clostridium sordellii

Summary

Summary: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.

Top Publications

  1. Sicard D. Deaths from Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1645-7; author reply 1645-7 pubmed
  2. Voth D, Martinez O, Ballard J. Variations in lethal toxin and cholesterol-dependent cytolysin production correspond to differences in cytotoxicity among strains of Clostridium sordellii. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006;259:295-302 pubmed
    b>Clostridium sordellii is an emerging human pathogen and frequent contaminant of cadaver-derived tissue transplant material. Herein, we provide data suggesting the potential for severe C...
  3. Aldape M, Bryant A, Stevens D. Clostridium sordellii infection: epidemiology, clinical findings, and current perspectives on diagnosis and treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1436-46 pubmed
    b>Clostridium sordellii infections pose difficult clinical challenges and are usually fatal...
  4. Cohen A, Bhatnagar J, Reagan S, Zane S, D Angeli M, Fischer M, et al. Toxic shock associated with Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens after medical and spontaneous abortion. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:1027-33 pubmed
    To better understand the risk of fatal toxic shock caused by Clostridium sordellii in women who had a recent medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol.
  5. Aronoff D, Hao Y, Chung J, Coleman N, Lewis C, Peres C, et al. Misoprostol impairs female reproductive tract innate immunity against Clostridium sordellii. J Immunol. 2008;180:8222-30 pubmed
    Fatal cases of acute shock complicating Clostridium sordellii endometritis following medical abortion with mifepristone (also known as RU-486) used with misoprostol were reported...
  6. Walk S, Jain R, Trivedi I, Grossman S, Newton D, Thelen T, et al. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sordellii: clinical and microbiological features of a case of cholangitis-associated bacteremia. Anaerobe. 2011;17:252-6 pubmed publisher
    Toxigenic Clostridium sordellii strains are increasingly recognized to cause highly lethal infections in humans that are typified by a toxic shock syndrome (TSS)...
  7. Tait A, Dalton M, Geny B, D Agnillo F, Popoff M, Sternberg E. The large clostridial toxins from Clostridium sordellii and C. difficile repress glucocorticoid receptor activity. Infect Immun. 2007;75:3935-40 pubmed
    ..We now report that repression of GR activity also occurs with the large clostridial toxins produced by Clostridium sordellii and C. difficile. This was demonstrated using a transient transfection assay system for GR transactivation...
  8. Mesmin B, Robbe K, Geny B, Luton F, Brandolin G, Popoff M, et al. A phosphatidylserine-binding site in the cytosolic fragment of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin facilitates glucosylation of membrane-bound Rac and is required for cytotoxicity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49876-82 pubmed
    ..We show that the glucosyltransferase domain of lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii (LT(cyt); amino acids 1-546), which is released into the cytosol during cell infection, binds ..
  9. Schulz F, Just I, Genth H. Prevention of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin-induced apoptotic cell death by tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Biochemistry. 2009;48:9002-10 pubmed publisher
    Virulent strains of Clostridium sordellii cause gangrenous myonecrosis in humans. The released lethal toxin (TcsL) and hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH) are regarded as the major virulence factors...

More Information

Publications70

  1. Geny B, Grassart A, Manich M, Chicanne G, Payrastre B, Sauvonnet N, et al. Rac1 inactivation by lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii modifies focal adhesions upstream of actin depolymerization. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:217-32 pubmed publisher
    Inactivation of different small GTPases upon their glucosylation by lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii strain IP82 (LT-82) is already known to lead to cell rounding, adherens junction (AJ) disorganization and actin depolymerization...
  2. Liggins M, Ramirez N, Magnuson N, Abel Santos E. Progesterone analogs influence germination of Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium difficile spores in vitro. J Bacteriol. 2011;193:2776-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium difficile are closely related anaerobic Gram-positive, spore-forming human pathogens. C. sordellii and C. difficile form spores that are believed to be the infectious form of these bacteria...
  3. de la Fe C, Rodriguez J, Ramirez G, Hervas J, Gil J, Poveda J. Sudden death associated with Clostridium sordellii in captive lions (Panthera leo). Vet Pathol. 2006;43:370-4 pubmed
    ..course of the disease, the gross and histologic findings, and the isolation and identification of Clostridium sordellii, a diagnosis of infectious myositis and cellulitis associated with acute clostridiosis was made...
  4. Aldape M, Bryant A, Ma Y, Stevens D. The leukemoid reaction in Clostridium sordellii infection: neuraminidase induction of promyelocytic cell proliferation. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1838-45 pubmed
    Life-threatening Clostridium sordellii infections have recently been reported in women undergoing therapeutic abortion, during natural childbirth, and in injection drug users...
  5. Matten J, Buechner V, Schwarz R. A rare case of Clostridium sordellii bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. Infection. 2009;37:368-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is a gram-positive, anaerobic sporeforming rod with peritrichous flagella that is rarely associated with disease in humans...
  6. Geny B, Popoff M. Activation of a c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase pathway by the lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii, TcsL-82, occurs independently of the toxin intrinsic enzymatic activity and facilitates small GTPase glucosylation. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:1102-13 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we show that lethal toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL-82) activates the three MAP kinase pathways, but that only a permeable and specific c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, JNK inhibitor II, prevents ..
  7. Ho C, Bhatnagar J, Cohen A, Hacker J, Zane S, Reagan S, et al. Undiagnosed cases of fatal Clostridium-associated toxic shock in Californian women of childbearing age. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201:459.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    In 2005, 4 Clostridium sordellii-associated toxic shock fatalities were reported in young Californian women after medical abortions...
  8. Ramirez N, Abel Santos E. Requirements for germination of Clostridium sordellii spores in vitro. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:418-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is a spore-forming, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that can cause toxic shock syndrome after gynecological procedures. Although the incidence of C...
  9. Unger Torroledo L, Straub R, Lehmann A, Graber F, Stahl C, Frey J, et al. Lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii is associated with fatal equine atypical myopathy. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:487-92 pubmed publisher
    The lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii (TcsL) evokes severe, mostly fatal disease patterns like toxic shock syndrome in humans and animals...
  10. Thelen T, Hao Y, Medeiros A, Curtis J, Serezani C, Kobzik L, et al. The class A scavenger receptor, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure, is the major phagocytic receptor for Clostridium sordellii expressed by human decidual macrophages. J Immunol. 2010;185:4328-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is an emerging pathogen associated with highly lethal female reproductive tract infections following childbirth, abortion, or cervical instrumentation. Gaps in our understanding of the pathogenesis of C...
  11. Genth H, Just I. Functional implications of lethal toxin-catalysed glucosylation of (H/K/N)Ras and Rac1 in Clostridium sordellii-associated disease. Eur J Cell Biol. 2011;90:959-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii-based diseases in humans and livestock rely on the activity of the major virulence factors, the single-chain protein toxins TcsL and TcsH, both belonging to the large clostridial glucosylating toxins...
  12. Carter G, Awad M, Hao Y, Thelen T, Bergin I, Howarth P, et al. TcsL is an essential virulence factor in Clostridium sordellii ATCC 9714. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1025-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is an important pathogen of humans and animals, causing a range of diseases, including myonecrosis, sepsis, and shock...
  13. Chaudhry R, Verma N, Bahadur T, Chaudhary P, Sharma P, Sharma N. Clostridium sordellii as a cause of constrictive pericarditis with pyopericardium and tamponade. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3700-2 pubmed publisher
    Systemic infections caused by Clostridium sordellii are rare. They are usually reported in cases of skin and soft tissue infections and sometimes in cases of toxic shock syndrome involving exotoxins...
  14. Fischer M, Bhatnagar J, Guarner J, Reagan S, Hacker J, Van Meter S, et al. Fatal toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2352-60 pubmed
    Endometritis and toxic shock syndrome associated with Clostridium sordellii have previously been reported after childbirth and, in one case, after medical abortion...
  15. Valour F, Boisset S, Lebras L, Martha B, Boibieux A, Perpoint T, et al. Clostridium sordellii brain abscess diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3443-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is usually associated with skin and soft tissue infections...
  16. Kozma Sipos Z, Szigeti J, Asványi B, Varga L. Heat resistance of Clostridium sordellii spores. Anaerobe. 2010;16:226-8 pubmed publisher
    The thermal destruction kinetics of Clostridium sordellii spores was studied in this research. Decimal reduction times (D values) for C. sordellii ATCC 9714 spores ranged between 175...
  17. Popoff M. Clostridium difficile and Clostridium sordellii toxins, proinflammatory versus anti-inflammatory response. Toxicon. 2018;149:54-64 pubmed publisher
    Clostridium difficile and Clostridium sordellii produce related potent toxins (C. difficile toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), C...
  18. Genth H, Schelle I, Just I. Metal Ion Activation of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium difficile Toxin B. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8:109 pubmed publisher
    Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL) and Toxin B from Clostridium difficile (TcdB) belong to the family of the "Large clostridial glycosylating toxins...
  19. Gornatti Churria C, Crispo M, Shivaprasad H, Uzal F. Gangrenous dermatitis in chickens and turkeys. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2018;30:188-196 pubmed publisher
    ..Clostridium septicum, Clostridium perfringens type A, and occasionally Clostridium sordellii are considered the main causes of GD, although Staphylococcus aureus and other aerobic bacteria may also ..
  20. AlMogbel M. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for identification of Clostridium species isolated from Saudi Arabia. Braz J Microbiol. 2016;47:410-3 pubmed publisher
    ..identified were Clostridium perfringens (67.36%), Clostridium subterminale (14.58%), Clostridium sordellii (9%) and Clostridium sporogenes (9%)...
  21. Yang P, Hash S, Park K, Wong C, Doraisamy L, Petterson J, et al. Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance to Detect Toxigenic Clostridium difficile from Stool Specimens: A Proof of Concept. J Mol Diagn. 2017;19:230-235 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile. No cross-reactivity was observed with nontoxigenic C. difficile, Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus subtilis, or Paenibacillus polymyxa at 108 colony forming ..
  22. Vidor C, Watts T, Adams V, Bulach D, Couchman E, Rood J, et al. Clostridium sordellii Pathogenicity Locus Plasmid pCS1-1 Encodes a Novel Clostridial Conjugation Locus. MBio. 2018;9: pubmed publisher
    A major virulence factor in Clostridium sordellii-mediated infection is the toxin TcsL, which is encoded within a region of the genome called the pathogenicity locus (PaLoc). C...
  23. Awad M, Singleton J, Lyras D. The Sialidase NanS Enhances Non-TcsL Mediated Cytotoxicity of Clostridium sordellii. Toxins (Basel). 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..TcsL is one of two major toxins produced by Clostridium sordellii, a human and animal pathogen, and is essential for disease pathogenesis of this bacterium. C...
  24. Rabi R, Turnbull L, Whitchurch C, Awad M, Lyras D. Structural Characterization of Clostridium sordellii Spores of Diverse Human, Animal, and Environmental Origin and Comparison to Clostridium difficile Spores. mSphere. 2017;2: pubmed publisher
    i>Clostridium sordellii is an often-lethal bacterium causing human and animal disease. Crucial to the infectious cycle of C...
  25. Schierwagen R, Maybüchen L, Hittatiya K, Klein S, Uschner F, Braga T, et al. Statins improve NASH via inhibition of RhoA and Ras. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;311:G724-G733 pubmed publisher
    ..Small GTPases were inhibited by activated simvastatin (SMV), NSC23766 (NSC), or Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin (LT) by using subcutaneous osmotic minipumps...
  26. Guttenberg G, Papatheodorou P, Genisyuerek S, Lu W, Jank T, Einsle O, et al. Inositol hexakisphosphate-dependent processing of Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and Clostridium novyi alpha-toxin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14779-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-toxin, which are virulence factors involved in the toxic shock and gas gangrene syndromes, are members of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins...
  27. Butts C, Jones Y, Lim J, Salter C, Belyavskaya E, Sternberg E. Tissue expression of steroid hormone receptors is associated with differential immune responsiveness. Brain Behav Immun. 2011;25:1000-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that tissue-specific differences in steroid hormone receptor expression by immune cells could determine responsiveness to steroid hormone treatment. ..
  28. Meites E, Zane S, Gould C. Fatal Clostridium sordellii infections after medical abortions. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:1382-3 pubmed publisher
  29. Kachman M, Hurley M, Thiele T, Srinivas G, Aronoff D. Comparative analysis of the extracellular proteomes of two Clostridium sordellii strains exhibiting contrasting virulence. Anaerobe. 2010;16:454-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is a toxin-producing anaerobic bacillus that causes severe infections in humans and livestock. C. sordellii infections can be accompanied by a highly lethal toxic shock syndrome (TSS)...
  30. Murray S, Wooltorton E. Septic shock after medical abortions with mifepristone (Mifeprex, RU 486) and misoprostol. CMAJ. 2005;173:485 pubmed
  31. McGregor J, Equiles O. Risks of mifepristone abortion in context. Contraception. 2005;72:393; author reply 394 pubmed
  32. Thiele T, Stuber T, Hauer P. Detection of Clostridium sordellii strains expressing hemorrhagic toxin (TcsH) and implications for diagnostics and regulation of veterinary vaccines. Vaccine. 2013;31:5082-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii is a Gram positive anaerobic bacterium that causes multiple disease syndromes in both humans and animals. As with many clostridial pathogens, toxins contribute to the virulence of C. sordellii...
  33. Couzin J. infectious disease. RU-486-linked deaths open debate about risky bacteria. Science. 2006;312:986 pubmed
  34. Arya P, Ponmariappan S, Singh L, Prasad G. Antibodies against recombinant catalytic domain of lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii neutralize lethal toxin toxicity in HeLa cells. Protein Pept Lett. 2013;20:205-12 pubmed
    Lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii (MLD 150 ng/kg) is one of the most potent Clostridial toxins and is responsible for most of the diseases including sudden death syndrome in cattle, sheep and toxic shock syndrome, necrotizing ..
  35. Dawson L, Stabler R, Wren B. Assessing the role of p-cresol tolerance in Clostridium difficile. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:745-9 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile strains including 630, CF4 and CD196. Surprising, it was shown that Clostridium sordellii also has a high tolerance to p-cresol, suggesting an overlap in the tolerance pathways in these ..
  36. Bhatnagar J, DeLeon Carnes M, Kellar K, Bandyopadhyay K, Antoniadou Z, Shieh W, et al. Rapid, simultaneous detection of Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens in archived tissues by a novel PCR-based microsphere assay: diagnostic implications for pregnancy-associated toxic shock syndrome cases. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012;2012:972845 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium perfringens are infrequent human pathogens; however, the case-fatality rates for the infections are very high, particularly in obstetric C. sordellii infections (>90%)...
  37. Hao Y, Senn T, Opp J, Young V, Thiele T, Srinivas G, et al. Lethal toxin is a critical determinant of rapid mortality in rodent models of Clostridium sordellii endometritis. Anaerobe. 2010;16:155-60 pubmed publisher
    The toxigenic anaerobe Clostridium sordellii is an uncommon but highly lethal cause of human infection and toxic shock syndrome, yet few studies have addressed its pathogenetic mechanisms...
  38. Aldape M, Bryant A, Katahira E, Hajjar A, Finegold S, Ma Y, et al. Innate immune recognition of, and response to, Clostridium sordellii. Anaerobe. 2010;16:125-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii, an anaerobic pathogen, has recently been associated with rapidly fatal infections following medically induced abortions and injecting drug use. Patients with C...
  39. Grieb T, Forng R, Bogdansky S, Ronholdt C, Parks B, Drohan W, et al. High-dose gamma irradiation for soft tissue allografts: High margin of safety with biomechanical integrity. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:1011-8 pubmed
    ..5 logs of Sindbis virus and 4.9 logs of parvovirus kill achieved. Analysis of Clostridium sordellii inactivation kinetics indicated that a 16 log10 reduction is predicted with 50 kGy of irradiation...
  40. Crespo R, Franca M, Shivaprasad H. Ulcerative enteritis-like disease associated with Clostridium sordellii in quail. Avian Dis. 2013;57:698-702 pubmed
    A natural outbreak of ulcerative enteritis-like disease associated with Clostridium sordellii was diagnosed in two commercial quail flocks. Clinical signs in the quail included anorexia, weakness, and increased mortality in the flocks...
  41. Greene M. Fatal infections associated with mifepristone-induced abortion. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2317-8 pubmed
  42. Shannon C, Winikoff B. Comment on "Misoprostol impairs female reproductive tract innate immunity against Clostridium sordellii". J Immunol. 2008;181:2263; author reply 2263-4 pubmed
  43. Zane S, Berg C. Deaths from Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1645-7; author reply 1645-7 pubmed
  44. Toda T, Ohi K, Kudo T, Yoshida T, Ikarashi N, Ito K, et al. Antibiotics suppress Cyp3a in the mouse liver by reducing lithocholic acid-producing intestinal flora. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2009;129:601-8 pubmed
    ..The findings of the present study suggest that these changes in intestinal flora could modify CYP expression and contribute to the individual differences in pharmacokinetics...
  45. Soper D. Abortion and clostridial toxic shock syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:970-1 pubmed
  46. Aronoff D, Thelen T, Walk S, Petersen K, Jackson J, Grossman S, et al. Pseudo-outbreak of Clostridium sordellii infection following probable cross-contamination in a hospital clinical microbiology laboratory. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010;31:640-2 pubmed publisher
    We report a pseudo-outbreak of infection caused by Clostridium sordellii, an uncommon human pathogen...
  47. Bjerregaard J, Bülow C, Buskov L, Holler J. [Fatal Clostridium sordellii infection originated in an ovarian cyst]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2012;174:1231-2 pubmed
    b>Clostridium sordellii is a Gram-positive bacterium which can cause a serious toxic shock syndrome with a mortality of up to 69%. C. sordellii is a part of the normal vaginal flora in up to 10% of all women...
  48. Smith C, Goslin B. Clostridium sordellii surgical site infection after breast mass excision: case report. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2013;14:160-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii infection is a rare condition usually associated with obstetric operations. There have been few reports of C. sordellii in association with other invasive procedures...
  49. Dempsey A. Serious infection associated with induced abortion in the United States. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2012;55:888-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews our current knowledge regarding serious clostridial infections postabortion including the typical clinical presentation, pathophysiology, modes of diagnosis, and available treatment...
  50. Winikoff B. Clostridium sordellii infection in medical abortion. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1447-8 pubmed
  51. Sirigi Reddy A, Girinathan B, Zapotocny R, Govind R. Identification and characterization of Clostridium sordellii toxin gene regulator. J Bacteriol. 2013;195:4246-54 pubmed publisher
    Toxigenic Clostridium sordellii causes uncommon but highly lethal infections in humans and animals. Recently, an increased incidence of C. sordellii infections has been reported in women undergoing obstetric interventions...
  52. Aldape M, Bayer C, Bryant A, Stevens D. A novel murine model of Clostridium sordellii myonecrosis: Insights into the pathogenesis of disease. Anaerobe. 2016;38:103-110 pubmed publisher
    b>Clostridium sordellii infections have been reported in women following natural childbirth and spontaneous or medically-induced abortion, injection drug users and patients with trauma. Death is rapid and mortality ranges from 70 to 100%...
  53. Jank T, Giesemann T, Aktories K. Clostridium difficile glucosyltransferase toxin B-essential amino acids for substrate binding. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:35222-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduction of helix alpha17 of toxin B into Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin inhibited modification of Ras subfamily proteins but enabled glucosylation of RhoA, ..
  54. Foroulis C, Gerogianni I, Kouritas V, Karestsi E, Klapsa D, Gourgoulianis K, et al. Direct detection of Clostridium sordellii in pleural fluid of a patient with pneumonic empyema by a broad-range 16S rRNA PCR. Scand J Infect Dis. 2007;39:617-9 pubmed
    We report the case of a 56-y-old male admitted with a left-sided post-pneumonic empyema. Clostridium sordellii DNA was directly detected in its pleural fluid by a broad-range 16S rRNA PCR, after 24 h of specimen collection...
  55. Sydora B, Tavernini M, Doyle J, Fedorak R. Association with selected bacteria does not cause enterocolitis in IL-10 gene-deficient mice despite a systemic immune response. Dig Dis Sci. 2005;50:905-13 pubmed
    ..Axenic, luminally sterile mice were either monoassociated with viridans group Streptococcus or Clostridium sordellii or co-associated with Bacteroides vulgatus and Clostridium sordellii...
  56. Shukunami K, Nishijima K, Kotsuji F. Medical vs. surgical management of early pregnancy failure. N Engl J Med. 2005;353:2403-4; author reply 2403-4 pubmed
  57. Arya P, Ponmariappan S, Singh L, Kumar O. Development of ELISA based detection system for lethal toxin of Clostridium sordellii. Indian J Med Res. 2013;137:1180-7 pubmed
    b>Clostridium sordellii and its toxins are associated with diseases in animals as well as human. C. sordellii produces two protein toxins (lethal toxin and haemorrhagic toxin). Lethal toxin has gained more importance due its high toxicity...
  58. Baulieu E. Deaths from Clostridium sordellii after medical abortion. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:1645-7; author reply 1645-7 pubmed
  59. Costa J, Oliveira M, Lobato F, Souza Júnior M, Martins N, Carvalho A, et al. Outbreak of malignant oedema in sheep caused by Clostridium sordellii, predisposed by routine vaccination. Vet Rec. 2007;160:594-5 pubmed
  60. Ortega J, Daft B, Assis R, Kinde H, Anthenill L, Odani J, et al. Infection of internal umbilical remnant in foals by Clostridium sordellii. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:269-75 pubmed
    ..However to date, no information has been published about the role of Clostridium sordellii in these infections...
  61. Snow M. On alert for postpartum C. sordellii infection. Nursing. 2008;38:10 pubmed