blastula

Summary

Summary: An early non-mammalian embryo that follows the MORULA stage. A blastula resembles a hollow ball with the layer of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity (blastocele). The layer of cells is called BLASTODERM.

Top Publications

  1. Sun Z, Jin P, Tian T, Gu Y, Chen Y, Meng A. Activation and roles of ALK4/ALK7-mediated maternal TGFbeta signals in zebrafish embryo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;345:694-703 pubmed
  2. Collart C, Owens N, Bhaw Rosun L, Cooper B, De Domenico E, Patrushev I, et al. High-resolution analysis of gene activity during the Xenopus mid-blastula transition. Development. 2014;141:1927-39 pubmed publisher
    The Xenopus mid-blastula transition (MBT) marks the onset of large-scale zygotic transcription, as well as an increase in cell cycle length and a loss of synchronous cell divisions...
  3. Kerns S, Torke S, Benjamin J, McGarry T. Geminin prevents rereplication during xenopus development. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5514-21 pubmed
    ..In cell extracts, the nondegradable mutant has no effect by itself but augments the amount of rereplication observed when Geminin is depleted. We conclude that Cdt1 is regulated both by Geminin binding and by degradation...
  4. Tao Q, Nandadasa S, McCrea P, Heasman J, Wylie C. G-protein-coupled signals control cortical actin assembly by controlling cadherin expression in the early Xenopus embryo. Development. 2007;134:2651-61 pubmed
    ..How does each cell know how to do this? We have used the Xenopus blastula as a model system to study this problem...
  5. Collart C, Allen G, Bradshaw C, Smith J, Zegerman P. Titration of four replication factors is essential for the Xenopus laevis midblastula transition. Science. 2013;341:893-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides a mechanism for how the N/C ratio controls the MBT and shows that the regulation of replication initiation is fundamental for normal embryogenesis...
  6. Bubenshchikova E, Ju B, Pristyazhnyuk I, Niwa K, Kaftanovskaya E, Kinoshita M, et al. Generation of fertile and diploid fish, medaka (Oryzias latipes), from nuclear transplantation of blastula and four-somite-stage embryonic cells into nonenucleated unfertilized eggs. Cloning Stem Cells. 2005;7:255-64 pubmed
    ..In the first experiment, nuclei from blastula cells of a medaka stock with the wild-type body color were transplanted into 1722 eggs from the orange-red ..
  7. Iwao Y, Uchida Y, Ueno S, Yoshizaki N, Masui Y. Midblastula transition (MBT) of the cell cycles in the yolk and pigment granule-free translucent blastomeres obtained from centrifuged Xenopus embryos. Dev Growth Differ. 2005;47:283-94 pubmed
    ..The system developed in this study is useful for examining the cell cycle behavior of the cell cycle-regulating molecules in living Xenopus blastomeres by fluorescence microscopy in real time...
  8. Wagner T, Kraeussling M, Fedorov L, Reiss C, Kneitz B, Schartl M. STAT3 and SMAD1 signaling in Medaka embryonic stem-like cells and blastula embryos. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Oryzias latipes) STAT3 and SMAD1 in Medaka ES-cell-like cultures and their in vivo counterpart, the Medaka blastula embryo...
  9. Petrus M, Wilhelm D, Murakami M, Kappas N, Carter A, Wroble B, et al. Altered expression of Chk1 disrupts cell cycle remodeling at the midblastula transition in Xenopus laevis embryos. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:212-7 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that in addition to targeting Cdc25A for degradation, Chk1 may also function in cell cycle remodeling at the MBT by stabilizing Wee1 until it is replaced by the somatic Wee2 protein during gastrulation...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Wroble B, Sible J. Chk2/Cds1 protein kinase blocks apoptosis during early development of Xenopus laevis. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1359-65 pubmed
    ..Conversely, low doses of wt-Chk2 blocked radiation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, Chk2 operates at a switch between cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to genomic assaults...
  2. Okusu A. Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai (Mollusca Neomeniomorpha). Biol Bull. 2002;203:87-103 pubmed
    ..The test morphologies of neomenioid larvae are compared to those of pericalymma larvae of protobranch bivalves, and the homology and evolution of molluscan larval tests is discussed...
  3. Webb S, Miller A. Ca2+ signaling and early embryonic patterning during the blastula and gastrula periods of zebrafish and Xenopus development. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1192-208 pubmed
    ..embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the frog, Xenopus laevis, we review the Ca(2+) signals reported during the Blastula and Gastrula Periods...
  4. Mir A, Kofron M, Zorn A, Bajzer M, Haque M, Heasman J, et al. FoxI1e activates ectoderm formation and controls cell position in the Xenopus blastula. Development. 2007;134:779-88 pubmed
    ..localized transcription factor, VegT, which releases nodal signals that specify the adjacent marginal zone of the blastula to become mesoderm. However, little is known about how the ectoderm becomes specified...
  5. Takada S, Kwak S, Koppetsch B, Theurkauf W. grp (chk1) replication-checkpoint mutations and DNA damage trigger a Chk2-dependent block at the Drosophila midblastula transition. Development. 2007;134:1737-44 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the DNA-replication checkpoint maintains genome integrity during the cleavage divisions, and that checkpoint mutations lead to DNA damage that induces a novel Chk2-dependent block at the MBT...
  6. McCleland M, Shermoen A, O Farrell P. DNA replication times the cell cycle and contributes to the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..of the last of blastoderm S phase (cycle 14) induced an extra synchronous division and temporarily deferred mid-blastula transition (MBT) events...
  7. Yang J, Tan C, Darken R, Wilson P, Klein P. Beta-catenin/Tcf-regulated transcription prior to the midblastula transition. Development. 2002;129:5743-52 pubmed
  8. Chen Y, Schier A. Lefty proteins are long-range inhibitors of squint-mediated nodal signaling. Curr Biol. 2002;12:2124-8 pubmed
    ..We also find that Lefty restricts the response to both high and low levels of Nodal signaling. These results indicate that Lefty proteins restrict the activity range of Nodal signals by dampening Nodal signaling in surrounding cells...
  9. Khan A, Nakamoto A, Okamoto S, Tai M, Nakayama Y, Kobayashi K, et al. Pou2, a class V POU-type transcription factor in zebrafish, regulates dorsoventral patterning and convergent extension movement at different blastula stages. Mech Dev. 2012;129:219-35 pubmed publisher
    ..embryos to heat shock at the midblastula (sphere) stage dorsalized embryos, whereas induction of HEP at the late blastula stage (30-50% epiboly) affected CE movement...
  10. Kerns S, Schultz K, Barry K, Thorne T, McGarry T. Geminin is required for zygotic gene expression at the Xenopus mid-blastula transition. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38009 pubmed publisher
    ..early development is under control of the maternal genome and zygotic gene expression is delayed until the mid-blastula transition (MBT)...
  11. Richard Parpaillon L, Cosgrove R, Devine C, Vernon A, Philpott A. G1/S phase cyclin-dependent kinase overexpression perturbs early development and delays tissue-specific differentiation in Xenopus. Development. 2004;131:2577-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, overexpression of a single G1/S phase cyclin/cdk pair disrupts the balance between division and differentiation in the early vertebrate embryo in a tissue-specific manner...
  12. Holley S. Anterior-posterior differences in vertebrate segments: specification of trunk and tail somites in the zebrafish blastula. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1831-7 pubmed
  13. Carter A, Sible J. Loss of XChk1 function triggers apoptosis after the midblastula transition in Xenopus laevis embryos. Mech Dev. 2003;120:315-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, XChk1 is essential in the early Xenopus embryo for cell cycle remodeling and for survival after the MBT...
  14. Béjar J, Hong Y, Schartl M. Mitf expression is sufficient to direct differentiation of medaka blastula derived stem cells to melanocytes. Development. 2003;130:6545-53 pubmed
    ..Mitf expression is therefore sufficient for the proper differentiation of medaka pluripotent stem cells into melanocytes...
  15. Ma L, Webb S, Chan C, Zhang J, Miller A. Establishment of a transitory dorsal-biased window of localized Ca2+ signaling in the superficial epithelium following the mid-blastula transition in zebrafish embryos. Dev Biol. 2009;327:143-57 pubmed publisher
    ..and fluorescent-based Ca(2+) imaging techniques, we have re-examined the Ca(2+) dynamics that occur during the Blastula Period (BP) of zebrafish development...
  16. Lu X, Li J, Elemento O, Tavazoie S, Wieschaus E. Coupling of zygotic transcription to mitotic control at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition. Development. 2009;136:2101-10 pubmed publisher
    One of the most prominent features at the mid-blastula transition (MBT) observed in most embryos is a pause in cell cycle regulated by the nucleocytoplasmic (N/C) ratio...
  17. Hu S, Yu H, Zhang Y, Wu Z, Yan Y, Li Y, et al. Splice blocking of zygotic sox31 leads to developmental arrest shortly after Mid-Blastula Transition and induces apoptosis in zebrafish. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:222-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Embryos injected with the Sb MO develop normally before the Mid-Blastula Transition (MBT); however, they do not initiate epiboly...
  18. Skirkanich J, Luxardi G, Yang J, Kodjabachian L, Klein P. An essential role for transcription before the MBT in Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol. 2011;357:478-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, xnr5 and xnr6 can also activate their own expression during cleavage stages, indicating that preMBT transcription contributes to a feed-forward system that allows robust activation of Nodal signaling at the MBT...
  19. Keegan B, Meyer D, Yelon D. Organization of cardiac chamber progenitors in the zebrafish blastula. Development. 2004;131:3081-91 pubmed
    ..Indeed, via fate mapping, we demonstrate that Nodal signaling promotes ventricular fate specification near the margin, thereby playing an important early role during myocardial patterning...
  20. Andersen I, Ostrup O, Lindeman L, Aanes H, Reiner A, Mathavan S, et al. Epigenetic complexity during the zebrafish mid-blastula transition. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;417:1139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus enrichment in trimethylated H3K9 or H3K27 is associated with local remodeling of chromatin manifested by changes in H3K4me3 density. We propose that metagenes can provide information on the multivalency of chromatin sates...
  21. Robertson A, Coluccio A, Knowlton P, Dickey Sims C, Coffman J. Runx expression is mitogenic and mutually linked to Wnt activity in blastula-stage sea urchin embryos. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3770 pubmed publisher
    ..The sea urchin Runx gene SpRunt-1 is expressed throughout the blastula stage embryo, and is required globally during embryogenesis for cell survival and differentiation.
  22. Peter I, Davidson E. The endoderm gene regulatory network in sea urchin embryos up to mid-blastula stage. Dev Biol. 2010;340:188-99 pubmed publisher
    ..up to the onset of gastrulation and present in this paper the mechanisms which determine this process up to mid-blastula stage...
  23. Popgeorgiev N, Bonneau B, Ferri K, Prudent J, Thibaut J, Gillet G. The apoptotic regulator Nrz controls cytoskeletal dynamics via the regulation of Ca2+ trafficking in the zebrafish blastula. Dev Cell. 2011;20:663-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Bcl-2 family may participate in early development, not only by controlling apoptosis but also by acting on cytoskeletal dynamics and cell movements via Ca(2+) fluxes inside the embryo...
  24. Ciliberto A, Petrus M, Tyson J, Sible J. A kinetic model of the cyclin E/Cdk2 developmental timer in Xenopus laevis embryos. Biophys Chem. 2003;104:573-89 pubmed
    ..The model's predictions about embryos injected with Xic1, a stoichiometric inhibitor of cyclin E/Cdk2, were experimentally validated...
  25. Li S, Lou X, Wang J, Liu B, Ma L, Su Z, et al. Retinoid signaling can repress blastula Wnt signaling and impair dorsal development in Xenopus embryo. Differentiation. 2008;76:897-907 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provided evidence that RAR-mediated retinoid signaling can repress Xenopus blastula Wnt signaling and impair dorsal development...
  26. Zhang J, Webb S, Ma L, Chan C, Miller A. Necessary role for intracellular Ca2+ transients in initiating the apical-basolateral thinning of enveloping layer cells during the early blastula period of zebrafish development. Dev Growth Differ. 2011;53:679-96 pubmed publisher
    During the early blastula period of zebrafish embryos, the outermost blastomeres begin to undergo a significant thinning in the apical/basolateral dimension to form the first distinct cellular domain of the embryo, the enveloping layer (..
  27. Ma K, Liu Z, Lin J, Li J, Qiu G. Molecular characterization of a novel ovary-specific gene fem-1 homolog from the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense. Gene. 2016;575:244-52 pubmed publisher
    ..expressed in both unfertilized eggs and embryos at cleavage stage and thereafter dropped to a low level from blastula to zoea, indicating that the Mnfem-1 in early embryos is maternal...
  28. Hagedorn E, Cillis J, Curley C, Patch T, Li B, Blaser B, et al. Generation of Parabiotic Zebrafish Embryos by Surgical Fusion of Developing Blastulae. J Vis Exp. 2016;: pubmed publisher
    ..This method does not require a sophisticated set-up and has broad applications for studying cell migration, fate specification, and differentiation in vivo during embryonic development. ..
  29. Webb S, Miller A. Ca2+ signalling and early embryonic patterning during zebrafish development. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:897-904 pubmed
    ..4. The potential downstream targets of these Ca2+ transients are also discussed, as well as how they may integrate with other pattern-forming signalling pathways known to modulate early developmental events. ..
  30. Ribeiro M, Furley T, Spago F, Paredes E. First steps towards Echinometra lucunter embryo cryopreservation. Cryobiology. 2018;80:51-54 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a significant difference between development stages as well; in the case of P. lividus, the blastula embryo was the most resistant to the cryoprotecting agents, meanwhile for E...
  31. Kühnert A, Vogs C, Seiwert B, Aulhorn S, Altenburger R, Hollert H, et al. Biotransformation in the zebrafish embryo -temporal gene transcription changes of cytochrome P450 enzymes and internal exposure dynamics of the AhR binding xenobiotic benz[a]anthracene. Environ Pollut. 2017;230:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound ..
  32. Lee D, Ryu J, Lee S, Nam Y, Kim D, Gong S. Identification of embryonic stem cell activities in an embryonic cell line derived from marine medaka (Oryzias dancena). Fish Physiol Biochem. 2015;41:1569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..identify embryonic stem cell (ESC) activities of a long-term cultured embryonic cell line previously derived from blastula-stage Oryzias dancena embryos...
  33. Kusuda S, Teranishi T, Koide N, Nagai T, Arai K, Yamaha E. Pluripotency of cryopreserved blastomeres of the goldfish. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2004;301:131-8 pubmed
    To examine the pluripotency of cryopreserved blastomeres, we transplanted them into blastula. Donor blastomeres were prepared from blastula of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen for two months...
  34. Ramel M, Hill C. The ventral to dorsal BMP activity gradient in the early zebrafish embryo is determined by graded expression of BMP ligands. Dev Biol. 2013;378:170-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that BMP2B protein is also expressed in a gradient as early as blastula stages, but do not find any evidence of diffusion of this BMP to generate the BMP transcriptional activity ..
  35. DI Carlo M, Montana G, Romancino D. Paracentrotus lividus eggs contain different RNAs at the animal and vegetal poles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;315:1110-9 pubmed
  36. Yaguchi S, Yaguchi J, Wei Z, Jin Y, Angerer L, Inaba K. Fez function is required to maintain the size of the animal plate in the sea urchin embryo. Development. 2011;138:4233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal that this neurogenic ectoderm produces an intrinsic system that attenuates BMP signaling to ensure the establishment of a stable, well-defined neural territory, the animal plate. ..
  37. Verlinsky Y, Cohen J, Munne S, Gianaroli L, Simpson J, Ferraretti A, et al. Over a decade of experience with preimplantation genetic diagnosis: a multicenter report. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:292-4 pubmed
  38. Winata C, Łapiński M, Pryszcz L, Vaz C, Bin Ismail M, Nama S, et al. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation-mediated translational control of maternal mRNAs directs maternal-to-zygotic transition. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..disrupted the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), causing a failure of developmental progression beyond the mid-blastula transition and changes in global gene expression that indicated a failure of ZGA and maternal mRNA clearance...
  39. Li C, Qu T, Huang B, Ji P, Huang W, Que H, et al. Cloning and characterization of a novel caspase-8-like gene in Crassostrea gigas. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;46:486-92 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues and developmental stages, with the highest CgCaspase8-2 expression levels detected in hemolymph and the blastula stage...
  40. Li P, White R, Zon L. Transplantation in zebrafish. Methods Cell Biol. 2011;105:403-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of zebrafish transplantation in both embryos and adults, and then focus on detailed methods of three types of transplantation: blastula/gastrula transplantation for mosaic analysis, stem cell transplantation, and tumor transplantation.
  41. Hamanaka G, Matsumoto M, Imoto M, Kaneko H. Mesenchyme cells can function to induce epithelial cell proliferation in starfish embryos. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:818-27 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Blastula embryos were injected with pure populations of mesenchyme cells and the total cell numbers in the treated embryos ..
  42. Vismara C, Bacchetta R, Di Muzio A, Mantecca P, Tarca S, Vailati G, et al. Determination of myoseverin embryotoxic potential by using FETAX. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2006;77:257-67 pubmed
    ..In spite of the low T.I, MYS has to be considered a highly teratogenic compound. ..
  43. Samanta M, Tongprasit W, Istrail S, Cameron R, Tu Q, Davidson E, et al. The transcriptome of the sea urchin embryo. Science. 2006;314:960-2 pubmed
    ..The tiling array data were used to correct and authenticate several thousand gene models during the genome annotation process...
  44. Kisileva M, Shevchenko N, Krupnova T, Zviagintseva T. [Fucoidans influence on developing embryos of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2005;41:51-7 pubmed
  45. Mouche I, Malesic L, Gillardeaux O. FETAX Assay for Evaluation of Developmental Toxicity. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1641:311-324 pubmed publisher
    ..The test is conducted on fertilized Xenopus laevis mid-blastula-stage eggs over the organogenesis period...
  46. Yue H, Li Z, Wu N, Liu Z, Wang Y, Gui J. Oocyte-specific H2A variant H2af1o is required for cell synchrony before midblastula transition in early zebrafish embryos. Biol Reprod. 2013;89:82 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our current findings provided the first case to understand the biological function of maternal oocyte-specific histone variants in vertebrates. ..
  47. Moravec C, Samuel J, Weng W, Wood I, Sirotkin H. Maternal Rest/Nrsf Regulates Zebrafish Behavior through snap25a/b. J Neurosci. 2016;36:9407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptome sequencing revealed 158 genes that are repressed by maternal rest in blastula stage embryos...
  48. Xiao S, Zhou C, Yuan X. Palaeontology: undressing and redressing Ediacaran embryos. Nature. 2007;446:E9-10; discussion E10-1 pubmed
    ..that the Ediacaran microfossils Megasphaera and Parapandorina, previously interpreted as animal resting eggs and blastula embryos, represent Thiomargarita-like sulphide-oxidizing bacteria, claiming that this interpretation better ..
  49. Nicoli S, Gilardelli C, Pozzoli O, Presta M, Cotelli F. Regulated expression pattern of gremlin during zebrafish development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:539-44 pubmed
    ..Our results show that grm encodes a maternal transcript, and the zygotic transcription is turned on at the mid-blastula transition (MBT), when grm is detected in the entire blastoderm...
  50. Zagris N, Chung A, Stavridis V. Entactin and laminin gamma 1-chain gene expression in the early chick embryo. Int J Dev Biol. 2005;49:65-70 pubmed
    ..transcripts was intense and of entactin milder in the epiblast and in the hypoblast of embryos at stage XIII (blastula)...
  51. Jachowicz J, Bing X, Pontabry J, Boskovic A, Rando O, Torres Padilla M. LINE-1 activation after fertilization regulates global chromatin accessibility in the early mouse embryo. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1502-1510 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that activation of LINE-1 regulates global chromatin accessibility at the beginning of development and indicate that retrotransposon activation is integral to the developmental program. ..
  52. Yin L, Zhu M, Knoll A, Yuan X, Zhang J, Hu J. Doushantuo embryos preserved inside diapause egg cysts. Nature. 2007;446:661-3 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 0.5-Myr-old ash bed, suggesting that at least stem-group animals inhabited shallow seas in the immediate aftermath of global Neoproterozoic glaciation. ..
  53. Reunov A, Aleksandrova I. [The ultrastructural patterns of germinal and yolk granules in oocytes and embryonic cells of the holothurian Apostichopus japonicus]. Tsitologiia. 2006;48:308-14 pubmed
    ..japonicus is quite possible with ultrastructural analysis only, and does not require utilizing molecular markers...
  54. McCauley B, Akyar E, Filliger L, Hinman V. Expression of wnt and frizzled genes during early sea star development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2013;13:437-44 pubmed publisher
    ..wnt3, wnt4, wnt8, and wnt16 are expressed in nested domains in the endoderm and lateral ectoderm from blastula through late gastrula stages; wnt2 and wnt5 are expressed in the mesoderm and anterior endoderm...
  55. Kai M, Kaito C, Fukamachi H, Higo T, Takayama E, Hara H, et al. Overexpression of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) in Xenopus embryos activates maternal program of apoptosis as a "fail-safe" mechanism of early embryogenesis. Cell Res. 2003;13:147-58 pubmed
    ..We assume that apoptosis is executed in Xenopus early gastrulae as a "fail-safe" mechanism to eliminate physiologically-severely damaged cells to save the rest of the embryo...
  56. Monzo K, Dowd S, Minden J, Sisson J. Proteomic analysis reveals CCT is a target of Fragile X mental retardation protein regulation in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2010;340:408-18 pubmed publisher
  57. Standley H, Gurdon J. Uncommitted Xenopus blastula cells can be directed to uniform muscle gene expression by gradient interpretation and a community effect. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:993-8 pubmed
    ..Here we show that uncommitted blastula cells can be directed, by the sequential influence of a particular concentration of a TGFbeta morphogen and an ..
  58. Eichenlaub Ritter U, Shen Y, Tinneberg H. Manipulation of the oocyte: possible damage to the spindle apparatus. Reprod Biomed Online. 2002;5:117-24 pubmed
  59. Miyake A, Saito T, Kashiwagi N, Ando D, Yamamoto A, Suzuki T, et al. Cloning and pattern of expression of the shiro-uo vasa gene during embryogenesis and its roles in PGC development. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50:619-25 pubmed
    ..At the 16-cell stage, eight spots were observed. After the blastula stage, shiro-uo vasa transcripts showed similar localization as in the zebrafish...
  60. Felix L, Serafim C, Valentim A, Antunes L, Matos M, Coimbra A. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish. Toxicol Lett. 2017;279:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. ..
  61. Bruce A, Howley C, Dixon Fox M, Ho R. T-box gene eomesodermin and the homeobox-containing Mix/Bix gene mtx2 regulate epiboly movements in the zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:105-14 pubmed
  62. Dalle Nogare D, Pauerstein P, Lane M. G2 acquisition by transcription-independent mechanism at the zebrafish midblastula transition. Dev Biol. 2009;326:131-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with findings from Drosophila and Xenopus that indicate the central importance of G2 addition in checkpoint establishment, and point to similar mechanisms governing the MBT in diverse species...
  63. Howard L, Rex M, Clements D, Woodland H. Regulation of the Xenopus Xsox17alpha(1) promoter by co-operating VegT and Sox17 sites. Dev Biol. 2007;310:402-15 pubmed
    ..F-group transcription factor Xsox17alpha(1) is specifically expressed throughout the entire region of the Xenopus blastula fated to become endoderm, and is important in controlling endodermal development...
  64. Lloyd B, Tao Q, Lang S, Wylie C. Lysophosphatidic acid signaling controls cortical actin assembly and cytoarchitecture in Xenopus embryos. Development. 2005;132:805-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In the Xenopus blastula, the cortical actin network in each blastomere is required for the maintenance of overall embryonic shape and ..
  65. Matsui H, Ikeda K, Nakatani K, Sakabe M, Yamagishi T, Nakanishi T, et al. Induction of initial cardiomyocyte alpha-actin--smooth muscle alpha-actin--in cultured avian pregastrula epiblast: a role for nodal and BMP antagonist. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1419-29 pubmed
  66. Nakajima Y, Sakabe M, Matsui H, Sakata H, Yanagawa N, Yamagishi T. Heart development before beating. Anat Sci Int. 2009;84:67-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a two-step signaling cascade, which includes tissue interaction between epiblast and hypoblast at the blastula stage and endoderm-derived signals during gastrulation, is required to generate a beating heart.
  67. Gotoh T, Kishimoto T, Sible J. Phosphorylation of Claspin is triggered by the nucleocytoplasmic ratio at the Xenopus laevis midblastula transition. Dev Biol. 2011;353:302-8 pubmed publisher
  68. Takayama E, Higo T, Kai M, Fukasawa M, Nakajima K, Hara H, et al. Involvement of caspase-9 in execution of the maternal program of apoptosis in Xenopus late blastulae overexpressed with S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:1367-75 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that activation of caspase-9 is a key step for execution of the maternally preset program of apoptosis in Xenopus early embryos...
  69. Shabalkin I, Yagubov A, Bogush I, Shabalkin P, Mazurov S. Experimental approaches to evaluating the point of biological system bifurcation. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;143:91-3 pubmed
    ..Any system transforms into a qualitatively new state if the number of its elements changes (increases or decreases in comparison with the standard checkpoint: norm, previous status of the system, etc.) by at least 1/3...
  70. Wardle F, Sive H. What's your position? the Xenopus cement gland as a paradigm of regional specification. Bioessays. 2003;25:717-26 pubmed
    ..These postional cues are integrated to activate cement gland differentiation. This integration appears to require intermediate steps, including expression of pitx genes, and members of the ATF/CREB and Ets transcription factor families...
  71. Xu P, Houssin N, Ferri Lagneau K, Thisse B, Thisse C. Construction of a vertebrate embryo from two opposing morphogen gradients. Science. 2014;344:87-9 pubmed publisher
    ..factor family members that act as morphogens, are sufficient to induce molecular and cellular mechanisms required to organize, in vivo or in vitro, uncommitted cells of the zebrafish blastula animal pole into a well-developed embryo.
  72. Zhang Y, Gui J. Molecular characterization and IFN signal pathway analysis of Carassius auratus CaSTAT1 identified from the cultured cells in response to virus infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2004;28:211-27 pubmed
    ..These results provide molecular evidence supporting the notion that the fish IFN signaling transduction pathway is similar to that in mammals. Fish IFN exerts its multiple functions, at least antiviral action, through a JAK-STAT pathway...
  73. Trounson A. Research must continue on preimplantation genetic diagnosis methodologies. Fertil Steril. 2004;82:299 pubmed
    ..Further research is required to enable a larger pool of appropriate patients to benefit from preimplantation genetic diagnosis...
  74. Xu B, Feng H. Ovulation, fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides). Anim Reprod Sci. 2017;176:78-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first full report of preimplantation embryonic development in the raccoon dog, which will facilitate the application of advanced assisted reproductive technology in canine species. ..
  75. Messler S, Kropp S, Episkopou V, Felici A, Würthner J, Lemke R, et al. The TGF-? signaling modulators TRAP1/TGFBRAP1 and VPS39/Vam6/TLP are essential for early embryonic development. Immunobiology. 2011;216:343-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Absence of TRAP1 protein results in death at either of two defined timepoints during embryogenesis, before the blastula stage or during gastrulation, whereas most of the VPS39 deficient mice die before E6.5...
  76. Korvin Pavlovskaia E, Nekliudova I, Belousov L. [Kinetics of the reaction of yolk cell surface in the loach to puncture and mechanic deformation]. Ontogenez. 2006;37:100-8 pubmed
    ..and radial components of the yolk cell surface movements were measured in the loach embryos at the late blastula stage within 40-50 min after puncture or indentation by an obliquely directed glass rod...
  77. Liu H, Kim J, Aoki F. Regulation of histone H3 lysine 9 methylation in oocytes and early pre-implantation embryos. Development. 2004;131:2269-80 pubmed
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    ..we report on a later acting cis-regulatory module that assumes control of gcm expression by the early mesenchyme blastula stage and maintains it through pigment cell differentiation and dispersal...
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