clostridium tetani

Summary

Summary: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.

Top Publications

  1. Goto T, Todo K, Miyamoto K, Akimoto S. Bacterial artificial chromosome library of Finegoldia magna ATCC 29328 for genetic mapping and comparative genomics. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47:1005-16 pubmed
    ..magna is most closely related to clostridia, particularly Clostridium tetani. This close relationship is consistent with the recent classification of peptostreptococci based on 16S rRNA ..
  2. Raffestin S, Dupuy B, Marvaud J, Popoff M. BotR/A and TetR are alternative RNA polymerase sigma factors controlling the expression of the neurotoxin and associated protein genes in Clostridium botulinum type A and Clostridium tetani. Mol Microbiol. 2005;55:235-49 pubmed
    Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, respectively, produce potent toxins, botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) and tetanus neurotoxin (TeTx), which are responsible for severe diseases, botulism and tetanus...
  3. Brook I. Current concepts in the management of Clostridium tetani infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2008;6:327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Tetanus is an acute toxemic illness caused by Clostridium tetani infection at a laceration or break in the skin...
  4. Eckhard U, Schönauer E, Ducka P, Briza P, Nüss D, Brandstetter H. Biochemical characterization of the catalytic domains of three different Clostridial collagenases. Biol Chem. 2009;390:11-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations have consequences with respect to the topology of the N-terminus relative to the active site as well as possible activation mechanisms...
  5. Kurtoglu D, Gozalan A, Coplu N, Miyamura K, Morita M, Esen B, et al. Community-based seroepidemiology of tetanus in three selected provinces in Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:10-6 pubmed
  6. Qazi O, Brailsford A, Wright A, Faraar J, Campbell J, Fairweather N. Identification and characterization of the surface-layer protein of Clostridium tetani. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2007;274:126-31 pubmed
    ..Two proteins present in cell wall extracts from Clostridium tetani have been investigated and identified one of these has been unambiguously as the surface-layer protein (SLP)...
  7. Marvaud J, Eisel U, Binz T, Niemann H, Popoff M. TetR is a positive regulator of the tetanus toxin gene in Clostridium tetani and is homologous to botR. Infect Immun. 1998;66:5698-702 pubmed
    ..This supports that TetR positively regulates the TeTx gene in C. tetani and that a conserved mechanism of regulation of the neurotoxin genes is involved in C. tetani and C. botulinum...
  8. Popp D, Narita A, Lee L, Ghoshdastider U, Xue B, Srinivasan R, et al. Novel actin-like filament structure from Clostridium tetani. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:21121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a unique filament architecture of Alp12 from Clostridium tetani that is constructed from four protofilaments...
  9. Hahné S, White J, Crowcroft N, Brett M, George R, Beeching N, et al. Tetanus in injecting drug users, United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:709-10 pubmed

More Information

Publications96

  1. Luo Y, Zhou J, Wang J, Dayie T, Sintim H. Selective binding of 2'-F-c-di-GMP to Ct-E88 and Cb-E43, new class I riboswitches from Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum respectively. Mol Biosyst. 2013;9:1535-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Campbell J, Lam T, Huynh T, To S, Tran T, Nguyen V, et al. Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani isolated from wounds of patients with clinically diagnosed tetanus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:827-31 pubmed
    b>Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries...
  3. Bruggemann H, Baumer S, Fricke W, Wiezer A, Liesegang H, Decker I, et al. The genome sequence of Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1316-21 pubmed
    ..The causative agent of tetanus disease is Clostridium tetani, an anaerobic spore-forming bacterium, whose natural habitat is soil, dust, and intestinal tracts of various ..
  4. Alam S, Bansod S, Singh L. Immunization against Clostridium perfringens cells elicits protection against Clostridium tetani in mouse model: identification of cross-reactive proteins using proteomic methodologies. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:194 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium tetani and Clostridium perfringens are among the medically important clostridial pathogens causing diseases in man and animals...
  5. Ozturk A, Göahmetoğlu S, Erdem F, Mýsgüroğlu Alkan S. Tetanus antitoxin levels among adults over 40 years of age in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003;9:33-8 pubmed
    ..To determine tetanus antitoxin levels in adults and the aged...
  6. Bruggemann H, Bauer R, Raffestin S, Gottschalk G. Characterization of a heme oxygenase of Clostridium tetani and its possible role in oxygen tolerance. Arch Microbiol. 2004;182:259-63 pubmed
    In order to colonize mammalian wounds, the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani must presumably cope with temporary oxic conditions...
  7. Greco J, Sacramento E, Tavares Neto J. Chronic ulcers and myasis as ports of entry for Clostridium tetani. Braz J Infect Dis. 2001;5:319-23 pubmed
    ..ulcers and 17 had chronic ulceration of the lower limbs where these skin lesions were the ports of entry for Clostridium tetani. In these 19 cases, the following predisposing factors were described: venous insufficiency (n=6), sickle ..
  8. Soria Guerra R, Rosales Mendoza S, Moreno Fierros L, López Revilla R, Alpuche Solís A. Oral immunogenicity of tomato-derived sDPT polypeptide containing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Bordetella pertussis and Clostridium tetani exotoxin epitopes. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:417-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the concept of using transgenic tomatoes expressing sDPT polypeptide as model for edible vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus...
  9. Hope V, Palmateer N, Wiessing L, Marongiu A, White J, Ncube F, et al. A decade of spore-forming bacterial infections among European injecting drug users: pronounced regional variation. Am J Public Health. 2012;102:122-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Six countries reported 367 cases; rates varied from 0.03 to 7.54 per million people. Most cases (92%) were reported from 3 neighboring countries: Ireland, Norway, and the United Kingdom. This geographic variation needs investigation...
  10. Johnston N, Aygun Sunar S, Guan Z, Ribeiro A, Daldal F, Raetz C, et al. A phosphoethanolamine-modified glycosyl diradylglycerol in the polar lipids of Clostridium tetani. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1953-61 pubmed publisher
    The polar lipids of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani, the causative agent of tetanus, have been examined by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, ESI mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy...
  11. Gergen P, McQuillan G, Kiely M, Ezzati Rice T, Sutter R, Virella G. A population-based serologic survey of immunity to tetanus in the United States. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:761-6 pubmed
  12. Edlich R, Hill L, Mahler C, Cox M, Becker D, Horowitz J, et al. Management and prevention of tetanus. J Long Term Eff Med Implants. 2003;13:139-54 pubmed
    ..Because there is essentially no immunity to tetanus toxoid, the only effective way to control tetanus is by prophylactic immunization...
  13. Thwaites C, Loan H. Eradication of tetanus. Br Med Bull. 2015;116:69-77 pubmed publisher
    The causative agent of tetanus, Clostridium tetani is widespread in the environment throughout the world and cannot be eradicated...
  14. Robb Nicholson C. By the way, doctor. My doctor told me I'm overdue for a tetanus booster. I'm 60, and I wonder if it's really necessary at my age. Can't I just get one if I get a deep cut?. Harv Womens Health Watch. 2004;11:8 pubmed
  15. Toker İ, Kiliç T, Kose S, Yesilaras M, Calıskan F, Atilla O, et al. Tetanus immunity status among adult trauma patients in an ED. Turk J Emerg Med. 2017;17:95-98 pubmed publisher
    Tetanus is a vaccine-preventable infectious disease. It is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The aim of this study was to investigate tetanus immunity among adult trauma patients.
  16. Hanif H, Anjum A, Ali N, Jamal A, Imran M, Ahmad B, et al. Isolation and Antibiogram of Clostridium tetani from Clinically Diagnosed Tetanus Patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:752-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium tetani, the etiologic agent of tetanus, produces a toxin that causes spastic paralysis in humans and other vertebrates. This study was aimed for isolation, identification, and determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of C...
  17. Ciofi Degli Atti M, Salmaso S, Cotter B, Gallo G, Alfarone G, Pinto A, et al. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of adult versus paediatric diphtheria and tetanus booster dose at 6 years of age. Vaccine. 2001;20:74-9 pubmed
    ..001). The higher antibody response and the comparable reactogenicity indicate that DT should be used as booster at school-entry, particularly if additional booster doses during adolescence or adulthood are not administered. ..
  18. Hayney M, Love G, Carlberg B, Buck J, Muller D. Tetanus seroprevalence among farmers: a preliminary study. J Rural Health. 2003;19:109-12 pubmed
    ..Occupation may be an important consideration in the development of immunization policies. A broader seroepidemiological study of farmers must be undertaken before any such considerations can be made. ..
  19. Wernery U, ul Haq A, Joseph M, Kinne J. Tetanus in a camel (Camelus dromedarius)--a case report. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2004;36:217-24 pubmed
    ..Both castration wounds were closed and spermiducts were filled with necrotic masses from which Clostridium tetani was isolated...
  20. De Marchis G. Video NeuroImage: Generalized tetanus in a 70-year-old woman. Neurology. 2008;70:e70 pubmed publisher
  21. Riedel T, Wittmann J, Bunk B, Schober I, Sproer C, Gronow S, et al. A Clostridioides difficile bacteriophage genome encodes functional binary toxin-associated genes. J Biotechnol. 2017;250:23-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas many clostridia like e.g., Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum or Clostridium tetani were shown to contain toxin-encoding plasmids, only toxin genes located on the chromosome were detected in ..
  22. Divino Goes K, Moraes Pinto M, Dinelli M, Casagrande S, Bonetti T, Andrade P, et al. Prevalence of diphtheria and tetanus antibodies and circulation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in São Paulo, Brazil. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007;40:1681-7 pubmed
    ..8%) were carriers of C. diphtheriae, all non-toxigenic strains. The present results demonstrate the clear need of periodic booster for tetanus and diphtheria vaccine in adolescents and adults after primary immunization in childhood. ..
  23. Elkharrat D, Espinoza P, de La Coussaye J, Potel G, Pourriat J, Sanson Le Pors M. [Inclusion of a rapid test in the current Health Ministry Guidelines with the purpose of improving anti-tetanus prophylaxis prescribed to wounded patients presenting at French Emergency Departments]. Med Mal Infect. 2005;35:323-8 pubmed
  24. Luo P, Qin L, Mao X, Chen L, Yu S, Li Q, et al. Identification of a novel linear epitope in tetanus toxin recognized by a protective monoclonal antibody: implications for vaccine design. Vaccine. 2012;30:6449-55 pubmed publisher
    Tetanus, a severe infectious disease, is caused by tetanus toxin (TT) from Clostridium tetani, which remains one of the most critical unsolved health problems despite preventive strategies...
  25. Ferrari E, Gu C, Niranjan D, Restani L, Rasetti Escargueil C, Obara I, et al. Synthetic self-assembling clostridial chimera for modulation of sensory functions. Bioconjug Chem. 2013;24:1750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we provide the first evidence that the protein stapling technology allows assembly of distinct proteins yielding new biomedical properties. ..
  26. Redwan e, Al Awady M. Prevalence of tetanus immunity in the Egyptian population. Hum Antibodies. 2002;11:55-9 pubmed
    ..7%) unprotected against tetanus. Our results suggest that monitoring immunization status and administering the tetanus vaccine as required are essential to insure adequate and long-lasting antibody levels. ..
  27. Fontanilla J, Kirkland K, Cotter J, Talbot E. Ability of healthcare workers to recall previous receipt of tetanus-containing vaccination. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:647-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Self-report of previous receipt of tetanus-diphtheria or tetanus toxin vaccination was validated using an electronic medical record. Results showed that HCWs' self-report is reliable during a vaccination campaign. ..
  28. Sheffield J, Ramin S. Tetanus in pregnancy. Am J Perinatol. 2004;21:173-82 pubmed
    ..It is caused by the release of two toxins produced by Clostridium tetani, a noninvasive gram-positive anaerobic bacillus...
  29. Paulke Korinek M, Rendi Wagner P, Kundi M, Tomann B, Wiedermann U, Kollaritsch H. Pretravel consultation: rapid dipstick test as a decision guidance for the application of tetanus booster vaccinations. J Travel Med. 2008;15:437-41 pubmed publisher
    ..5 IU/mL. This can help to avoid unnecessary tetanus vaccinations in travel clinics, emergency departments, and practices of family doctors. ..
  30. Zielinski A. [Tetanus in Poland in 2009]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2011;65:271-2 pubmed
    ..There is a need for promotion of vaccinations in older age groups, which are mostly affected, and also are of the risk of death from tetanus. ..
  31. Tadele H. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Pediatrics Tetanus: The Experience of a Tertiary Hospital in Ethiopia. Ethiop J Health Sci. 2017;27:559-564 pubmed
    ..illness manifested by neuromuscular dysfunction due to a potent exotoxin, tetanospasmin produced by Clostridium tetani. It is a common health problem in developing countries like Ethiopia...
  32. Shi Z, Zeng M, Yang G, Siegel F, Cain L, Van Kampen K, et al. Protection against tetanus by needle-free inoculation of adenovirus-vectored nasal and epicutaneous vaccines. J Virol. 2001;75:11474-82 pubmed
    ..Here we show that a protective immune response against live Clostridium tetani infection in mice can be elicited by an adenovirus vector encoding the tetanus toxin C fragment when ..
  33. Eisel U, Jarausch W, Goretzki K, Henschen A, Engels J, Weller U, et al. Tetanus toxin: primary structure, expression in E. coli, and homology with botulinum toxins. EMBO J. 1986;5:2495-502 pubmed
    ..to identify the gene encoding tetanus toxin on a 75-kbp plasmid from a toxigenic non-sporulating strain of Clostridium tetani. The nucleotide sequence contained a single open reading frame coding for 1315 amino acids corresponding to ..
  34. Caglar K, Karakus R, Aybay C. Determination of tetanus antibodies by a double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in individuals of various age groups. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;24:523-8 pubmed
    ..Preventive measures against tetanus should therefore focus on scheduled booster immunization for adults as well as children. ..
  35. Cibis K, Gneipel A, König H. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants. J Biotechnol. 2016;220:51-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D...
  36. Martins R, Camacho L, Marcovistz R, Noronha T, Maia M, dos Santos E, et al. Immunogenicity, reactogenicity and consistency of production of a Brazilian combined vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:711-8 pubmed
    ..Adverse events rates were comparable among the vaccine groups. The Brazilian DTP/Hib vaccine demonstrated an immunogenicity and reactogenicity profile similar to that of the reference vaccine. ..
  37. Bercsényi K, Giribaldi F, Schiavo G. The elusive compass of clostridial neurotoxins: deciding when and where to go?. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2013;364:91-113 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarise new findings concerning the uptake and intracellular trafficking of these neurotoxins, and discuss their implications in terms of the physiological effects of BoNT and TeNT in the central nervous system. ..
  38. Altiparmak B, Uysal A, Yaşar E, Demirbilek S. [Alternative approach to autonomic instability of very severe tetanus: stellate ganglion block]. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2018;68:209-211 pubmed publisher
    Tetanus is an acute and deadly disease caused by Clostridium tetani. A 60-year-old male came to hospital after he injured his thumb with a knife. Ten days later, he returned to hospital with abdominal spasms...
  39. van Baar B, Hulst A, Roberts B, Wils E. Characterization of tetanus toxin, neat and in culture supernatant, by electrospray mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem. 2002;301:278-89 pubmed
    ..subsequent identification of the toxin in cell lysate supernatants and culture supernatants from different Clostridium tetani bacteria strains...
  40. Masuyer G, Conrad J, Stenmark P. The structure of the tetanus toxin reveals pH-mediated domain dynamics. EMBO Rep. 2017;18:1306-1317 pubmed publisher
    The tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) is a highly potent toxin produced by Clostridium tetani that inhibits neurotransmission of inhibitory interneurons, causing spastic paralysis in the tetanus disease...
  41. Kobayashi T, Watanabe K, Ueno K. [Distribution of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani in Okinawa Prefecture]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 1992;66:1639-44 pubmed
    ..of Okinawa Prefecture were collected, mainly in 1988 and 1989, and examined for Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani. Of 290 soil samples 21 (7.2%) were positive for C. botulinum. Four (1.4%) and 17 (5...
  42. Jiang D, Pu X, Wu J, Li M, Liu P. Rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of Clostridium tetani by loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;23:1-6 pubmed
    ..The obligate anaerobe Clostridium tetani is the pathogen that causes tetanus...
  43. Cohen J, Wang R, Shen R, Wu W, Keller J. Comparative pathogenomics of Clostridium tetani. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182909 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum produce two of the most potent neurotoxins known, tetanus neurotoxin and botulinum neurotoxin, respectively...
  44. Ghader M, Shokoufi N, Es Haghi A, Kargosha K. Sol-gel-based SPME fiber as a reliable sampling technique for studying biogenic volatile organic compounds released from Clostridium tetani. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2017;409:6739-6744 pubmed publisher
    ..PEG) fiber, along with two commercial fibers (PDMS and PDMS/DVB) were used to collect VOCs emerging from Clostridium tetani which was cultured in different media. The adsorbed VOCs were desorbed and identified, in vitro, using GC-MS...
  45. Palmateer N, Hope V, Roy K, Marongiu A, White J, Grant K, et al. Infections with spore-forming bacteria in persons who inject drugs, 2000-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..PWID should be advised about treatment programs, injecting hygiene, risks, and vaccinations. ..
  46. Haneda J, Shiobara Y, Inui M, Sekiguchi T, Sato Y, Takayama Y, et al. [Distribution of Clostridium tetani in topsoil from Sagamihara, central Japan]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2006;80:690-3 pubmed
    Despite reports of Clostridium tetani being isolated from soil in Kanazawa, Okinawa, and Tokyo, Japan, little has been studied about C. tetani distribution in other regions. We studied C...
  47. Takahashi M. [Immunologic tests: Clostridium tetani]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 7:206-9 pubmed
  48. McNeil B, Zimmerly S. Novel RNA structural features of an alternatively splicing group II intron from Clostridium tetani. RNA. 2014;20:855-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously, we reported that the group II intron C.te.I1 of Clostridium tetani alternatively splices in vivo to produce five distinct coding mRNAs...
  49. Grunau B, Olson J. An interesting presentation of pediatric tetanus. CJEM. 2010;12:69-72 pubmed
  50. Gaayeb L, Sarr J, Cames C, Pinçon C, Hanon J, Ndiath M, et al. Effects of malnutrition on children's immunity to bacterial antigens in Northern Senegal. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:566-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these results show that nutritional status can specifically alter the efficacy of long-lasting immunity to tetanus...
  51. Matouskova I, Machova L, Cizek L, Janoutova G, Hoskova J, Janout V. [Tetanus immunity in the elderly in the Czech Republic]. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 2007;56:10-3 pubmed
    ..The sporadic incidence of tetanus cases in the Czech Republic over the last 15 years indirectly indicates the efficacy of the immunization strategy used...
  52. Baral R, Catt M, Malik R. What is your diagnosis? Localised tetanus in a cat. J Feline Med Surg. 2002;4:221-4 pubmed
  53. Goldhammer M, Chapman P, Grierson J. Coxofemoral luxation in a border collie as a complication of a Clostridium tetani infection. J Small Anim Pract. 2008;49:159-62 pubmed
    ..Coxofemoral luxation resulted as a complication of the tetanus and was successfully managed by performing a femoral head and neck excision. This is the first report of joint luxation associated with Clostridium tetani infection in a dog.
  54. Marinaro M, Fasano A, De Magistris M. Zonula occludens toxin acts as an adjuvant through different mucosal routes and induces protective immune responses. Infect Immun. 2003;71:1897-902 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Zot is a novel and effective mucosal adjuvant that may be useful for the development of mucosal vaccines...
  55. Sharma A, Kapoor S. Relapse in a child with otogenic tetanus. Trop Doct. 2006;36:56-7 pubmed
    ..This communiqué is intended to highlight that tetanus is still a significant health problem in third-world countries and a relapse after such a dreadful disease is terrifying...
  56. Ducka P, Eckhard U, Schönauer E, Kofler S, Gottschalk G, Brandstetter H, et al. A universal strategy for high-yield production of soluble and functional clostridial collagenases in E. coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;83:1055-65 pubmed publisher
    ..constructs of collagenase G (ColG) and H (ColH) from Clostridium histolyticum and collagenase T (ColT) from Clostridium tetani, mimicking the isoforms in vivo...
  57. Schallert N, Pihlgren M, Kovarik J, Roduit C, Tougne C, Bozzotti P, et al. Generation of adult-like antibody avidity profiles after early-life immunization with protein vaccines. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:752-60 pubmed
  58. Lima E, Silva R, Fernandes I, Abbud Filho M, Burdmann E. Tetanus-induced acute kidney injury in a renal transplant recipient. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:400-2 pubmed
    ..Its treatment is difficult and requires specialized and intensive care. This case highlights the crucial importance of following adequate immunization guidelines in transplant recipients...
  59. Huang Y, Liu T, Chen Y, Lee C, Chen H, Huang T, et al. Distance variations between active sites of H(+)-pyrophosphatase determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:23655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..A working model is accordingly proposed elucidating the distance variations of dimeric H(+)-PPase upon substrate binding...
  60. Yamamoto M, Wada N, Kitabatake Y, Watanabe D, Anzai M, Yokoyama M, et al. Reversible suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission of cerebellar granule cells in vivo by genetically manipulated expression of tetanus neurotoxin light chain. J Neurosci. 2003;23:6759-67 pubmed
    ..These transgenic mice will serve as an animal model to study the cerebellar function in motor coordination and learning...
  61. Martin S, Giss A, Ackermann B, Russer S, Inderwisch U, Howe J, et al. [Assessment of the tetanus immune status in plasma donors of the Blood Donor Service of the Bavarian Red Cross]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2005;130:1810-3 pubmed
    ..In Germany tetanus occurs almost exclusively in elderly, not adequately immunized persons. This study determined the existing immune status of plasma donors in the region of Ingolstadt, Bavaria...
  62. Barrault D, Steward M, Cox V, Smith R, Knight A. Efficient production of complement (C3d)3 fusion proteins using the baculovirus expression vector system. J Immunol Methods. 2005;304:158-73 pubmed
    ..The integrity of the purified recombinant protein was evaluated by SDS PAGE analysis, reactivity with antibodies, as well as in vivo by administration as an immunogen...
  63. Okoko B, Wesuperuma L, Ota M, Banya W, Pinder M, Gomez F, et al. Influence of placental malaria infection and maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia on materno-foetal transfer of measles and tetanus antibodies in a rural west African population. J Health Popul Nutr. 2001;19:59-65 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the combined influence of placental malaria infection and maternal hypergammaglobulinaemia is significantly associated with the transfer of impaired measles antibody in this population...
  64. Ergonul O, Erbay A, Eren S, Dokuzoguz B. Analysis of the case fatality rate of tetanus among adults in a tertiary hospital in Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;22:188-90 pubmed
    ..This suggests a need for adult vaccination programs and/or a plan to educate the public to recognize symptoms early and then rapidly seek medical care...
  65. Torabi Goudarzi S, Hajivalili M, Hosseini M, Ghafari Khamene M, Yazdani Y, Sadreddini S, et al. Tetanus neurotoxin HCC protein commits T cells to IFN-? producing cells. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016;62:20-4 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results showed that treatment of T cells with r HCC resulted in development of Th1 lineage phenotype, which might lead to a specific and protective antibody mediated response against tetanus toxin. ..
  66. Papp K, Breuer K, Meurer M, Ortonne J, Potter P, De Prost Y, et al. Long-term treatment of atopic dermatitis with pimecrolimus cream 1% in infants does not interfere with the development of protective antibodies after vaccination. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;52:247-53 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether treatment of atopic dermatitis with pimecrolimus cream 1% in infants affects the development of a normal antibody response to vaccinations...
  67. Cooke M. Are current UK tetanus prophylaxis procedures for wound management optimal?. Emerg Med J. 2009;26:845-8 pubmed publisher
    Tetanus is a potentially fatal disease that occurs after contamination of a wound with Clostridium tetani spores...
  68. Kati I, Goktas U, Cagan E, Guzel A, Bartin S. The effect of magnesium sulfate on uncontrollable contractions in a tetanus case. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:366-7 pubmed publisher
    Tetanus is a rare disease caused by the exotoxins of Clostridium tetani. Higher mortality rates have been reported among the elderly and in the newborn...
  69. Thomas R, Bellamy M. Tetanus in a subcutaneous drug abuser: ineffectiveness of intrathecal baclofen. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2006;34:811-5 pubmed
    ..The current strategies involved in treating tetanus are discussed...
  70. Coplu N, Esen B, Gozalan A, Miyamura K, Yoshida I, Kurtoglu D, et al. Tetanus antibody assay combining in-house ELISA and particle agglutination test and its serosurvey application in a province in Turkey. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2004;57:97-102 pubmed
    ..A characteristic distribution of antibody titers in each age group was also demonstrated...
  71. Medaglini D, Ciabattini A, Spinosa M, Maggi T, Marcotte H, Oggioni M, et al. Immunization with recombinant Streptococcus gordonii expressing tetanus toxin fragment C confers protection from lethal challenge in mice. Vaccine. 2001;19:1931-9 pubmed
    ..These data show that TTFC expressed on the surface of S. gordonii is immunogenic by the subcutaneous and mucosal routes and the immune response induced is capable of conferring protection from the lethal challenge with TT...
  72. Sagheb M, Sajjadi S, Sajjadi G. Antitetanus toxoid antibody titer of chronic hemodialysis patients in Iran. Iran J Immunol. 2008;5:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with end stage renal disease have higher incidence of infection diseases that is thought to be related to impaired immune system...
  73. Fang A, Gerson D, Demain A. Menstrum for culture preservation and medium for seed preparation in a tetanus toxin production process containing no animal or dairy products. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;43:360-3 pubmed
    To completely eliminate animal and dairy products from the lyophilization menstrum and the seed medium used to produce tetanus toxin with Clostridium tetani.
  74. Afshar M, Raju M, Ansell D, Bleck T. Narrative review: tetanus-a health threat after natural disasters in developing countries. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Collapsing structures and swirling debris inflict numerous crush injuries, fractures, and serious wounds. Clostridium tetani infects wounds contaminated with dirt, feces, or saliva and releases neurotoxins that may cause fatal ..
  75. Bruggemann H. Genomics of clostridial pathogens: implication of extrachromosomal elements in pathogenicity. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005;8:601-5 pubmed
    The recently decoded genomes of the major clostridial toxin-producing pathogens Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium difficile have provided a huge amount of new sequence data...
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    When tetanus toxin is made by fermentation with Clostridium tetani, the traditional source of iron is an insoluble preparation called reduced iron powder. This material removes oxygen from the system by forming FeO(2) (rust)...
  78. Franke Whittle I, Klammer S, Insam H. Design and application of an oligonucleotide microarray for the investigation of compost microbial communities. J Microbiol Methods. 2005;62:37-56 pubmed
    ..of the microarray to compost samples indicated the presence of Streptococcus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, and Clostridium tetani in various compost samples. The presence of A...
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    ..To address this question, we compared the in silico HLA binding promiscuity of T cell epitopes from pathogens with distinct infection strategies and outcomes of human exposure...
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    The tetanus toxin is a neurotoxin synthesized by the bacillus Clostridium tetani that, after detoxification with formaldehyde, still exhibits antigenic and immunologic properties, hence its denomination of tetanus toxoid...
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    ..Conclusion The vast majority of sampled Korean American immigrants lack protective ATA levels and are in need of immunization. Additional study is needed to determine the risk of other immigrant groups to tetanus...
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    ..In Switzerland, the most recently reported tetanus cases occurred in elderly women with insufficient seroprotection...
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    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR were applied for the first time to the molecular characterization of Clostridium tetani. Among five strains tested, one (CN1339) turned out to contain a mixture of two genetically different clones ..
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    ..of the clostridia in Cluster I, including the pathogens Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani, has shown that no spoVF orthologues exist in these organisms...
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    ..To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (aPDT) vaccine (C-aPDT, Chiron/Biocine)...
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    ..To study the effect of dexamethasone in preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) on antibody response to routine immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP)...