Weintrob A, Roediger M, Barber M, Summers A, Fieberg A, Dunn J, et al. Natural history of colonization with gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms among hospitalized patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:330-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the anatomic sites and natural history of colonization with gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
  83. Liao W, Jiang J, Xu Y, Yi J, Chen T, Su X, et al. Survey for beta-lactamase among bacterial isolates from Guangzhou, China hospitals between 2005-2006. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2010;63:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Multidrug resistance and beta-lactamases continue to be prevalent in Guangzhou. Our results suggest that resistance genes are evolving and being horizontally transmitted between species...
  84. Chatzopoulou A, Karioti A, Gousiadou C, Lax Vivancos V, Kyriazopoulos P, Golegou S, et al. Depsides and other polar constituents from Origanum dictamnus L. and their in vitro antimicrobial activity in clinical strains. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:6064-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it has been proved to be active against the Gram-negative clinical strains Acinetobacter hemolyticus , Empedobacter brevis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Klebsiella pneumoniae ...
  85. Raza S, Sultan O, Sohail M. Gram-negative bacterial endocarditis in adults: state-of-the-heart. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010;8:879-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, optimal management, including the need for surgical intervention, and strategies for the prevention of Gram-negative endocarditis need to be revisited...
  86. Kanagarajan V, Sureshkumar P, Gopalakrishnan M. Strange formation of N-hydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-2,6-diarylpiperidin-4-one and its oxime derivative--synthesis, stereochemistry, antibacterial and antifungal activity. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14:597-604 pubmed
  87. Almeida D, Miller D, Alfonso E. Anterior chamber and vitreous concordance in endophthalmitis: implications for prophylaxis. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1136-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the relationship between anterior chamber (AC) sterilization and vitreous positivity rate in cases of endophthalmitis...
  88. Kaneene J, Warnick L, Bolin C, Erskine R, May K, Miller R. Changes in multidrug resistance of enteric bacteria following an intervention to reduce antimicrobial resistance in dairy calves. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:4109-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Results demonstrated that the intervention did reduce multidrug resistance in these bacteria but that other factors also influenced multidrug resistance...
  89. Matangkasombut O, Wattanawaraporn R, Tsuruda K, Ohara M, Sugai M, Mongkolsuk S. Cytolethal distending toxin from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans induces DNA damage, S/G2 cell cycle arrest, and caspase- independent death in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model. Infect Immun. 2010;78:783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we report here the evidence that AaCdtB causes DNA damage that leads to nonapoptotic death in yeast and the first mutation that confers resistance to CdtB...
  90. Marlowe L, Mistry R, Coffin S, Leckerman K, McGowan K, Dai D, et al. Blood culture contamination rates after skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate versus povidone-iodine in a pediatric emergency department. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine blood culture contamination rates after skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine, compared with povidone-iodine...
  91. Lauderdale T, Shiau Y, Lai J, Chen H, King C. Comparative in vitro activities of nemonoxacin (TG-873870), a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, and other quinolones against clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1338-42 pubmed publisher
  92. Salem M, Matter R, Abdelmaksoud A, El Masry S. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in Egyptian children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2009;39:951-62 pubmed
    ..ASB is more prevalent among type 1 diabetic patients in the pediatric age group. Screening for ASB is warranted in diabetic patients with risk factors especially if pyuria is detected in their urine analysis...