salt gland

Summary

Summary: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)

Top Publications

  1. Hildebrandt J, Gerstberger R, Schwarz M. In vivo and in vitro induction of c-fos in avian exocrine salt gland cells. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:C951-7 pubmed
  2. Miller D, Masereeuw R, Karnaky K. Regulation of MRP2-mediated transport in shark rectal salt gland tubules. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;282:R774-81 pubmed
    ..xenobiotic efflux pump, multidrug resistance-associated protein isoform 2 (MRP2), in intact dogfish shark rectal salt gland tubules using a fluorescent substrate sulforhodamine 101 and confocal microscopy...
  3. Yakushev S, Kumskova E, Rubtsov A, Lopina O. Effect of colchicine on sensitivity of duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase to Na+. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2008;73:990-4 pubmed
    ..Immunoprecipitation of solubilized duck salt gland Na,K-ATPase using antibodies against alpha1-subunit results in the coprecipitation of a 13 kD protein with the ..
  4. Oros J, Camacho M, Calabuig P, Arencibia A. Salt gland adenitis as only cause of stranding of loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;95:163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..findings in 9 stranded loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta, whose only observed lesion was bilateral purulent salt gland adenitis...
  5. Loretz C, Pollina C. Natriuretic peptides in fish physiology. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2000;125:169-87 pubmed
  6. Khoo C, Tan K. Rectal gland of Bactrocera papayae: ultrastructure, anatomy, and sequestration of autofluorescent compounds upon methyl eugenol consumption by the male fruit fly. Microsc Res Tech. 2005;67:219-26 pubmed
    ..The accumulation of these compounds increased with time and reached maximum at a day post-ME feeding and decreased thereafter. This trend is similar to the accumulation pattern of phenylpropanoids, CF and DMP in the rectal gland. ..
  7. Deng Y, Feng Z, Yuan F, Guo J, Suo S, Wang B. Identification and functional analysis of the autofluorescent substance in Limonium bicolor salt glands. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2015;97:20-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional experiments using two mutants exhibiting increased (fii) and decreased (fid) salt gland fluorescence indicated that the fluorescence intensity of salt glands under UV excitation was positively ..
  8. Lehrich R, Forrest J. Protein kinase C zeta is associated with the mitotic apparatus in primary cell cultures of the shark rectal gland. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:32446-50 pubmed
    ..The striking presence of PKC zeta in the central portion of the mitotic apparatus suggests a functional role for this kinase isoform in cell division. ..
  9. Hazard L, Lechuga C, Zilinskis S. Secretion by the nasal salt glands of two insectivorous lizard species is initiated by an ecologically relevant dietary ion, chloride. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2010;313:442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This gives further support to the hypothesis that ecological factors drive the evolution of control mechanisms in lizard salt glands. ..

More Information

Publications122 found, 100 shown here

  1. Greger R, Thiele I, Warth R, Bleich M. Does stimulation of NaCl secretion in in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules of Squalus acanthias increase membrane capacitance?. Pflugers Arch. 1998;436:538-44 pubmed
    ..The present data do not support the exocytosis/endocytosis hypothesis of cAMP-mediated activation of Cl– channels in these cells...
  2. Boldyrev A, Kurella E. Mechanism of oxidative damage of dog kidney Na/K-ATPase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;222:483-7 pubmed
    ..In terms of kinetic analysis the suggestion was made that partial oxidation of Na/K-ATPase by hydrogen peroxide results in disordering of interprotomer interaction in the oligomeric complex of Na/K-ATPase. ..
  3. Forrest J, Aller S, Wood S, Ratner M, Forrest J, Kelley G. Cadmium disrupts the signal transduction pathway of both inhibitory and stimulatory receptors regulating chloride secretion in the shark rectal gland. J Exp Zool. 1997;279:530-6 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with direct effects of cadmium on adenylate cyclase and/or phosphodiesterase activity in this marine epithelial model. ..
  4. Akimova O, Dolgova N, Mast N, Rubtsov A, Lopina O. Revealing of proteins interacting with Na,K-ATPase. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2003;68:1040-7 pubmed
    ..The chemical cross-linking method revealed proteins with molecular masses 25, 35, 40, 58, 68-70, and 86-88 kD. The protein overlay method revealed in the same tissue proteins with molecular masses 38, 42, 43, 60, 62, 66, 70, and 94 kD. ..
  5. Zouhaier B, Abdallah A, Najla T, Wahbi D, Wided C, Aouatef B, et al. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysisof leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. under NaCl salinity. Micron. 2015;78:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A salt gland is comprised of collecting, accumulating, and central compartments, and is made up of total thirty-two cells...
  6. Kleinzeller A, Booz G, Mills J, Ziyadeh F. pCMBS-induced swelling of dogfish (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland cells: role of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase and the cytoskeleton. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1025:21-31 pubmed
  7. Martin D, Marecek J, Scarlata S, Sachs J. Alphabeta protomers of Na+,K+-ATPase from microsomes of duck salt gland are mostly monomeric: formation of higher oligomers does not modify molecular activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:3195-200 pubmed
    ..The turnover rate while hydrolyzing ATP is the same in the microsomal and purified preparations; higher oligomer formation has no significant effect on the enzyme reaction mechanism. ..
  8. Wood C, Munger R, Thompson J, Shuttleworth T. Control of rectal gland secretion by blood acid-base status in the intact dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2007;156:220-8 pubmed
  9. Shuttleworth T, Thompson J, Munger R, Wood C. A critical analysis of carbonic anhydrase function, respiratory gas exchange, and the acid-base control of secretion in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:4701-16 pubmed
  10. Cramp R, De Vries I, Anderson W, Franklin C. Hormone-dependent dissociation of blood flow and secretion rate in the lingual salt glands of the estuarine crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. J Comp Physiol B. 2010;180:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These peptides were selected for their vasoactive properties in addition to their reported actions on salt gland activity in birds and turtles and rectal gland activity in elasmobranchs...
  11. Babonis L, Miller S, Evans D. Renal responses to salinity change in snakes with and without salt glands. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2140-56 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined the structure and function of the kidney in three species of snake: a marine species with a salt gland (Laticauda semifasciata), a marine species without a salt gland (Nerodia clarkii clarkii) and a freshwater ..
  12. Bennett D, Hughes M. Comparison of renal and salt gland function in three species of wild ducks. J Exp Biol. 2003;206:3273-84 pubmed
    ..They produce a large volume of urine (like mallards) that has a low [Na+] (like goldeneyes). Salt gland secretion Na+ concentration did not differ among the three species, but only goldeneyes secrete at a rate ..
  13. Hughes M. Regulation of salt gland, gut and kidney interactions. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003;136:507-24 pubmed
    ..b>Salt gland secretion generates osmotically free water that sustains their other physiological processes...
  14. Reina R, Cooper P. Control of salt gland activity in the hatchling green sea turtle, Chelonia mydas. J Comp Physiol B. 2000;170:27-35 pubmed
    We studied the control of salt gland secretion in hatchling Chelonia mydas...
  15. Darman R, Forbush B. A regulatory locus of phosphorylation in the N terminus of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter, NKCC1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37542-50 pubmed
    ..2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 34359-34362) that protein phosphatase-1 binds to residues 107-112 in the shark NKCC1 sequence, these results demonstrate that the N terminus of NKCC1 constitutes a phosphoregulatory domain of the transporter. ..
  16. Davenport J. Crying a river: how much salt-laden jelly can a leatherback turtle really eat?. J Exp Biol. 2017;220:1737-1744 pubmed publisher
    ..accumulation rates are combined with known jellyfish salt, water and organic compositions to calculate feasible salt gland secretion rates and feeding rates...
  17. Bewley M, Pena J, Plesch F, Decker S, Weber G, Forrest J. Shark rectal gland vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor: cloning, functional expression, and regulation of CFTR chloride channels. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1157-64 pubmed
    ..These studies characterize a unique G protein-coupled receptor from the shark rectal gland that is the oldest cloned VIP-R. ..
  18. Waldegger S, Fakler B, Bleich M, Barth P, Hopf A, Schulte U, et al. Molecular and functional characterization of s-KCNQ1 potassium channel from rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Pflugers Arch. 1999;437:298-304 pubmed
    ..The low activation threshold at approximately -60 mV in combination with the high expression in rectal gland cells make s-KCNQ1 a potential candidate responsible for the basolateral potassium conductance. ..
  19. Fellner S, Parker L. A Ca(2+)-sensing receptor modulates shark rectal gland function. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:1889-97 pubmed
  20. Mitchell B, Crews S. Expression of the Artemia trachealess gene in the salt gland and epipod. Evol Dev. 2002;4:344-53 pubmed
    ..Expression of Artemia trachealess was observed at two sites during development: the naupliar salt gland and the juvenile thoracic epipod...
  21. Babonis L, Evans D. Morphological and biochemical evidence for the evolution of salt glands in snakes. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011;160:400-11 pubmed publisher
    ..fasciata) watersnakes to look for evidence of a salt gland in the former and to develop hypotheses about the evolution of snake salt glands. Like the salt gland of L...
  22. MacKenzie S, Cutler C, Hazon N, Cramb G. The effects of dietary sodium loading on the activity and expression of Na, K-ATPase in the rectal gland of the European dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;131:185-200 pubmed
  23. Pratap P, Dediu O, Nienhaus G. FTIR study of ATP-induced changes in Na+/K+-ATPase from duck supraorbital glands. Biophys J. 2003;85:3707-17 pubmed
    ..5 was an order of magnitude lower (0.1 microM), indicating a higher apparent affinity. This effect suggests that the equilibrium for the ATP-induced conformational changes is dependent on the presence of metal ions. ..
  24. Shinoda T, Ogawa H, Cornelius F, Toyoshima C. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump at 2.4 A resolution. Nature. 2009;459:446-50 pubmed publisher
  25. Laverty G, Skadhauge E. Adaptive strategies for post-renal handling of urine in birds. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;149:246-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the salt gland strategy seen in marine or estuarine birds with functional salt glands, in which post-renal transport mechanisms ..
  26. Klopfleisch R, Muller C, Polster U, Hildebrandt J, Teifke J. Granulomatous inflammation of salt glands in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) associated with intralesional Gram-negative bacteria. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:233-7 pubmed
    ..and Enterococcus sp. The distribution of lesions and lack of clinical symptoms were suggestive of a localized ascending infection via the secretory ductules. ..
  27. Pratap P, Mikhaylyants L, Olden Stahl N. Fluorescence measurements of nucleotide association with the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the ATPase exists as oligoprotomeric complexes in this preparation, and that this aggregation has significant effects on enzyme function. ..
  28. Ballantyne J, Robinson J. Freshwater elasmobranchs: a review of their physiology and biochemistry. J Comp Physiol B. 2010;180:475-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Once optimally adapted to FW, recolonization of sea water by elasmobranchs is problematic due to the loss of urea synthetic capacity and renal structures for urea retention. ..
  29. Hyodo S, Bell J, Healy J, Kaneko T, Hasegawa S, Takei Y, et al. Osmoregulation in elephant fish Callorhinchus milii (Holocephali), with special reference to the rectal gland. J Exp Biol. 2007;210:1303-10 pubmed
    ..Since elephant fish have also attracted attention from a viewpoint of genome science, the availability of fish for physiological studies will make this species an excellent model in holocephalan fish group. ..
  30. Fernández M, Gasparini Z. Salt glands in the Jurassic metriorhynchid Geosaurus: implications for the evolution of osmoregulation in Mesozoic marine crocodyliforms. Naturwissenschaften. 2008;95:79-84 pubmed
    ..The fossil record suggests that the stage of marine pelagic adaptation was achieved by the Early Middle Jurassic. Salt gland size in the juvenile suggests that juveniles were, like adults, pelagic.
  31. Walsh P, Kajimura M, Mommsen T, Wood C. Metabolic organization and effects of feeding on enzyme activities of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) rectal gland. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:2929-38 pubmed
    ..Our results are discussed in the context of the in vivo role of the gland and mechanisms of possible upregulation of enzyme activities...
  32. Babonis L, Hyndman K, Lillywhite H, Evans D. Immunolocalization of Na+/K+-ATPase and Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransporter in the tubular epithelia of sea snake salt glands. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;154:535-40 pubmed publisher
    The sublingual salt gland is the primary site of salt excretion in sea snakes; however, little is known about the mechanisms mediating ion excretion...
  33. Hübschle T, Küchenmeister I, Gerstberger R. Central action of nitric oxide in the saltwater-acclimated duck: modulation of extrarenal sodium excretion and vasotocin release. Brain Res. 1999;825:22-35 pubmed
    ..to the third ventricle (VIII) represent key structures in avian osmoregulation concerned with the control of salt gland activity and release of the antidiuretic hormone [Arg8]vasotocin (AVT)...
  34. Gray D, Erasmus T. Control of renal and extrarenal salt and water excretion by plasma angiotensin II in the kelp gull (Larus dominicanus). J Comp Physiol B. 1989;158:651-60 pubmed
    ..kg-1.min-1 were examined in kelp gulls utilizing salt gland and/or kidneys as excretory organs. In birds given i.v. infusion of 1200 mOsmolal NaCl at 0.3 ml...
  35. Payne J, Forbush B. Alternatively spliced isoforms of the putative renal Na-K-Cl cotransporter are differentially distributed within the rabbit kidney. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:4544-8 pubmed
  36. Hazon N, Wells A, Pillans R, Good J, Gary Anderson W, Franklin C. Urea based osmoregulation and endocrine control in elasmobranch fish with special reference to euryhalinity. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;136:685-700 pubmed
    ..The role of the gills, kidney, liver, rectal gland and drinking process is discussed in relation to the endocrine control of urea, Na(+) and Cl(-) levels as elasmobranchs acclimate to different environmental salinities. ..
  37. Khalid M, Cornelius F, Clarke R. Dual mechanisms of allosteric acceleration of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase by ATP. Biophys J. 2010;98:2290-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that ATP has two separate mechanisms whereby it accelerates the E2 --> E1 transition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase alphabeta protomers and (alphabeta)(2) diprotomers. ..
  38. Xiao Y. Electrophysiological properties of different cell types in the shark rectal gland. Life Sci. 1997;60:2231-43 pubmed
  39. Reina R, Jones T, Spotila J. Salt and water regulation by the leatherback sea turtle Dermochelys coriacea. J Exp Biol. 2002;205:1853-60 pubmed
    ..13+/-0.59 mmol Na(+) kg(-1) h(-1) respectively. Adrenaline and methacholine were both potent inhibitors of salt gland secretion in a dose-dependent manner, although methacholine administered simultaneously with a subthreshold salt ..
  40. Hazard L. Ion secretion by salt glands of desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Physiol Biochem Zool. 2001;74:22-31 pubmed
    ..The specificity of the response of the salt gland of Dipsosaurus may be related to the ecological importance of dietary potassium and chloride for herbivorous ..
  41. Warth R, Bleich M, Thiele I, Lang F, Greger R. Regulation of the Na+2Cl–K+ cotransporter in in vitro perfused rectal gland tubules of Squalus acanthias. Pflugers Arch. 1998;436:521-8 pubmed
    ..Hence three manoeuvres enhanced furosemide-inhibitable uptake rates of the Na+2Cl–K+ cotransporter probably independently: (1) lowering of cytosolic Cl– concentration; (2) cell shrinkage; and (3) activation by cAMP...
  42. Piermarini P, Evans D. Effects of environmental salinity on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in the gills and rectal gland of a euryhaline elasmobranch (Dasyatis sabina). J Exp Biol. 2000;203:2957-66 pubmed
    ..The results from this study are the first to demonstrate an effect of environmental salinity on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase expression in the gills and rectal gland of an elasmobranch. ..
  43. Suepaul R, Alley M, van Rensburg M. Salt gland adenitis associated with bacteria in Blue Penguins (Eudyptula minor) from Hauraki Gulf (auckland, New Zealand). J Wildl Dis. 2010;46:46-54 pubmed
    ..No further cases were observed in penguins in the subsequent year, and the primary cause of the salt gland adenitis remains uncertain.
  44. Hughes M, Goldstein D, Raveendran L. Osmoregulatory responses of glucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) to dehydration and hemorrhage. J Comp Physiol B. 1993;163:524-31 pubmed
    ..on plasma ionic, osmotic, and antidiuretic hormone (arginine vasotocin) concentrations and of hemorrhage on salt gland secretion and glomerular filtration rate were evaluated in glaucous-winged gulls, Larus glaucescens...
  45. Conte F. Molecular domains in epithelial salt cellNaCl of crustacean salt gland (Artemia). Int Rev Cell Mol Biol. 2008;268:39-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of cytoskeletal elements being involved in the construction of a hypo-osmoregulatory apparatus is supported by the homeobox gene products derived from APH-1 m RNA found in the salt gland.
  46. de Jonge H, Tilly B, Hogema B, Pfau D, Kelley C, Kelley M, et al. cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2014;306:C343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide molecular, functional, and pharmacological evidence for a CNP/cGMP/PDE3/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade coupled to CFTR in the SRG. ..
  47. Krohn M, Hildebrandt J. Cross-talk of phosphoinositide- and cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling pathways in differentiating avian nasal gland cells. J Comp Physiol B. 2004;174:461-70 pubmed
  48. Stoff J, Silva P, Lechan R, Solomon R, Epstein F. Neural control of shark rectal gland. Am J Physiol. 1988;255:R212-6 pubmed
    ..The stimulatory action of veratrine was inhibited by somatostatin, another neuropeptide known to be present in nerves of Squalus rectal gland. These findings suggest the likelihood of neural modulation of rectal gland function. ..
  49. Henson J. Relationships between the actin cytoskeleton and cell volume regulation. Microsc Res Tech. 1999;47:155-62 pubmed
    ..This review provides a summary of the current level of knowledge in this area and discusses the mechanisms which may underlie the linkage between the actin cytoskeleton and cell volume regulation. ..
  50. Hildebrandt J, Prowald A. Ca(2+) and p38 MAP kinase regulate mAChR-mediated c-Fos expression in avian exocrine cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000;278:C879-84 pubmed
    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) in exocrine tissue from the avian nasal salt gland are coupled to phospholipase C and generate inositol phosphate and Ca(2+) signals upon activation...
  51. Deck C, Bockus A, Seibel B, Walsh P. Effects of short-term hyper- and hypo-osmotic exposure on the osmoregulatory strategy of unfed North Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus suckleyi). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2016;193:29-35 pubmed publisher
    ..e., less than 6h) of responses to altered salinity. ..
  52. Henson J, Roesener C, Gaetano C, Mendola R, Forrest J, Holy J, et al. Confocal microscopic observation of cytoskeletal reorganizations in cultured shark rectal gland cells following treatment with hypotonic shock and high external K+. J Exp Zool. 1997;279:415-24 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results reinforce the concept that there is an association between the structural organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell volume regulation in the SRG epithelial cells. ..
  53. Wilson J, Morgan J, Vogl A, Randall D. Branchial mitochondria-rich cells in the dogfish Squalus acanthias. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2002;132:365-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, the specific role that these MRCs play in ion regulation in the dogfish remains to be determined ..
  54. Roy S, Chakraborty U. Role of sodium ion transporters and osmotic adjustments in stress alleviation of Cynodon dactylon under NaCl treatment: a parallel investigation with rice. Protoplasma. 2018;255:175-191 pubmed publisher
    ..exuding glands were elucidated by the SEM and TEM studies, which clearly revealed the presence of a bicellular salt gland actively functioning under NaCl stress to remove the excess amount of Na+ ion from the mesophyll ..
  55. Solomon R, Lear S, Cohen R, Spokes K, Silva M, Solomon H, et al. The effect of organotin compounds on chloride secretion by the in vitro perfused rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1989;100:307-14 pubmed
    ..This is the first evidence of toxicity to membrane transport functions in a marine species which is at risk from environmental exposure...
  56. Valentich J, Karnaky K, Ecay T. Ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of cultured dogfish shark rectal gland cells. Am J Physiol. 1996;271:C1993-2003 pubmed
  57. Hughes M, Smits J, Elliott J, Bennett D. Morphological and pathological effects of cadmium ingestion on Pekin ducks exposed to saline. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2000;61:591-608 pubmed
    ..The cadmium-induced changes in organs, particularly in the gonads, kidneys, and adrenal glands, should greatly impair the health and reproductive capacity of these ducks...
  58. Karnaky K, Hazen Martin D, Miller D. The xenobiotic transporter, MRP2, in epithelia from insects, sharks, and the human breast: implications for health and disease. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2003;300:91-7 pubmed
    ..Transport substrates of MRP2 include carcinogens as well as antioxidants and other salutary molecules. Thus, in the breast ductule, MRP2 may play a significant role in breast epithelial cell health and cancer carcinogenesis...
  59. Kah Wei Hee A, Tan K. Transport of methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in the male fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2006;143:422-8 pubmed
    ..These results further demonstrate the ability of insect hemolymph to transport many diverse forms of bioactive molecules including attractant-derived sex pheromonal components...
  60. Patricia Stock S, Lee M, Flores Lara Y. The rectal glands of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) hermaphrodites and their role in symbiont transmission. J Invertebr Pathol. 2012;110:135-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations indicate that Photorhabdus bacteria do not colonize the rectal glands of H. bacteriophora hermaphrodites, but rather are present in the most posterior-intestinal cells...
  61. Martin D, Sachs J. Ligands presumed to label high affinity and low affinity ATP binding sites do not interact in an (alpha beta)2 diprotomer in duck nasal gland Na+,K+-ATPase, nor Do the sites coexist in native enzyme. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:24512-7 pubmed
    ..Low affinity sites do not exist on the unmodified enzyme but can be detected only after the high affinity site is modified by FITC...
  62. Schuurmans Stekhoven F, Flik G, Wendelaar Bonga S. N-terminal sequences of small ion channels in rectal glands of sharks: a biochemical hallmark for classification and phylogeny?. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:670-5 pubmed
    ..It appears to reside in basolateral as well as in apical membranes. The large variation in primary structure among different orders and families of sharks could make the protein a hallmark for classification...
  63. Bennett D, Gray D, Hughes M. Effect of saline intake on water flux and osmotic homeostasis in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). J Comp Physiol B. 2003;173:27-36 pubmed
    ..We further hypothesized that, because the concentration of Pekin duck salt gland secretion is only slightly higher than that of their drinking water, they increase water flux (drinking) as ..
  64. Zeidel J, Mathai J, Campbell J, Ruiz W, Apodaca G, Riordan J, et al. Selective permeability barrier to urea in shark rectal gland. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;289:F83-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the rectal gland maintains a selective barrier to urea in its basolateral membranes...
  65. Cramp R, Meyer E, Sparks N, Franklin C. Functional and morphological plasticity of crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) salt glands. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:1482-9 pubmed publisher
    ..6+/-6.2 micromol 100 g(-0.7) body mass h(-1)). There were no differences in the mass-specific metabolic rate of salt gland tissue slices from FW- and SW-acclimated animals (558.9+/-49.6 and 527.3+/-142...
  66. Shuttleworth T, Hildebrandt J. Vertebrate salt glands: short- and long-term regulation of function. J Exp Zool. 1999;283:689-701 pubmed
    ..This tuning of the signal involves often rather subtle changes in the overall signaling pathway that are part of the adaptive differentiation process...
  67. Trivett M, Walker T, Clement J, Ho P, Martin T, Danks J. Effects of water temperature and salinity on parathyroid hormone-related protein in the circulation and tissues of elasmobranchs. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;129:327-36 pubmed
    ..The localization of PTHrP by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed conserved sites of distribution from elasmobranchs to mammals, including skin, kidney, muscle and skeleton...
  68. Heinz M, Gray D. Role of plasma ANG II in the excretion of acute sodium load in a bird with salt glands (Anas platyrhynchos). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R346-51 pubmed
    ..Renal and extrarenal (salt gland) excretion of an intravenously administered isotonic saline load was monitored over a 4-h period in a group of ..
  69. Cornelius F, Turner N, Christensen H. Modulation of Na,K-ATPase by phospholipids and cholesterol. II. Steady-state and presteady-state kinetics. Biochemistry. 2003;42:8541-9 pubmed
  70. Pillans R, Franklin C. Plasma osmolyte concentrations and rectal gland mass of bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas, captured along a salinity gradient. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2004;138:363-71 pubmed
    ..The physiological challenges and mechanisms required for C. leucas moving between FW and SW, as well as the ecological implications of these data are discussed...
  71. Butler D, Lam W, Tong J. ANG II-induced attenuation of duck salt gland secretion does not depend upon the release of adrenal catecholamines. J Comp Physiol B. 2006;176:35-43 pubmed
    ..Secretion stopped, then rebounded several minutes later if ADX + DEXA ducks were injected i.v. with 1 microg of [Asn(1),Val(5)]-angiotensin II (ANG II) kg bw(-1) which showed that attenuation was not adrenal catecholamine-dependent...
  72. Speers Roesch B, Ip Y, Ballantyne J. Metabolic organization of freshwater, euryhaline, and marine elasmobranchs: implications for the evolution of energy metabolism in sharks and rays. J Exp Biol. 2006;209:2495-508 pubmed
  73. Jakobsen L, Malmendal A, Nielsen N, Esmann M. Cation binding in Na,K-ATPase, investigated by 205Tl solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10768-76 pubmed
    ..Nonspecific binding of Tl(+) is characterized by rapid chemical exchange, in agreement with the observed low binding affinity...
  74. Butler D. Mecamylamine blocks the [Asp1,Val5]-ANG II-induced attenuation of salt gland activity in Pekin ducks. Am J Physiol. 1999;277:R836-42 pubmed
    ..Ganglionic blockade with mecamylamine stopped salt gland secretion. Flow was reestablished by intravenous methacholine bromide during ganglionic blockade...
  75. Bleich M, Hug M, Heitzmann D, Warth R, Greger R. Evidence for Na+/Ca2+ exchange in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias. Pflugers Arch. 1999;439:49-51 pubmed
    ..The increase in [Na+]i accompanying stimulation of Cl- secretion reduces the rate of Ca2+ export leading to an elevation of [Ca2+]i, as does a reduction in bath Na+ which augments the [Ca2+]i plateau produced by CCH...
  76. Jakobsen L, Nielsen N, Esmann M. Interactions between cations and Na,K-ATPase membranes studied with solid-state NMR. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;986:290-2 pubmed
  77. Pratap P, Olden Stahl N, Dediu O, Nienhaus G. Interaction between ATP and the Na/K-ATPase from duck supraorbital salt glands. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;986:293-5 pubmed
  78. Epstein F. Nephrologists Sans Frontières: a renal clinician meets comparative physiology on the coast of Maine. Kidney Int. 2008;73:983-4 pubmed publisher
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