vibrissae

Summary

Summary: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.

Top Publications

  1. Pietr M, Knutsen P, Shore D, Ahissar E, Vogel Z. Cannabinoids reveal separate controls for whisking amplitude and timing in rats. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:2532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that whisking amplitude and timing are controlled by separate channels and that endocannabinoids modulate amplitude control channels. ..
  2. Lang S, Dercksen V, Sakmann B, Oberlaender M. Simulation of signal flow in 3D reconstructions of an anatomically realistic neural network in rat vibrissal cortex. Neural Netw. 2011;24:998-1011 pubmed publisher
    ..Our simulations provide insights of how anatomical parameters, such as the subcellular organization of synapses, may constrain spiking responses at the cellular and network levels. ..
  3. Tsytsarev V, Pope D, Pumbo E, Yablonskii A, Hofmann M. Study of the cortical representation of whisker directional deflection using voltage-sensitive dye optical imaging. Neuroimage. 2010;53:233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports prior research that vibrissae deflections cause responses in different cortical neurons within the barrel field according to the direction of ..
  4. Shatz L, De Groot T. The frequency response of the vibrissae of harp seal, Pagophilus Groenlandicus, to sound in air and water. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54876 pubmed publisher
    The motion of isolated seal vibrissae due to low frequency sound in air has been measured using a microscope with a video camera and modeled using an FEM method with good agreement between the measurements and the model; the model has ..
  5. Estebanez L, El Boustani S, Destexhe A, Shulz D. Correlated input reveals coexisting coding schemes in a sensory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1691-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that similar context-dependent coexisting coding strategies may be present in other sensory systems to adapt sensory integration to specific stimulus statistics. ..
  6. Kim S, Kang J, Park D, Lee Y, Hyun J, Koh Y, et al. Promotion effect of acankoreoside J, a lupane-triterpene in Acanthopanax koreanum, on hair growth. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1495-503 pubmed publisher
  7. Mitchinson B, Grant R, Arkley K, Rankov V, Perkon I, Prescott T. Active vibrissal sensing in rodents and marsupials. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:3037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Using automatic whisker tracking, and Fourier analysis, we first show that the whisking motion of the mystacial vibrissae, in the horizontal plane, can be approximated as a blend of two sinusoids at the fundamental frequency (mean 8...
  8. Muchlinski M. A comparative analysis of vibrissa count and infraorbital foramen area in primates and other mammals. J Hum Evol. 2010;58:447-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Vibrissae are specialized sensory "hairs" that respond to mechanical stimuli. Sensory information from vibrissae is transmitted to the brain via the infraorbital nerve, which passes through the infraorbital foramen (IOF)...
  9. Takata N, Mishima T, Hisatsune C, Nagai T, Ebisui E, Mikoshiba K, et al. Astrocyte calcium signaling transforms cholinergic modulation to cortical plasticity in vivo. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data present coherent lines of in vivo evidence for astrocytic involvement in cortical plasticity. These findings suggest an unexpected role of astrocytes as a gate for cholinergic plasticity in the cortex. ..

More Information

Publications78

  1. Kasischke K, Lambert E, Panepento B, Sun A, Gelbard H, Burgess R, et al. Two-photon NADH imaging exposes boundaries of oxygen diffusion in cortical vascular supply regions. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:68-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, two-photon NADH imaging can be applied to expose vascular supply regions and to localize functionally relevant microregional cortical hypoxia with micrometer spatial resolution. ..
  2. Wolfe J, Mende C, Brecht M. Social facial touch in rats. Behav Neurosci. 2011;125:900-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural whisker use described here should further our understanding of this important somatosensory system during social interactions. ..
  3. Boloori A, Jenks R, Desbordes G, Stanley G. Encoding and decoding cortical representations of tactile features in the vibrissa system. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9990-10005 pubmed publisher
    During behavior, rats and other rodents use their facial vibrissae to actively explore surfaces through whisking and head/body movement, resulting in complex sensory inputs that vary over a large range of angular velocities and temporal ..
  4. Diamond M. Texture sensation through the fingertips and the whiskers. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2010;20:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The extraction of texture by the whiskers shares basic features with the motion-based mechanism in primates. Spatial relationships among whiskers may serve purposes other than texture. ..
  5. Varga Z, Jia H, Sakmann B, Konnerth A. Dendritic coding of multiple sensory inputs in single cortical neurons in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:15420-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the dendritic overlap of whisker-specific and shared inputs, different whiskers are represented by a unique set of activation patterns within the dendritic field of each neuron. ..
  6. Hooks B, Hires S, Zhang Y, Huber D, Petreanu L, Svoboda K, et al. Laminar analysis of excitatory local circuits in vibrissal motor and sensory cortical areas. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000572 pubmed publisher
    ..Local excitatory circuits in different cortical areas are organized around a prominent descending pathway from L2/3?L5, suggesting that sensory cortices are elaborations on a basic motor cortex-like plan. ..
  7. Huber D, Gutnisky D, Peron S, O connor D, Wiegert J, Tian L, et al. Multiple dynamic representations in the motor cortex during sensorimotor learning. Nature. 2012;484:473-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of a subpopulation of neurons was consistent with touch driving licking behaviour. Our results suggest that ensembles of motor cortex neurons couple sensory input to multiple, related motor programs during learning. ..
  8. Favaro P, Gouvêa T, de Oliveira S, Vautrelle N, Redgrave P, Comoli E. The influence of vibrissal somatosensory processing in rat superior colliculus on prey capture. Neuroscience. 2011;176:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence involves visual control of movement, less is known about movement guidance by somatosensory input from vibrissae. Indeed, our impression is that prey contact with whiskers is a likely stimulus to trigger predation...
  9. Alwis D, Yan E, Morganti Kossmann M, Rajan R. Sensory cortex underpinnings of traumatic brain injury deficits. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52169 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of these changes allow predictions as to what types of sensory processes may be affected in TBI and contribute to post-trauma sensorimotor deficits...
  10. Erzurumlu R, Gaspar P. Development and critical period plasticity of the barrel cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:1540-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the development and patterning of the barrel cortex and the critical period plasticity...
  11. Hemelt M, Kwegyir Afful E, Bruno R, Simons D, Keller A. Consistency of angular tuning in the rat vibrissa system. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:3105-12 pubmed publisher
    ..However, neurons in most brain regions respond to multiple vibrissae and do not necessarily respond to different vibrissae with the same angular tuning...
  12. Deschenes M, Moore J, Kleinfeld D. Sniffing and whisking in rodents. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012;22:243-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the similarities between sniffing and whisking and suggest that such similarities indicate a mechanistic link between these two rhythmic exploratory behaviors...
  13. Bosman L, Koekkoek S, Shapiro J, Rijken B, Zandstra F, van der Ende B, et al. Encoding of whisker input by cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Physiol. 2010;588:3757-83 pubmed publisher
  14. Ganmor E, Katz Y, Lampl I. Intensity-dependent adaptation of cortical and thalamic neurons is controlled by brainstem circuits of the sensory pathway. Neuron. 2010;66:273-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that low-level sensory processing counterbalances later effects of short-term synaptic depression by increasing the throughput of high-intensity sensory inputs...
  15. Petreanu L, Gutnisky D, Huber D, Xu N, O Connor D, Tian L, et al. Activity in motor-sensory projections reveals distributed coding in somatosensation. Nature. 2012;489:299-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurons in the barrel cortex thus have information to integrate movements and touches of multiple whiskers over time, key components of object identification and navigation by active touch...
  16. Kennerley A, Harris S, Bruyns Haylett M, Boorman L, Zheng Y, Jones M, et al. Early and late stimulus-evoked cortical hemodynamic responses provide insight into the neurogenic nature of neurovascular coupling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2012;32:468-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Although data did not clearly dissociate early and late vascular responses, they suggest that the neurovascular coupling relationship is neurogenic in origin...
  17. HILL D, Curtis J, Moore J, Kleinfeld D. Primary motor cortex reports efferent control of vibrissa motion on multiple timescales. Neuron. 2011;72:344-56 pubmed publisher
  18. Sun Q, Zhang Z. Whisker experience modulates long-term depression in neocortical ?-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons in barrel cortex. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:73-85 pubmed publisher
  19. Adibi M, Arabzadeh E. A comparison of neuronal and behavioral detection and discrimination performances in rat whisker system. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:356-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The behavioral performance followed the same trend as that of the population of individual neurons. Both behavioral and neuronal data are consistent with the "pedestal effect" previously reported in human psychophysics...
  20. Ding M, Wang Q, Lo E, Stanley G. Cortical excitation and inhibition following focal traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14085-94 pubmed publisher
  21. Zuo Y, Perkon I, Diamond M. Whisking and whisker kinematics during a texture classification task. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:3058-69 pubmed publisher
    Rats explore objects by rhythmically whisking with their vibrissae. The goal of the present study is to learn more about the motor output used by rats to acquire texture information as well as the whisker motion evoked by texture contact...
  22. Constantinople C, Bruno R. Effects and mechanisms of wakefulness on local cortical networks. Neuron. 2011;69:1061-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, blockade of noradrenergic, but not cholinergic, pathways induced synaptic quiescence during wakefulness. We conclude that global brain states can switch local recurrent networks into different regimes via direct neuromodulation...
  23. Learoyd A, Lifshitz J. Comparison of rat sensory behavioral tasks to detect somatosensory morbidity after diffuse brain-injury. Behav Brain Res. 2012;226:197-204 pubmed publisher
  24. Furuta T, Deschenes M, Kaneko T. Anisotropic distribution of thalamocortical boutons in barrels. J Neurosci. 2011;31:6432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..is the presence of discrete cellular aggregates in layer 4 (barrels) that process input from the mystacial vibrissae. Just like thalamic cells that relay vibrissal information to the barrels, barrel cells display directional ..
  25. Towal R, Quist B, Gopal V, Solomon J, Hartmann M. The morphology of the rat vibrissal array: a model for quantifying spatiotemporal patterns of whisker-object contact. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011;7:e1001120 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate the key role that the physical embodiment of the sensor array plays in the sensing process...
  26. Cao Y, Roy S, Sachdev R, Heck D. Dynamic correlation between whisking and breathing rhythms in mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1653-9 pubmed publisher
    ..High-frequency whisking and sniffing behaviors are not correlated. We conclude that whisking and respiratory rhythms are generated by independent pattern-generating mechanisms...
  27. Meyer H, Wimmer V, Oberlaender M, de Kock C, Sakmann B, Helmstaedter M. Number and laminar distribution of neurons in a thalamocortical projection column of rat vibrissal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of APs evoked in a column by a sensory stimulus (principal whisker deflection) was estimated as 4441 within 100 ms post-stimulus...
  28. Jiang Q, Uitto J. Restricting dietary magnesium accelerates ectopic connective tissue mineralization in a mouse model of pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Abcc6(-/-) ). Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The control of mineralization by dietary magnesium may have broader implications in general population in the context of vascular mineralization...
  29. Matyas F, Sreenivasan V, Marbach F, Wacongne C, Barsy B, Mateo C, et al. Motor control by sensory cortex. Science. 2010;330:1240-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Motor control by sensory cortex suggests the need to reevaluate the functional organization of cortical maps...
  30. Clack N, O Connor D, Huber D, Petreanu L, Hires A, Peron S, et al. Automated tracking of whiskers in videos of head fixed rodents. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002591 pubmed publisher
    We have developed software for fully automated tracking of vibrissae (whiskers) in high-speed videos (>500 Hz) of head-fixed, behaving rodents trimmed to a single row of whiskers...
  31. Smith J, Mowery T, Alloway K. Thalamic POm projections to the dorsolateral striatum of rats: potential pathway for mediating stimulus-response associations for sensorimotor habits. J Neurophysiol. 2012;108:160-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that POm could transmit somesthetic information to the DLS, and this modality-specific thalamostriatal pathway may cooperate with the thalamostriatal projections that originate from the intralaminar nuclei...
  32. Diamond M, Arabzadeh E. Whisker sensory system - from receptor to decision. Prog Neurobiol. 2013;103:28-40 pubmed publisher
  33. Lifshitz J, Lisembee A. Neurodegeneration in the somatosensory cortex after experimental diffuse brain injury. Brain Struct Funct. 2012;217:49-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The rodent whisker barrel circuit may serve as a discrete model to evaluate the causes and consequences of circuit reorganization after diffuse brain injury...
  34. Bertolini M, Meyer K, Slominski R, Kobayashi K, Ludwig R, Paus R. The immune system of mouse vibrissae follicles: cellular composition and indications of immune privilege. Exp Dermatol. 2013;22:593-8 pubmed publisher
    Although vibrissae hair follicles (VHFs) have long been a key research model in the life sciences, their immune system (IS) is essentially unknown...
  35. Aronoff R, Matyas F, Mateo C, Ciron C, Schneider B, Petersen C. Long-range connectivity of mouse primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Eur J Neurosci. 2010;31:2221-33 pubmed publisher
    The primary somatosensory barrel cortex processes tactile vibrissae information, allowing rodents to actively perceive spatial and textural features of their immediate surroundings...
  36. Haidarliu S, Simony E, Golomb D, Ahissar E. Muscle architecture in the mystacial pad of the rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms of whisking in the rat, and hypotheses concerning biomechanical interactions during whisking, are discussed with respect to the muscle architecture of the rat mystacial pad...
  37. Chu C, Bing Y, Qiu D. Sensory stimulus evokes inhibition rather than excitation in cerebellar Purkinje cells in vivo in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487:182-6 pubmed publisher
  38. Simony E, Bagdasarian K, Herfst L, Brecht M, Ahissar E, Golomb D. Temporal and spatial characteristics of vibrissa responses to motor commands. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8935-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The model provides a direct translation from motoneuron spikes to whisker movements and can serve as a building block in closed-loop motor-sensory models of active touch...
  39. Hanke W, Witte M, Miersch L, Brede M, Oeffner J, Michael M, et al. Harbor seal vibrissa morphology suppresses vortex-induced vibrations. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2665-72 pubmed publisher
    Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) often live in dark and turbid waters, where their mystacial vibrissae, or whiskers, play an important role in orientation...
  40. Wilbrecht L, Holtmaat A, Wright N, Fox K, Svoboda K. Structural plasticity underlies experience-dependent functional plasticity of cortical circuits. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4927-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a causal link between new spine synapses and plasticity of adult cortical circuits and suggest that alphaCaMKII autophosphorylation plays a role in the stabilization but not formation of new spines...
  41. Meyer H, Wimmer V, Hemberger M, Bruno R, de Kock C, Frick A, et al. Cell type-specific thalamic innervation in a column of rat vibrissal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2287-303 pubmed publisher
  42. Oberlaender M, de Kock C, Bruno R, Ramirez A, Meyer H, Dercksen V, et al. Cell type-specific three-dimensional structure of thalamocortical circuits in a column of rat vibrissal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2012;22:2375-91 pubmed publisher
    ..in layer 5). Our data provides a quantitative 3D prediction of the cell type-specific lemniscal synaptic wiring diagram and elucidates structure-function relationships of this physiologically relevant pathway at single-cell resolution...
  43. Boorman L, Kennerley A, Johnston D, Jones M, Zheng Y, Redgrave P, et al. Negative blood oxygen level dependence in the rat: a model for investigating the role of suppression in neurovascular coupling. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Since a similar type of neural suppression in surround regions was associated with a negative BOLD signal, the increased levels of suppression in positive BOLD regions could importantly moderate the size of the observed BOLD response...
  44. Newsome S, Bentall G, Tinker M, Oftedal O, Ralls K, Estes J, et al. Variation in delta13C and delta15N diet-vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters. Ecol Appl. 2010;20:1744-52 pubmed
    ..We determined delta13C and delta15N TDFs for vibrissae (i.e...
  45. Deutsch D, Pietr M, Knutsen P, Ahissar E, Schneidman E. Fast feedback in active sensing: touch-induced changes to whisker-object interaction. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44272 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that sensory-induced motor modulations occur at various timescales, and directly affect object palpation...
  46. Miersch L, Hanke W, Wieskotten S, Hanke F, Oeffner J, Leder A, et al. Flow sensing by pinniped whiskers. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2011;366:3077-84 pubmed publisher
    Beside their haptic function, vibrissae of harbour seals (Phocidae) and California sea lions (Otariidae) both represent highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor systems, although their vibrissal hair shafts differ considerably in structure...
  47. Friedman W, Zeigler H, Keller A. Vibrissae motor cortex unit activity during whisking. J Neurophysiol. 2012;107:551-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relatively large vibrissae representation in motor cortex (vMCx) suggests that cortex also contributes to the control of whisker movements...
  48. Wimmer V, Bruno R, de Kock C, Kuner T, Sakmann B. Dimensions of a projection column and architecture of VPM and POm axons in rat vibrissal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2010;20:2265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we present anatomical dimensions of "TC projection domains" for a standard column in S1...
  49. Le Corre Y, Le Saux O, Froeliger F, Libouban H, Kauffenstein G, Willoteaux S, et al. Quantification of the calcification phenotype of Abcc6-deficient mice with microcomputed tomography. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:2208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular interest is the finding of calcified vibrissae in Abcc6(-/-) mice, which facilitates the study of dystrophic calcification by histological techniques...
  50. Ginter C, DeWitt T, Fish F, Marshall C. Fused traditional and geometric morphometrics demonstrate pinniped whisker diversity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34481 pubmed publisher
    b>Vibrissae (whiskers) are important components of the mammalian tactile sensory system, and primarily function as detectors of vibrotactile information from the environment...
  51. Perkon I, Kosir A, Itskov P, Tasic J, Diamond M. Unsupervised quantification of whisking and head movement in freely moving rodents. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:1950-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The program adapts automatically to the size and shape of different species. The outcome of our testing indicates that the program can be a valuable tool in quantifying rodent sensorimotor behavior...
  52. Oberlaender M, Ramirez A, Bruno R. Sensory experience restructures thalamocortical axons during adulthood. Neuron. 2012;74:648-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that thalamocortical input itself remains plastic in adulthood, raising the possibility that the axons of other subcortical structures might also remain in flux throughout life...
  53. O Connor D, Peron S, Huber D, Svoboda K. Neural activity in barrel cortex underlying vibrissa-based object localization in mice. Neuron. 2010;67:1048-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 13,000 spikes per activated barrel column were available to mice for decision making. Coding of object location in the barrel cortex is therefore highly redundant...
  54. Alloway K, Smith J, Beauchemin K. Quantitative analysis of the bilateral brainstem projections from the whisker and forepaw regions in rat primary motor cortex. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:4546-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our anterograde and retrograde tracing results indicate that the superior colliculus provides the most effective route for transmitting information from MI to the facial nucleus...
  55. Lee T, Alloway K, Kim U. Interconnected cortical networks between primary somatosensory cortex septal columns and posterior parietal cortex in rat. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:405-19 pubmed publisher
  56. Theis L, Chagas A, Arnstein D, Schwarz C, Bethge M. Beyond GLMs: a generative mixture modeling approach to neural system identification. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1003356 pubmed publisher
    ..The added flexibility comes at the cost of a non-concave log-likelihood. We show that in practice this does not have to be an issue and the mixture-based model is able to outperform generalized linear and quadratic models. ..
  57. Hwang K, Hwang Y, Lee M, Kim N, Roh S, Lee Y, et al. Adenosine stimulates growth of dermal papilla and lengthens the anagen phase by increasing the cysteine level via fibroblast growth factors 2 and 7 in an organ culture of mouse vibrissae hair follicles. Int J Mol Med. 2012;29:195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..the anagen phase by increasing the uptake of radiolabeled cysteine in an organ culture of mouse vibrissae hair follicles...
  58. Wen J, Barth A. Input-specific critical periods for experience-dependent plasticity in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci. 2011;31:4456-65 pubmed publisher
  59. Wiest M, Thomson E, Pantoja J, Nicolelis M. Changes in S1 neural responses during tactile discrimination learning. J Neurophysiol. 2010;104:300-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the operant behavioral context changes S1 tactile responses even in the absence of tactile discrimination, whereas subsequent width discrimination learning refines the S1 representation of aperture-width...
  60. Kavukcuoglu N, Li Q, Pleshko N, Uitto J. Connective tissue mineralization in Abcc6-/- mice, a model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum. Matrix Biol. 2012;31:246-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide critical information of the mechanisms of mineralization in PXE, with potential pharmacologic implications...
  61. Ye B, Huang L, Gao Z, Chen P, Ni H, Guan S, et al. The functional upregulation of piriform cortex is associated with cross-modal plasticity in loss of whisker tactile inputs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41986 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding provides the clues for developing therapeutic strategies to promote sensory recovery and substitution. ..
  62. Wang Q, Webber R, Stanley G. Thalamic synchrony and the adaptive gating of information flow to cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2010;13:1534-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The results here suggest a shift in coding strategy with adaptation that directly controls information relayed to cortex, which could have implications for encoding velocity signatures of textures...
  63. Moore J, Deschenes M, Furuta T, Huber D, Smear M, Demers M, et al. Hierarchy of orofacial rhythms revealed through whisking and breathing. Nature. 2013;497:205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..in the ventral medulla that provides rhythmic input to the facial motor neurons that drive protraction of the vibrissae. Neuronal output from this region is reset at each inspiration by direct input from the pre-Bötzinger complex, ..
  64. Grant R, Mitchinson B, Prescott T. The development of whisker control in rats in relation to locomotion. Dev Psychobiol. 2012;54:151-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, whisking develops alongside increasing locomotor competence indicating that active vibrissal sensing plays an important role in the exploratory behavior of the developing animal...
  65. Kleinfeld D, Deschenes M. Neuronal basis for object location in the vibrissa scanning sensorimotor system. Neuron. 2011;72:455-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Behavioral evidence shows that these animals maintain knowledge of the azimuthal position of their vibrissae. Electrophysiological measurements have identified a reafferent signal of the azimuth that is coded in ..
  66. Mao T, Kusefoglu D, Hooks B, Huber D, Petreanu L, Svoboda K. Long-range neuronal circuits underlying the interaction between sensory and motor cortex. Neuron. 2011;72:111-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The cortico-cortical neurons in superficial layers of motor cortex thus couple motor and sensory signals and might mediate sensorimotor integration and motor learning...
  67. Hartmann M. A night in the life of a rat: vibrissal mechanics and tactile exploration. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2011;1225:110-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This work highlights the idea that mechanics are critical to an understanding of sensory systems and describes some new tools to monitor the spatiotemporal patterns of whisker-object contact during natural tactile exploratory behavior...
  68. Pammer L, O Connor D, Hires S, Clack N, Huber D, Myers E, et al. The mechanical variables underlying object localization along the axis of the whisker. J Neurosci. 2013;33:6726-41 pubmed publisher
    ..More generally, our data imply that mice can measure the amplitudes of forces in the sensory follicles for tactile sensation...
  69. Jacob V, Estebanez L, Le Cam J, Tiercelin J, Parra P, Parésys G, et al. The Matrix: a new tool for probing the whisker-to-barrel system with natural stimuli. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;189:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Several tens of whiskers (or vibrissae) are distributed in a regular manner on both sides of the snout...