blastoderm

Summary

Summary: A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.

Top Publications

  1. Davis I, Ish Horowicz D. Apical localization of pair-rule transcripts requires 3' sequences and limits protein diffusion in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 1991;67:927-40 pubmed
    The peripheral cytoplasm (periplasm) of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo is subdivided into apical and basal compartments by a layer of nuclei...
  2. Bronner G, Jackle H. Regulation and function of the terminal gap gene huckebein in the Drosophila blastoderm. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:157-65 pubmed
    ..formation in Drosophila involves a cascade of maternal and zygotic factors which are spatially restricted in the blastoderm embryo...
  3. Keränen S, Fowlkes C, Luengo Hendriks C, Sudar D, Knowles D, Malik J, et al. Three-dimensional morphology and gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm at cellular resolution II: dynamics. Genome Biol. 2006;7:R124 pubmed
    ..temporal changes in morphology and gene expression at cellular resolution in whole embryos, using the Drosophila blastoderm as a model...
  4. Kulkarni M, Arnosti D. Information display by transcriptional enhancers. Development. 2003;130:6569-75 pubmed
    ..In contrast to the autonomous computer model of enhancer function, an information-display or 'billboard' model of enhancer activity may better describe many developmentally regulated transcriptional enhancers. ..
  5. Schröder R. vasa mRNA accumulates at the posterior pole during blastoderm formation in the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Dev Genes Evol. 2006;216:277-83 pubmed
    ..is ubiquitously distributed in the egg, Tc-vasa mRNA gradually accumulates at the posterior egg pole during blastoderm formation...
  6. Bronner G, Chu LaGraff Q, Doe C, Cohen B, Weigel D, Taubert H, et al. Sp1/egr-like zinc-finger protein required for endoderm specification and germ-layer formation in Drosophila. Nature. 1994;369:664-8 pubmed
    ..huckebein (hkb), a member of the gap-gene class of segmentation genes, is required for germ-layer formation at blastoderm. Absence of the hkb product, an Sp1/egr-like zinc-finger protein, causes the ectodermal and mesodermal primordia ..
  7. Yasuda G, Baker J, Schubiger G. Temporal regulation of gene expression in the blastoderm Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1800-12 pubmed
    ..The temporal regulation of the ratio-independent transcripts may be dependent on developmental time. We conclude that multiple modes of temporal regulation underlie the events of the developmental transition in Drosophila embryogenesis. ..
  8. Fowlkes C, Eckenrode K, Bragdon M, Meyer M, Wunderlich Z, Simirenko L, et al. A conserved developmental patterning network produces quantitatively different output in multiple species of Drosophila. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002346 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the scope of such changes, we used high-resolution imaging methods to measure mRNA expression in blastoderm embryos of Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila pseudoobscura and assembled these data into cellular resolution ..
  9. Nien C, Liang H, Butcher S, Sun Y, Fu S, Gocha T, et al. Temporal coordination of gene networks by Zelda in the early Drosophila embryo. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002339 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Zld promotes timely and robust transcriptional activation of early-gene networks so that developmental events are coordinated and cell fates are established properly in the cellular blastoderm embryo.

More Information

Publications89

  1. Delanoue R, Davis I. Dynein anchors its mRNA cargo after apical transport in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;122:97-106 pubmed
    ..Here, we use a new RNA anchoring assay in living Drosophila blastoderm embryos to show that apical anchoring of mRNA after completion of dynein transport does not depend on actin or ..
  2. Wimmer E, Simpson Brose M, Cohen S, Desplan C, Jackle H. Trans- and cis-acting requirements for blastodermal expression of the head gap gene buttonhead. Mech Dev. 1995;53:235-45 pubmed
    ..btd is expressed in the syncytial blastoderm embryo in a stripe covering the anlagen of the antennal, intercalary and mandibular head segments...
  3. Cheng J, Chan C, Veca L, Poon W, Chan P, Qu L, et al. Acute and long-term effects after single loading of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes into zebrafish (Danio rerio). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;235:216-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The injected FITC-BSA-MWCNTs (at 1-cell stage) were allocated to all blastoderm cells of the embryos through proliferation, and were distinctively excluded from the yolk cell...
  4. Zhang G, Breuer M, Förster A, Egger Adam D, Wodarz A. Mars, a Drosophila protein related to vertebrate HURP, is required for the attachment of centrosomes to the mitotic spindle during syncytial nuclear divisions. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Mars is an important linker between the spindle and the centrosomes that is required for proper spindle organization during the rapid mitotic cycles in early embryogenesis. ..
  5. Janody F, Reischl J, Dostatni N. Persistence of Hunchback in the terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo impairs anterior development. Development. 2000;127:1573-82 pubmed
    ..is controlled by several zygotic genes that are positively regulated at the anterior pole of Drosophila blastoderm embryos by the anterior (bicoid) and the terminal (torso) maternal determinants...
  6. Yanagawa N, Sakabe M, Sakata H, Yamagishi T, Nakajima Y. Nodal signal is required for morphogenetic movements of epiblast layer in the pre-streak chick blastoderm. Dev Growth Differ. 2011;53:366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In cultured posterior blastoderm explants from stage X to XI embryos, either Lefty1 or Cerberus-S inhibited initial migration of the explants on ..
  7. Stein J, Broihier H, Moore L, Lehmann R. Slow as molasses is required for polarized membrane growth and germ cell migration in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3925-34 pubmed
    ..Removal of both zygotic and maternal slam results in an earlier defect: a failure to form a cellular blastoderm. Consistent with this phenotype, we found that slam is one of the earliest genes to be transcribed in the embryo,..
  8. Jaeger J, Surkova S, Blagov M, Janssens H, Kosman D, Kozlov K, et al. Dynamic control of positional information in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature. 2004;430:368-71 pubmed
    ..of maternal morphogen concentration is not sufficient to determine shifting gap domain boundary positions, and suggests that establishing and interpreting positional information are not independent processes in the Drosophila blastoderm.
  9. Chen X, Reynolds E, Ranganayakulu G, O Donnell J. A maternal product of the Punch locus of Drosophila melanogaster is required for precellular blastoderm nuclear divisions. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 12):3501-13 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate here that the embryos exhibit nuclear division defects during the precellular blastoderm stage of development...
  10. Weigel D, Jurgens G, Klingler M, Jackle H. Two gap genes mediate maternal terminal pattern information in Drosophila. Science. 1990;248:495-8 pubmed
    ..The activities of tailless (tll) and the newly identified gap gene huckebein (hkb) are specifically involved in mediating the maternal terminal information at the posterior end of the blastoderm embryo.
  11. Field C, Alberts B. Anillin, a contractile ring protein that cycles from the nucleus to the cell cortex. J Cell Biol. 1995;131:165-78 pubmed
    ..We speculate that anillin plays a role in organizing and/or stabilizing the cleavage furrow and other cell cycle regulated, contractile domains of the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  12. Frescas D, Mavrakis M, Lorenz H, DeLotto R, Lippincott Schwartz J. The secretory membrane system in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryo exists as functionally compartmentalized units around individual nuclei. J Cell Biol. 2006;173:219-30 pubmed
    ..The nuclear-associated units of ER and Golgi across the syncytial blastoderm produced secretory products that were delivered to the plasma membrane in a spatially restricted fashion across ..
  13. Fujioka M, Emi Sarker Y, Yusibova G, Goto T, Jaynes J. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development. 1999;126:2527-38 pubmed
    ..Most of these patterns are driven by non-overlapping regulatory elements, including ones for syncytial blastoderm stage stripes 1 and 5, while a single element specifies both stripes 4 and 6...
  14. Zhang Y, Yang H, Zhang Z, Shi Q, Wang D, Zheng M, et al. Isolation of chicken embryonic stem cell and preparation of chicken chimeric model. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:2149-56 pubmed publisher
  15. Mahoney P, Lengyel J. The zygotic segmentation mutant tailless alters the blastoderm fate map of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1987;122:464-70 pubmed
    ..to a reprogramming of the blastoderm fate map, we hybridized probes for the segmentation genes fushi tarazu (ftz) and hairy (h) to whole embryos...
  16. Ingham P, Baker N, Martinez Arias A. Regulation of segment polarity genes in the Drosophila blastoderm by fushi tarazu and even skipped. Nature. 1988;331:73-5 pubmed
    During the late cellular blastoderm stage of Drosophila embryo-genesis the segmentation genes engrailed, en, and wingless, wg, become expressed in two series of 14 stripes which will subsequently coincide with the anterior and posterior ..
  17. Lee C, Melkani G, Yu Q, Suggs J, Kronert W, Suzuki Y, et al. Drosophila UNC-45 accumulates in embryonic blastoderm and in muscles, and is essential for muscle myosin stability. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:699-705 pubmed publisher
    ..It colocalizes with non-muscle myosin in embryonic blastoderm of 2-hour-old embryos...
  18. Yu Y, Pick L. Non-periodic cues generate seven ftz stripes in the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1995;50:163-75 pubmed
    ..This multi-level regulation provides a back-up system that ensures the development of seven stripes in the blastoderm.
  19. Swantek D, Gergen J. Ftz modulates Runt-dependent activation and repression of segment-polarity gene transcription. Development. 2004;131:2281-90 pubmed
    ..stripes of expression of several key segment-polarity genes, one stripe for each parasegment, in the blastoderm stage embryo...
  20. Liu P, Kaufman T. Kruppel is a gap gene in the intermediate germband insect Oncopeltus fasciatus and is required for development of both blastoderm and germband-derived segments. Development. 2004;131:4567-79 pubmed
    ..A cascade of segmentation genes patterns the embryo along its anterior-posterior axis via subdivision of the blastoderm. This is in contrast to short and intermediate germband modes of segmentation where the anterior segments are ..
  21. Jaeger J, Blagov M, Kosman D, Kozlov K, Manu -, Myasnikova E, et al. Dynamical analysis of regulatory interactions in the gap gene system of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2004;167:1721-37 pubmed
    ..Finally, our models suggest a correlation between timing of gap domain boundary formation and regulatory contributions from the terminal maternal system...
  22. Lee D, Harris T. An Arf-GEF regulates antagonism between endocytosis and the cytoskeleton for Drosophila blastoderm development. Curr Biol. 2013;23:2110-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Endocytosis also regulates the PM and can be promoted or inhibited by cytoskeletal networks. However, endocytic regulation of the general membrane cytoskeleton is undocumented...
  23. Mazumdar A, Mazumdar M. How one becomes many: blastoderm cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. 2002;24:1012-22 pubmed
    ..nuclear divisions, unaccompanied by cytokinesis, to produce a multi-nucleated single cell embryo, the syncytial blastoderm. The syncytium then undergoes a process of cell formation, in which the individual nuclei become enclosed in ..
  24. Edgar B, Odell G, Schubiger G. Cytoarchitecture and the patterning of fushi tarazu expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Genes Dev. 1987;1:1226-37 pubmed
    In the Drosophila embryo at the blastoderm stage, the segmentation gene fushi tarazu (ftz) is expressed in a seven-banded pattern...
  25. Vendra G, Hamilton R, Davis I. Dynactin suppresses the retrograde movement of apically localized mRNA in Drosophila blastoderm embryos. RNA. 2007;13:1860-7 pubmed
    ..Apical transport and anchoring of wingless and pair-rule transcripts in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryo is mediated by cytoplasmic Dynein, the major minus end directed microtubule dependent molecular motor...
  26. Erezyilmaz D, Kelstrup H, Riddiford L. The nuclear receptor E75A has a novel pair-rule-like function in patterning the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus. Dev Biol. 2009;334:300-10 pubmed publisher
    ..have revealed a hierarchy of segmentation genes (maternal, gap, pair-rule and HOX) that subdivide the syncytial blastoderm into sequentially finer-scale coordinates...
  27. Vorwald Denholtz P, De Robertis E. Temporal pattern of the posterior expression of Wingless in Drosophila blastoderm. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:456-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that the posterior band of Wg is first detected in blastoderm at mid nuclear cycle 14, before the segment-polarity stripes of Wg are formed in other segments...
  28. Harrisson F, van Nassauw L, van Hoof J, Foidart J. Microinjection of antifibronectin antibodies in the chicken blastoderm: inhibition of mesoblast cell migration but not of cell ingression at the primitive streak. Anat Rec. 1993;236:685-96 pubmed
    ..gastrulation was examined after microinjection of functional and nonfunctional antifibronectin antibodies in the blastoderm during the period of rapid migration of mesoblast cells...
  29. Hoch M, Schroder C, Seifert E, Jackle H. cis-acting control elements for Krüppel expression in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 1990;9:2587-95 pubmed
    ..More than one cis-regulatory element drives the expression in the anterior domain at the blastoderm stage, in the nervous system, the midline precursor cells and in the amino-serosa...
  30. Callaini G, Whitfield W, Riparbelli M. Centriole and centrosome dynamics during the embryonic cell cycles that follow the formation of the cellular blastoderm in Drosophila. Exp Cell Res. 1997;234:183-90 pubmed
    ..This "immature" centriolar morphology was shown to persist throughout embryonic development, clearly demonstrating that these centrioles are able to replicate despite their apparently neotenic structure...
  31. Lukowitz W, Schroder C, Glaser G, Hulskamp M, Tautz D. Regulatory and coding regions of the segmentation gene hunchback are functionally conserved between Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster. Mech Dev. 1994;45:105-15 pubmed
    ..of hb in the early embryo, namely the enhancer for the maternal expression and the enhancer region for the late blastoderm expression...
  32. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm by gap gene cross regulation. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000049 pubmed publisher
    ..quantitative gene expression data have become available for the segment determination process in the Drosophila blastoderm, revealing a specific instance of canalization...
  33. Muller H, Wieschaus E. armadillo, bazooka, and stardust are critical for early stages in formation of the zonula adherens and maintenance of the polarized blastoderm epithelium in Drosophila. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:149-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that early stages in the assembly of the ZA are critical for the stability of the polarized blastoderm epithelium.
  34. Mohler J. Spatial regulation of segment polarity gene expression in the anterior terminal region of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Mech Dev. 1995;50:151-61 pubmed
    ..otd, ems and btd) on the spatial expression of the segment polarity genes, wg and hh, were analyzed at the late blastoderm stage and during subsequent development...
  35. Dearden P, Donly C, Grbi M. Expression of pair-rule gene homologues in a chelicerate: early patterning of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Development. 2002;129:5461-72 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of Tu-pax3/7 lends support to the possibility that a pair-rule patterning mechanism is active in the segmentation pathways of chelicerates...
  36. Ben David J, Chipman A. Mutual regulatory interactions of the trunk gap genes during blastoderm patterning in the hemipteran Oncopeltus fasciatus. Dev Biol. 2010;346:140-9 pubmed publisher
    The early embryo of the milkweed bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus, appears as a single cell layer - the embryonic blastoderm - covering the entire egg...
  37. Schupbach T, Wieschaus E. Female sterile mutations on the second chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. I. Maternal effect mutations. Genetics. 1989;121:101-17 pubmed
    ..In eggs from 14 complementation groups development is blocked before the formation of a syncytial blastoderm. In eggs from 12 complementation groups development is abnormal before cellularization, 17 complementation ..
  38. Yamaha E, Kazama Wakabayashi M, Otani S, Fujimoto T, Arai K. Germ-line chimera by lower-part blastoderm transplantation between diploid goldfish and triploid crucian carp. Genetica. 2001;111:227-36 pubmed
    Germ-line chimerism was successfully induced by blastoderm transplantation from donor triploid crucian carp, which reproduces gynogenetically, to recipient diploid goldfish, which reproduces bisexually...
  39. Liu P, Kaufman T. even-skipped is not a pair-rule gene but has segmental and gap-like functions in Oncopeltus fasciatus, an intermediate germband insect. Development. 2005;132:2081-92 pubmed
    ..Given the large RNAi deletion phenotype and its regulation of hunchback and Krüppel, even-skipped seems to act as an über-gap gene in Oncopeltus, indicating that it may have both upstream and downstream roles in segmentation...
  40. DeLotto Y, Smith C, DeLotto R. Multiple isoforms of the Drosophila Spätzle protein are encoded by alternatively spliced maternal mRNAs in the precellular blastoderm embryo. Mol Gen Genet. 2001;264:643-52 pubmed
    ..gene encodes at least ten different protein isoforms as a result of complex alternative splicing in precellular blastoderm embryos...
  41. Andrioli L, Digiampietri L, de Barros L, Machado Lima A. Huckebein is part of a combinatorial repression code in the anterior blastoderm. Dev Biol. 2012;361:177-85 pubmed publisher
  42. Li X, MacArthur S, Bourgon R, Nix D, Pollard D, Iyer V, et al. Transcription factors bind thousands of active and inactive regions in the Drosophila blastoderm. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e27 pubmed publisher
    ..with quantitatively different specificities to highly overlapping sets of several thousand genomic regions in blastoderm embryos...
  43. MacArthur S, Li X, Li J, Brown J, Chu H, Zeng L, et al. Developmental roles of 21 Drosophila transcription factors are determined by quantitative differences in binding to an overlapping set of thousands of genomic regions. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R80 pubmed publisher
    ..initiate anterior/posterior patterning in Drosophila bind to overlapping sets of thousands of genomic regions in blastoderm embryos...
  44. de Winter P, Sugden D, Baggott G. Effect of egg turning and incubation time on carbonic anhydrase gene expression in the blastoderm of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica). Br Poult Sci. 2008;49:566-73 pubmed publisher
    ..CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV, and the cytoplasmic isoform CA II, were investigated in the extra-embryonic tissue of the blastoderm and in embryonic blood. 2. Eggs were incubated at 37.6 degrees C, c...
  45. Schweisguth F, Lepesant J, Vincent A. The serendipity alpha gene encodes a membrane-associated protein required for the cellularization of the Drosophila embryo. Genes Dev. 1990;4:922-31 pubmed
    The Drosophila serendipity alpha (sry alpha) gene is specifically transcribed at the blastoderm stage, from nuclear cycle 11 to the onset of gastrulation, in all somatic nuclei...
  46. Padash Barmchi M, Rogers S, Hacker U. DRhoGEF2 regulates actin organization and contractility in the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:575-85 pubmed
    ..and actomyosin contractility during nuclear divisions, pole cell formation, and cellularization of syncytial blastoderm embryos...
  47. Galewsky S, Schulz R. Drop out: a third chromosome maternal-effect locus required for formation of the Drosophila cellular blastoderm. Mol Reprod Dev. 1992;32:331-8 pubmed
    ..Phenotypic analyses of the dop mutation indicate that the gene is required for proper formation of the cellular blastoderm. In embryos derived from either homozygous or hemizygous dop mothers, cytoplasmic clearing, nuclear migration ..
  48. Ray R, Arora K, Nusslein Volhard C, Gelbart W. The control of cell fate along the dorsal-ventral axis of the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1991;113:35-54 pubmed
    ..Two of the genes, dpp and twi, are unaffected by mutations in any of the tested zygotic dorsal-ventral genes, suggesting that dpp and twi are the primary patterning genes for dorsal ectoderm and mesoderm, respectively...
  49. Gursky V, Panok L, Myasnikova E, Manu -, Samsonova M, Reinitz J, et al. Mechanisms of gap gene expression canalization in the Drosophila blastoderm. BMC Syst Biol. 2011;5:118 pubmed publisher
    Extensive variation in early gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm is reduced over time because of gap gene cross regulation...
  50. Futterman M, Garcia A, Zamir E. Evidence for partial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (pEMT) and recruitment of motile blastoderm edge cells during avian epiboly. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1502-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the inner zone of the extraembryonic Area Opaca and at the blastoderm edge...
  51. Walter J, Dever C, Biggin M. Two homeo domain proteins bind with similar specificity to a wide range of DNA sites in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1678-92 pubmed
    ..We propose that these data favor the model that eve, ftz, and closely related homeo domain proteins act by directly regulating mostly the same target genes...
  52. Rushlow C, Han K, Manley J, Levine M. The graded distribution of the dorsal morphogen is initiated by selective nuclear transport in Drosophila. Cell. 1989;59:1165-77 pubmed
    ..Transient cotransfection assays suggest that dl activates expression from several promoters in an apparently sequence-independent manner. We discuss the role of nuclear transport as a regulated process in gene expression and development...
  53. Singer J, Lengyel J. Expression and sequence analysis of the Drosophila blastoderm-specific gene bsg25A. Gene. 1997;197:379-82 pubmed
    By differential screening of a genomic library, we have cloned a gene expressed specifically during the blastoderm stage of Drosophila embryogenesis...
  54. Levin M, Mercola M. Gap junction-mediated transfer of left-right patterning signals in the early chick blastoderm is upstream of Shh asymmetry in the node. Development. 1999;126:4703-14 pubmed
    ..that indicate that the initiation of these programs requires communication between the two sides of the blastoderm. When deprived of either the left or the right lateral halves of the blastoderm, embryos are incapable of ..
  55. Janssen R, Budd G, Damen W. Gene expression suggests conserved mechanisms patterning the heads of insects and myriapods. Dev Biol. 2011;357:64-72 pubmed publisher
    ..But different from the situation in most arthropods in this species all segments are formed from the early blastoderm (so called long-germ developmental mode)...
  56. Postner M, Wieschaus E. The nullo protein is a component of the actin-myosin network that mediates cellularization in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. J Cell Sci. 1994;107 ( Pt 7):1863-73 pubmed
    ..Mutant embryos demonstrate that neither protein translationally regulates the other, but the localization of the sry-alpha protein to the hexagonal network is dependent upon nullo...
  57. García Solache M, Jaeger J, Akam M. A systematic analysis of the gap gene system in the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. Dev Biol. 2010;344:306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of all of the Drosophila trunk gap genes from Clogmia, and determined their domains of expression during the blastoderm stage of development, in relation to one another, and in relation to the expression of even-skipped (Calb-eve), ..
  58. Foe V, Alberts B. Studies of nuclear and cytoplasmic behaviour during the five mitotic cycles that precede gastrulation in Drosophila embryogenesis. J Cell Sci. 1983;61:31-70 pubmed
    ..from stage 10 through 14 of Drosophila embryogenesis, that is just prior to and during formation of the cellular blastoderm. We have supplemented these studies with data collected from fixed, stained, whole embryos...
  59. Rose L, Wieschaus E. The Drosophila cellularization gene nullo produces a blastoderm-specific transcript whose levels respond to the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Genes Dev. 1992;6:1255-68 pubmed
    ..The regulation of nullo RNA levels during cycle 14, however, is coupled to the nucleocytoplasmic ratio, which also controls the cessation of rapid, synchronous mitosis just before cellularization...
  60. Mermall V, Miller K. The 95F unconventional myosin is required for proper organization of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:1575-88 pubmed
    ..myosin, a class VI unconventional myosin, associates with particles in the cytoplasm of the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm and is required for the ATP- and F-actin-dependent translocation of these particles...
  61. Schweisguth F, Yanicostas C, Payre F, Lepesant J, Vincent A. cis-regulatory elements of the Drosophila blastoderm-specific serendipity alpha gene: ectopic activation in the embryonic PNS promoted by the deletion of an upstream region. Dev Biol. 1989;136:181-93 pubmed
    The Drosophila serendipity alpha gene (sry alpha) is specifically expressed at the blastoderm stage in all somatic cells...
  62. Rivera Pomar R, Lu X, Perrimon N, Taubert H, Jackle H. Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Nature. 1995;376:253-6 pubmed
    The process of body prepatterning during Drosophila blastoderm formation relies on the localized activities of zygotic segmentation genes, which are controlled by asymmetrically distributed maternal determinants...
  63. Shimmi O, Umulis D, Othmer H, O Connor M. Facilitated transport of a Dpp/Scw heterodimer by Sog/Tsg leads to robust patterning of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo. Cell. 2005;120:873-86 pubmed
    Patterning the dorsal surface of the Drosophila blastoderm embryo requires Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Screw (Scw), two BMP family members...
  64. Fowlkes C, Hendriks C, Keränen S, Weber G, Rübel O, Huang M, et al. A quantitative spatiotemporal atlas of gene expression in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 2008;133:364-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a registration technique that takes image-based data from hundreds of Drosophila blastoderm embryos, each costained for a reference gene and one of a set of genes of interest, and builds a model ..
  65. Liang H, Nien C, Liu H, Metzstein M, Kirov N, Rushlow C. The zinc-finger protein Zelda is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in Drosophila. Nature. 2008;456:400-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant embryos lacking zld are defective in cellular blastoderm formation, and fail to activate many genes essential for cellularization, sex determination and pattern ..
  66. Manu -, Surkova S, Spirov A, Gursky V, Janssens H, Kim A, et al. Canalization of gene expression and domain shifts in the Drosophila blastoderm by dynamical attractors. PLoS Comput Biol. 2009;5:e1000303 pubmed publisher
    The variation in the expression patterns of the gap genes in the blastoderm of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster reduces over time as a result of cross regulation between these genes, a fact that we have demonstrated in an ..
  67. Janssen R, Damen W, Budd G. Expression of pair rule gene orthologs in the blastoderm of a myriapod: evidence for pair rule-like mechanisms?. BMC Dev Biol. 2012;12:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the derived developmental modes, it appears more likely that conserved mechanisms can be found in anterior patterning...
  68. Franke A, Dernburg A, Bashaw G, Baker B. Evidence that MSL-mediated dosage compensation in Drosophila begins at blastoderm. Development. 1996;122:2751-60 pubmed
    ..we report experiments that show that the MSL proteins first associate with the male X chromosome as early as blastoderm stage, slightly earlier than the histone H4 isoform acetylated at lysine 16 is detected on the X chromosome...
  69. Myasnikova E, Surkova S, Panok L, Samsonova M, Reinitz J. Estimation of errors introduced by confocal imaging into the data on segmentation gene expression in Drosophila. Bioinformatics. 2009;25:346-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Following this approach, we generated a large dataset on the expression of segmentation genes in the Drosophila blastoderm, that is widely used in systems biology studies...
  70. Rothe M, Wimmer E, Pankratz M, Gonzalez Gaitan M, Jackle H. Identical transacting factor requirement for knirps and knirps-related Gene expression in the anterior but not in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Mech Dev. 1994;46:169-81 pubmed
    ..Both genes are initially expressed in three identical regions of the blastoderm embryo: in an anterior cap domain, in an anterior stripe and in a posterior broad band linked to the kni gap ..
  71. Howard K, Ingham P. Regulatory interactions between the segmentation genes fushi tarazu, hairy, and engrailed in the Drosophila blastoderm. Cell. 1986;44:949-57 pubmed
    ..Transcripts from these genes accumulate in periodic patterns at the blastoderm stage of development...
  72. Akam M. The molecular basis for metameric pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Development. 1987;101:1-22 pubmed
    ..The establishment of this pattern is directed by a transient molecular prepattern that is generated in the blastoderm by the activity of the 'pair-rule' genes...
  73. MILES C, Lott S, Hendriks C, Ludwig M, Manu -, Williams C, et al. Artificial selection on egg size perturbs early pattern formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Evolution. 2011;65:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of nuclei at the cellular blastoderm stage also changed in response to selection, with large-egg selected lines having more than 1000 additional ..
  74. Thisse B, Stoetzel C, Gorostiza Thisse C, Perrin Schmitt F. Sequence of the twist gene and nuclear localization of its protein in endomesodermal cells of early Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1988;7:2175-83 pubmed
    ..It is present over both poles and in the midventral region (endoderm and mesoderm anlagen) at cellular blastoderm stage; later in development, it is detected within the mesodermal layer until its differentiation into ..
  75. El Sherif E, Averof M, Brown S. A segmentation clock operating in blastoderm and germband stages of Tribolium development. Development. 2012;139:4341-6 pubmed publisher
    In Drosophila, all segments form in the blastoderm where morphogen gradients spanning the entire anterior-posterior axis of the embryo provide positional information...
  76. ten Bosch J, Benavides J, Cline T. The TAGteam DNA motif controls the timing of Drosophila pre-blastoderm transcription. Development. 2006;133:1967-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA sequence CAGGTAG had been implicated in this pre-cellular blastoderm activation of sex-determination genes...
  77. Jaeger J, Manu -, Reinitz J. Drosophila blastoderm patterning. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2012;22:533-41 pubmed publisher
    The Drosophila blastoderm embryo is a classic model for the study of the genetics of pattern formation. In recent years, quantitative empirical approaches have been employed extensively in the study of blastoderm pattern formation...
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