Summary: An order of extremely halophilic archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. They occur ubiquitously in nature where the salt concentration is high, and are chemoorganotrophic, using amino acids or carbohydrates as a carbon source.

Top Publications

  1. Youssef N, Savage Ashlock K, McCully A, Luedtke B, Shaw E, Hoff W, et al. Trehalose/2-sulfotrehalose biosynthesis and glycine-betaine uptake are widely spread mechanisms for osmoadaptation in the Halobacteriales. ISME J. 2014;8:636-49 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the mechanisms of osmoadaptation in the order Halobacteriales, with special emphasis on Haladaptatus paucihalophilus, known for its ability to survive in low salinities. H...
  2. Andam C, Harlow T, Papke R, Gogarten J. Ancient origin of the divergent forms of leucyl-tRNA synthetases in the Halobacteriales. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:85 pubmed publisher
    ..During the course of evolution, HGT has played an essential role in the origin and dissemination of genetic and metabolic novelty...
  3. Youssef N, Ashlock Savage K, Elshahed M. Phylogenetic diversities and community structure of members of the extremely halophilic Archaea (order Halobacteriales) in multiple saline sediment habitats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:1332-44 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the phylogenetic diversity and community structure of members of the halophilic Archaea (order Halobacteriales) in five distinct sediment habitats that experience various levels of salinity and salinity fluctuations (..
  4. Walsh D, Bapteste E, Kamekura M, Doolittle W. Evolution of the RNA polymerase B' subunit gene (rpoB') in Halobacteriales: a complementary molecular marker to the SSU rRNA gene. Mol Biol Evol. 2004;21:2340-51 pubmed
    ..For Halobacteriales, an order of extremely halophilic, aerobic Archaea, within-genome SSU rRNA sequence divergence can exceed 5%, ..
  5. Oren A. Industrial and environmental applications of halophilic microorganisms. Environ Technol. 2010;31:825-34 pubmed publisher
  6. Oren A. Nomenclature and taxonomy of halophilic archaea--comments on the proposal by DasSarma and DasSarma for nomenclatural changes within the order Halobacteriales. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:2245-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5] have proposed far-reaching changes in the nomenclature and taxonomy of the halophilic archaea of the order Halobacteriales, family Halobacteriaceae...
  7. Eisenberg H. Life in unusual environments: progress in understanding the structure and function of enzymes from extreme halophilic bacteria. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1995;318:1-5 pubmed
  8. Wright A. Phylogenetic relationships within the order Halobacteriales inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2006;56:1223-7 pubmed
    ..16S rRNA gene sequences from 61 strains, representing 18 genera with validly published names within the order Halobacteriales. Trees produced using distance-matrix (least-squares and neighbour-joining) methods affirm with strong ..
  9. Papke R, White E, Reddy P, Weigel G, Kamekura M, Minegishi H, et al. A multilocus sequence analysis approach to the phylogeny and taxonomy of the Halobacteriales. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2011;61:2984-95 pubmed publisher
    Members of the order Halobacteriales are obligate extreme halophiles that belong to the domain Archaea...

More Information


  1. Iro M, Klein R, Galos B, Baranyi U, Rossler N, Witte A. The lysogenic region of virus phiCh1: identification of a repressor-operator system and determination of its activity in halophilic Archaea. Extremophiles. 2007;11:383-96 pubmed
    ..Gp43/gp44 has an enhancing effect on this regulatory sequence. Evidence is given for a possible binding site of Rep and gp43/gp44 within the coding region of the rep gene. ..
  2. Marhuenda Egea F, Bonete M. Extreme halophilic enzymes in organic solvents. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002;13:385-9 pubmed
    ..The use of reverse micelles in maintaining high activities of halophilic extremozymes under unfavourable conditions could open new fields of application such as the use of these enzymes as biocatalysts in organic media. ..
  3. Jolley K, Maddocks D, Gyles S, Mullan Z, Tang S, Dyall Smith M, et al. 2-Oxoacid dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes in the halophilic Archaea? Gene sequences and protein structural predictions. Microbiology. 2000;146 ( Pt 5):1061-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first detailed report of the genes for a putative 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex in the Archaea, and the evolutionary and metabolic consequences of these findings are discussed. ..
  4. Yildiz E, Ozcan B, Caliskan M. Isolation, characterization and phylogenetic analysis of halophilic archaea from a salt mine in central Anatolia (Turkey). Pol J Microbiol. 2012;61:111-7 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that the isolates named CH2, CH3 and CHC were clustered in the genus Halorubrum and that CHA1 and CH7 in the genus Haloarcula, CH8K and CH8B in the genus Halococcus and CH11 in the genus Halobacterium. ..
  5. Litchfield C. Survival strategies for microorganisms in hypersaline environments and their relevance to life on early Mars. Meteorit Planet Sci. 1998;33:813-9 pubmed
    ..Along with this review is a brief description of how these adaptations could be important in the detection of life on early Mars assuming similar types of salts and a carbon-based life. ..
  6. Ma Y, Galinski E, Grant W, Oren A, Ventosa A. Halophiles 2010: life in saline environments. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:6971-81 pubmed publisher
  7. Cayol J, Fardeau M, Garcia J, Ollivier B. Evidence of interspecies hydrogen transfer from glycerol in saline environments. Extremophiles. 2002;6:131-4 pubmed
    ..retbaense. These results provide the first evidence of interspecies hydrogen transfer in saline environments and indicate that this mechanism may play an important role in organic matter mineralization in hypersaline ecosystems. ..
  8. Besse A, Peduzzi J, Rebuffat S, Carré Mlouka A. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins in the face of extremes: Lessons from archaeocins. Biochimie. 2015;118:344-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Halocins and sulfolobicins are produced by archaea belonging to the order Halobacteriales (Euryarchaeota) and Sulfolobales (Crenarchaeota), respectively...
  9. Adamiak J, Otlewska A, Gutarowska B, Pietrzak A. Halophilic microorganisms in deteriorated historic buildings: insights into their characteristics. Acta Biochim Pol. 2016;63:335-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Staphylococcus succinus and Marinococcus halophilus showed strong antagonistic potential towards bacteria from the Bacillus genus, while Halobacillus litoralis displayed an inhibiting ability against other halophiles. ..
  10. González Hernández J, Pena A. [Adaptation strategies of halophilic microorganisms and Debaryomyces hansenii (halophilic yeast)]. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2002;44:137-56 pubmed
    ..In this review we describe some mechanisms with which some halophile organisms count to resist the high concentration of salts, mainly NaCl. ..
  11. Pan H, Zhou C, Wang H, Xue Y, Ma Y. [Diversity of halophilic archaea in hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia, China]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2006;46:1-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that diverse archaea exist in and the unknown archaea thrive in the hypersaline lakes of Inner Mongolia. ..
  12. Hirayma J, Kamo N, Imamoto Y, Shichida Y, Yoshizawa T. Reason for the lack of light-dark adaptation in pharaonis phoborhodopsin: reconstitution with 13-cis-retinal. FEBS Lett. 1995;364:168-70 pubmed
    ..Being bent in the configuration, 13-cis-retinal cannot be accommodated in the pocket due to the steric hindrance. This is a possible reason for the lack of light-dark adaptation. ..
  13. Perez D, Martin S, Fernandez Lorente G, Filice M, Guisan J, Ventosa A, et al. A novel halophilic lipase, LipBL, showing high efficiency in the production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23325 pubmed publisher
    ..lipolyticus, which constitutes an enzyme with excellent properties to be used in the food industry, in the enrichment in omega-3 PUFAs. ..
  14. McKune K, Woychik N. Halobacterial S9 operon contains two genes encoding proteins homologous to subunits shared by eukaryotic RNA polymerases I, II, and III. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:4754-6 pubmed
    ..We have discovered that two of the subunits shared by the three nuclear RNA polymerases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RPB6 and RPB10, have counterparts among the Archaea. ..
  15. Sharghi E, Bonakdarpour B. The study of organic removal efficiency and halophilic bacterial mixed liquor characteristics in a membrane bioreactor treating hypersaline produced water at varying organic loading rates. Bioresour Technol. 2013;149:486-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter resulted in a change in the rheology of the mixed liquor from Newtonian to non-Newtonian and the occurrence of significant membrane fouling. ..
  16. Averhoff B, Muller V. Exploring research frontiers in microbiology: recent advances in halophilic and thermophilic extremophiles. Res Microbiol. 2010;161:506-14 pubmed publisher
  17. Rodriguez Valera F. Biotechnological potential of halobacteria. Biochem Soc Symp. 1992;58:135-47 pubmed
    ..The use of halobacteria as producers of polyhydroxyalkanoates, biological polyesters such as poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, with the properties of biodegradable thermoplastics, is being considered. ..
  18. Purdy K, Cresswell Maynard T, Nedwell D, McGenity T, Grant W, Timmis K, et al. Isolation of haloarchaea that grow at low salinities. Environ Microbiol. 2004;6:591-5 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the ecological range of these physiologically versatile prokaryotes is much wider than previously supposed. ..
  19. Nuttall S, Dyall Smith M. HF1 and HF2: novel bacteriophages of halophilic archaea. Virology. 1993;197:678-84 pubmed
    ..Mutants showing increased plating efficiency on alternative hosts were readily selectable. By contrast, HF2 showed a limited host range, confined to the closely related dam-methylated strains Ch2 and H. saccharovorum. ..
  20. Brito Echeverría J, Lucio M, Lopez Lopez A, Antón J, Schmitt Kopplin P, Rossello Mora R. Response to adverse conditions in two strains of the extremely halophilic species Salinibacter ruber. Extremophiles. 2011;15:379-89 pubmed publisher
    ..We could track changes in the length or saturation of the fatty acids and in the composition of phospholipids involved in aminosugar, glycerolipid, and glycerophospholipid metabolic pathways. ..
  21. Englert C, Wanner G, Pfeifer F. Functional analysis of the gas vesicle gene cluster of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei defines the vac-region boundary and suggests a regulatory role for the gvpD gene or its product. Mol Microbiol. 1992;6:3543-50 pubmed
    ..This is the first assignment of a functional role for one of the 13 halobacterial gvp genes found in addition to gvpA that are involved in the synthesis of this unique structure. ..
  22. Sanjukta R, Farooqi M, Rai N, Rai A, Sharma N, Mishra D, et al. Expression analysis of genes responsible for amino acid biosynthesis in halophilic bacterium Salinibacter ruber. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2013;50:177-85 pubmed
    ..The frequency of these codons appeared to be correlated with the level of gene expression and might be a useful indicator in the case of genes (or open-reading-frames) whose expression levels are unknown. ..
  23. Yamauchi N. The pathway of leucine to mevalonate in halophilic archaea: efficient incorporation of leucine into isoprenoidal lipid with the involvement of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase in Halobacterium salinarum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:443-6 pubmed
    ..The involvement of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase was strongly suggested, with stereospecific conversion of the diastereotopic methyl group of leucine to isoprenoidal lipid. ..
  24. Gupta R, Naushad S, Fabros R, Adeolu M. A phylogenomic reappraisal of family-level divisions within the class Halobacteria: proposal to divide the order Halobacteriales into the families Halobacteriaceae, Haloarculaceae fam. nov., and Halococcaceae fam. nov., and the order Haloferacales in. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 2016;109:565-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We have also identified molecular characteristics that suggest that the polyphyletic order Halobacteriales contains at least two large monophyletic clusters of organisms in addition to the polyphyletic members of the ..
  25. Bowers K, Wiegel J. Temperature and pH optima of extremely halophilic archaea: a mini-review. Extremophiles. 2011;15:119-28 pubmed publisher
  26. Pfeifer F, Kruger K, Roder R, Mayr A, Ziesche S, Offner S. Gas vesicle formation in halophilic Archaea. Arch Microbiol. 1997;167:259-68 pubmed
    ..Each vac region exhibits a characteristic transcription pattern, and regulatory steps have been observed at the DNA, RNA, and protein level, indicating a complex regulatory network acting during gas vesicle gene expression. ..
  27. Bergmann U, Wittmann Liebold B. Localization of proteins HL29 and HL31 from Haloarcula marismortui within the 50 S ribosomal subunit by chemical crosslinking. J Mol Biol. 1993;232:693-700 pubmed
  28. Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T. Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:22196-201 pubmed
    ..The methyltransferases from the two organisms show high sequence homology. E. halochloris methyltransferase genes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and betaine accumulation and improved salt tolerance were demonstrated. ..
  29. van den Burg B, Eijsink V. Selection of mutations for increased protein stability. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002;13:333-7 pubmed
    ..Selection is complicated by lack of knowledge of the process that leads to thermal inactivation and by the fact that proteins employ a large variety of structural tricks to achieve stability. ..
  30. Litchfield C. Potential for industrial products from the halophilic Archaea. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;38:1635-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the characteristics of the glycosyl hydrolases, lipases and esterases, proteases, biopolymers and surfactants, as well as some miscellaneous other activities will be described. ..
  31. Mavromatis K, Ivanova N, Anderson I, Lykidis A, Hooper S, Sun H, et al. Genome analysis of the anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium Halothermothrix orenii. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4192 pubmed publisher
  32. Tokunaga M, Arakawa T, Ishibashi M, Tokunaga H. [Familiar extremophiles, halophiles, and halophilic enzymes]. Seikagaku. 2005;77:320-31 pubmed
  33. Elshahed M, Najar F, Roe B, Oren A, Dewers T, Krumholz L. Survey of archaeal diversity reveals an abundance of halophilic Archaea in a low-salt, sulfide- and sulfur-rich spring. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:2230-9 pubmed
    ..Euryarchaeotal clones belonged to the orders Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, and Halobacteriales, as well as several previously described lineages with no pure-culture representatives...
  34. Amoozegar M, Siroosi M, Atashgahi S, Smidt H, Ventosa A. Systematics of haloarchaea and biotechnological potential of their hydrolytic enzymes. Microbiology. 2017;163:623-645 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current status of the haloarchaeal genera and species, and discusses the properties of haloenzymes and their potential industrial applications. ..
  35. Cai L, Zhao D, Hou J, Wu J, Cai S, DasSarma P, et al. Cellular and organellar membrane-associated proteins in haloarchaea: perspectives on the physiological significance and biotechnological applications. Sci China Life Sci. 2012;55:404-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on these haloarchaeal cellular and organellar membrane-associated proteins, and provides insight into their physiological significance and biotechnological potential. ..
  36. Kamekura M, Seno Y, Holmes M, Dyall Smith M. Molecular cloning and sequencing of the gene for a halophilic alkaline serine protease (halolysin) from an unidentified halophilic archaea strain (172P1) and expression of the gene in Haloferax volcanii. J Bacteriol. 1992;174:736-42 pubmed
    ..The gene, hly, was expressed in another halophilic archaea, Haloferax volcanii, in a medium containing 18% salts by using a plasmid shuttle vector which has a novobiocin resistance determinant as a selectable marker. ..
  37. Kivistö A, Santala V, Karp M. 1,3-Propanediol production and tolerance of a halophilic fermentative bacterium, Halanaerobium saccharolyticum subsp. saccharolyticum. J Biotechnol. 2012;158:242-7 pubmed publisher
    ..saccharolyticum subsp. saccharolyticum. When initial 1,3-PD concentration was raised from 1g/l to 57 g/l, a decrease of 12% to 75%, respectively, in the highest optical density was observed. ..
  38. Kurt Kızıldoğan A, Abanoz B, Okay S. Global transcriptome analysis of Halolamina sp. to decipher the salt tolerance in extremely halophilic archaea. Gene. 2017;601:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive transcriptome analysis showed that the halophilic archaeon canalizes its energy towards keeping the intracellular osmotic balance minimizing the production of nucleic acids and peptides. ..
  39. Fish S, Duckworth A, Grant W. Novel plasmids from alkaliphilic halomonads. Plasmid. 1999;41:268-73 pubmed
    ..5 kb. Restriction mapping of both pAH1 and pAH2 indicated that they have a number of unique restriction sites and are of a small enough size to make them suitable for vector construction...
  40. Xu X, Wu M, Zhang H, Liu Z. [Genetic analysis of the br gene in halophilic archaea isolated from Xingjiang region]. Yi Chuan. 2007;29:376-80 pubmed
    ..The study provides the base for using of species and BR proteins resources...
  41. Paul S, Bag S, Das S, Harvill E, Dutta C. Molecular signature of hypersaline adaptation: insights from genome and proteome composition of halophilic prokaryotes. Genome Biol. 2008;9:R70 pubmed publisher
    ..The current report presents an extensive and systematic comparative analysis of genome and proteome composition of halophilic and non-halophilic microorganisms, with a view to identify such macromolecular signatures of haloadaptation...
  42. McCready S. The repair of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage in the halophilic archaebacteria, Halobacterium cutirubrum, Halobacterium halobium and Haloferax volcanii. Mutat Res. 1996;364:25-32 pubmed
    ..This work confirms that organisms such as Halobacterium and Haloferax which live in conditions of high exposure to sunlight have very efficient rates of repair of UV lesions in the light...
  43. Squillaci G, Finamore R, Diana P, Restaino O, Schiraldi C, Arbucci S, et al. Production and properties of an exopolysaccharide synthesized by the extreme halophilic archaeon Haloterrigena turkmenica. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:613-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The EPS from H. turkmenica is the first exopolysaccharide produced by an archaea to be characterized in terms of properties that can have potential biotechnological applications. ..
  44. Steinert K, Wagner V, Kroth Pancic P, Bickel Sandkötter S. Characterization and subunit structure of the ATP synthase of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii and organization of the ATP synthase genes. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:6261-9 pubmed
    ..This subunit has been isolated and purified; its molecular mass as deduced by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is 9.7 kDa...
  45. Villar S, Edwards H, Worland M. Comparative evaluation of Raman spectroscopy at different wavelengths for extremophile exemplars. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 2005;35:489-506 pubmed
    ..This work will have conclusions relevant to the use of miniaturised Raman spectrometers for the detection of biomolecules in extraterrestrial planetary exploration...
  46. Liu B, Tang S, Ming H, He S, Nie G, Guan T, et al. [Biodiversity and functional enzymes of cultured halophilic archaeon in Lop Nur region]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2011;51:1222-31 pubmed
    ..In order to explore the diversity of cultured halophilic archaeon from hypersaline environments in Lop Nur region and their potential application...
  47. Upasani V, Desai S, Moldoveanu N, Kates M. Lipids of extremely halophilic archaeobacteria from saline environments in India: a novel glycolipid in Natronobacterium strains. Microbiology. 1994;140 ( Pt 8):1959-66 pubmed
    ..Hydroxylated lipid cores have previously been identified only in some methanogenic archaeobacteria...
  48. Ozcan B, Ozyilmaz G, Cihan A, Cokmus C, Caliskan M. Phylogenetic analysis and characterization of lipolytic activity of halophilic archaeal isolates. Mikrobiologiia. 2012;81:205-13 pubmed
    ..The closest relative of the strain A206A and D83A were found to be Haloterrigena saccharevitans. The strain E49 displayed a more distant relationship to known strains...
  49. Gevrekci A. The roles of polyamines in microorganisms. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;33:204 pubmed publisher
    ..small polycations that are well conserved in all the living organisms except Archae, Methanobacteriales and Halobacteriales. The most common polyamines are putrescine, spermidine and spermine, which exist in varying concentrations in ..
  50. Rafiee M, Sokhansanj A, Yoosefi M, Naghizadeh M. Identification of salt-inducible peptide with putative kinase activity in halophilic bacterium Virgibacillus halodenitrificans. J Biosci Bioeng. 2007;104:178-81 pubmed
    ..The sequence of the 16S rRNA gene was analyzed phylogenetically to classify strain XII. This organism was found to have the closest association with Virgibacillus halodenitrificans, which was proven by its phenotypic characteristics...
  51. Beard S, Hayes P, Pfeifer F, Walsby A. The sequence of the major gas vesicle protein, GvpA, influences the width and strength of halobacterial gas vesicles. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2002;213:149-57 pubmed
    ..Other gene replacements (using c-gvpA from Hbt. salinarum or mutated p-gvpA sequences) led to a significant but smaller increase in gas vesicle strength, and less marked effects on gas vesicle morphology...
  52. Sprott G, Bakouche L, Rajagopal K. Identification of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol as a major polar lipid in Marinococcus halophilus and Salinicoccus hispanicus and substitution with phosphatidylglycerol. Can J Microbiol. 2006;52:209-19 pubmed
    ..A comparison of 16S rRNA established a close similarity between Planococcus sp. H8 and M. halophilus...
  53. Litchfield C, Gillevet P. Microbial diversity and complexity in hypersaline environments: a preliminary assessment. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;28:48-55 pubmed
  54. Krishnan G, Altekar W. Halophilic class I aldolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: some salt-dependent structural features. Biochemistry. 1993;32:791-8 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  55. Ghasemi Y, Rasoul Amini S, Kazemi A, Zarrinic G, Morowvat M, Kargar M. Isolation and characterization of some moderately halophilic bacteria with lipase activity. Mikrobiologiia. 2011;80:477-81 pubmed
    ..41 +/- 0.14 U/mL lipase activity was selected as the highest lipase producing isolate. This is the first report of isolation and molecular identification of lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu lake...
  56. Krumbein W, Gorbushina A, Holtkamp Tacken E. Hypersaline microbial systems of sabkhas: examples of life's survival in "extreme" conditions. Astrobiology. 2004;4:450-9 pubmed
    ..Mars and some planets of other suns may be good candidates to search for life under conditions normally not thought to be favorable for the maintenance of life...
  57. Briones C, Amils R. Nucleotide sequence of the 235 rRNA from Haloferax mediterranei and phylogenetic analysis of halophilic archaea based on LSU rRNA. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2000;23:124-31 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of 23S rRNA and 16S rRNA was performed for the six organisms from the family Halobacteriaceae with both available gene sequences. Phylogenetic trees with completely different topology were obtained using both molecules...
  58. Moreno M, Garcia M, Ventosa A, Mellado E. Characterization of Salicola sp. IC10, a lipase- and protease-producing extreme halophile. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2009;68:59-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This protease degraded casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin and egg albumin...
  59. Taupin C, H rtlein M, Leberman R. Seryl-tRNA synthetase from the extreme halophile Haloarcula marismortui--isolation, characterization and sequencing of the gene and its expression in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1997;243:141-50 pubmed
    ..None of the expressed proteins were enzymically active. A structural model has been produced by comparison with other seryl-tRNA synthetases which illustrates the high negative-charge density of the surface of the hyperhalophilic enzyme...
  60. Corcelli A, Lobasso S, Palese L, Saponetti M, Papa S. Cardiolipin is associated with the terminal oxidase of an extremely halophilic archaeon. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;354:795-801 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that an archaeal analogue of cardiolipin is tightly associated to archaeal terminal oxidases and is required for its optimal functioning...
  61. Aponte M, Blaiotta G, Francesca N, Moschetti G. Could halophilic archaea improve the traditional salted anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus L.) safety and quality?. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2010;51:697-703 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive influence of two selected extremely halophilic archaea strains in the production of salted anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus, L., 1758) was highlighted...
  62. Montalvo Rodriguez R, LOPEZ GARRIGA J, Vreeland R, Oren A, Ventosa A, Kamekura M. Haloterrigena thermotolerans sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from Puerto Rico. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000;50 Pt 3:1065-71 pubmed
    An extremely halophilic Archaeon belonging to the order Halobacteriales was isolated from the solar salterns of Cabo Rojo, Puerto Rico...
  63. Marshall C, Leuko S, Coyle C, Walter M, Burns B, Neilan B. Carotenoid analysis of halophilic archaea by resonance Raman spectroscopy. Astrobiology. 2007;7:631-43 pubmed
  64. Takaki Y, Matsuki A, Chee G, Takami H. Identification and distribution of new insertion sequences in the genome of the extremely halotolerant and alkaliphilic Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831. DNA Res. 2004;11:233-45 pubmed
    ..Most of the ISs and the group II intron widely distributed throughout the genome were inserted in noncoding regions, while two ISs (IS667-08 and IS668-02) and Oi.Int-04 were inserted in the coding regions...
  65. Oren A. Diversity of halophilic microorganisms: environments, phylogeny, physiology, and applications. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002;28:56-63 pubmed
  66. Tawara E, Kamo N. Glucose transport of Haloferax volcanii requires the Na(+)-electrochemical potential gradient and inhibitors for the mammalian glucose transporter inhibit the transport. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1991;1070:293-9 pubmed
    ..3) Inhibitors for mammalian glucose transport also have an effect on this system, implying that the transporters resemble each other. (4) It is suggested that the mobility of the transporter is regulated by the membrane energization...
  67. Jiang K, Xue Y, Ma Y. Identification of N(?)-acetyl-?-lysine as a probable thermolyte and its accumulation mechanism in Salinicoccus halodurans H3B36. Sci Rep. 2015;5:18518 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the transcriptomic results showed that the regulon of RpoN (orf_2534) may be critical to conferring heat stress tolerance and survival to S. halodurans. ..
  68. Pfluger K, Muller V. Transport of compatible solutes in extremophiles. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004;36:17-24 pubmed
  69. Hedderich R. Energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenases from archaea and extremophiles: ancestors of complex I. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004;36:65-75 pubmed
    ..As complex I these hydrogenases function as ion pumps and have therefore been designated as energy-converting [NiFe] hydrogenases...
  70. Kivistö A, Santala V, Karp M. Hydrogen production from glycerol using halophilic fermentative bacteria. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101:8671-7 pubmed publisher
    ..senegalensis has potential for practical applications after scale-up and bioprocess optimizations and metabolic engineering after genome-wide sequencing could be applied to improve the yield of subsp. saccharolyticum...
  71. Woods W, Dyall Smith M. Construction and analysis of a recombination-deficient (radA) mutant of Haloferax volcanii. Mol Microbiol. 1997;23:791-7 pubmed
    ..Despite its slower growth rate, Hf. volcanii DS52 was still easy to culture and transform, and should be suitable for use in studies where a recombination-deficient background is desired...
  72. Otomo J, Urabe Y, Tomioka H, Sasabe H. The primary structures of helices A to G of three new bacteriorhodopsin-like retinal proteins. J Gen Microbiol. 1992;138:2389-96 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words)..
  73. Capes M, Coker J, Gessler R, Grinblat Huse V, Dassarma S, Jacob C, et al. The information transfer system of halophilic archaea. Plasmid. 2011;65:77-101 pubmed publisher
  74. Oxenrider K, Kennelly P. A protein-serine phosphatase from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:1330-5 pubmed
  75. Fuciños P, Gonzalez R, Atanes E, Sestelo A, Pérez Guerra N, Pastrana L, et al. Lipases and esterases from extremophiles: overview and case example of the production and purification of an esterase from Thermus thermophilus HB27. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;861:239-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Suitability of thermal spring water for culture media formulation is shown. In addition, a protocol to isolate and purify a cell-bound esterase from this microorganism is described...
  76. Mojica F, Juez G, Rodr guez Valera F. Transcription at different salinities of Haloferax mediterranei sequences adjacent to partially modified PstI sites. Mol Microbiol. 1993;9:613-21 pubmed
    ..A long alternating adenine-thymine tract also appears in the upstream regions of one of these open reading frames. A possible role of local DNA configuration in osmoregulation in this organism is discussed...
  77. Tokunaga M, Arakawa T, Tokunaga H. Recombinant expression in moderate halophiles. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2010;11:259-66 pubmed
    ..Promoters and selection marker were developed for high expression of foreign proteins. Examples are given for expression of bacterial nucleoside diphosphate kinase and human serine racemase...
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    ..Forces known to promote rearrangement, common in the haloarchaea, have been ineffective in changing global gene order throughout the nearly 10(7) years of these species' divergent evolution...
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    ..As in the case of many halobacterial enzymes, the 1PFK was found to be halophilic and thermostable. Other catalytic features of halobacterial 1PFK were similar to its counterparts from eubacterial sources...
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    ..This is the first report to be published on the culturable archaea at Rambla Salada, an area of considerable ecological interest...
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    ..According to the current genome annotation of peripheral metabolic pathways and the putative xenobiotic-degrading enzymes, the potential of extreme haloarchaea in bioremediation applications is proposed...
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    ..walsbyi. The difference may depend on the three-laminar structure of the cell wall, which differs significantly from that of other Haloarchaea...
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    ..The microbial community structure was similar in both salterns but diversity indices showed greater values in Slovenian salterns when compared with Croatian salterns...
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    ..test case, phylogenetic analyses, along with published metabolic and genetic data, showed that members of the Halobacteriales and Thermococcales are able to metabolize chitin...
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    ..This provides evidence that the eocyte prokaryotes are the closest prokaryotic relatives of the eukaryotes...
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    ..The review highlights that among all the stressful conditions, salt/osmotic stress evokes the expression of highest number of transcripts/proteins while psychrophilic condition the least...
  87. Tachibana A, Tanaka T, Taniguchi M, Oi S. Evidence for farnesol-mediated isoprenoid synthesis regulation in a halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii. FEBS Lett. 1996;379:43-6 pubmed
    ..volcanii could phosphorylate farnesol with ATP to generate farnesyl monophosphate and FPP. We conclude that farnesol-mediated isoprenoid synthesis regulation system by controlling farnesol concentration is present in H. volcanii...
  88. Gugliandolo C, Maugeri T, Caccamo D, Stackebrandt E. Bacillus aeolius sp. nov. a novel thermophilic, halophilic marine Bacillus species from Eolian Islands (Italy). Syst Appl Microbiol. 2003;26:172-6 pubmed
    ..nov. is proposed. Strain 4-1(T) is characterised by the potential biotechnological important properties such as exopolysaccharide production, surfactant activity, and utilisation of hydrocarbons...
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    ..A sulfated diglycosyl diether was the major glycolipid detected in the biomass of both salterns...
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    ..nov. is TRM 46074T (=CCTCCAA 2012014T=JCM 30185T) and the type strain of Salinifilum ghardaiensis comb. nov. is CCUG 63370T (=DSM 45606T=CECT 8304T)...
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    ..Analysis of the Methanospirillum hungatei 23S rRNA sequence shows the Methanomicrobiales are indeed a sister group of the extreme halophiles, further strengthening the conclusions reached from analysis of 16S rRNA sequences...