mushroom bodies


Summary: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.

Top Publications

  1. Wu Y, Chen C, Mercer A, Sokol N. Let-7-complex microRNAs regulate the temporal identity of Drosophila mushroom body neurons via chinmo. Dev Cell. 2012;23:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these heterochronic miRNAs, originally identified in C. elegans, underlie progenitor cell multipotency during the development of diverse bilateria. ..
  2. Awasaki T, Huang Y, O Connor M, Lee T. Glia instruct developmental neuronal remodeling through TGF-? signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:821-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus glia orchestrate developmental neural remodeling not only by engulfment of unwanted neurites but also by enabling neuron remodeling. ..
  3. Lutz C, Robinson G. Activity-dependent gene expression in honey bee mushroom bodies in response to orientation flight. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:2031-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Egr, an insect homolog of Egr-1, is rapidly and transiently upregulated in the mushroom bodies in response to orientation...
  4. Thum A, Knapek S, Rister J, Dierichs Schmitt E, Heisenberg M, Tanimoto H. Differential potencies of effector genes in adult Drosophila. J Comp Neurol. 2006;498:194-203 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we induced TNT expression in the adult mushroom bodies. In contrast to the successful impairment in short-term olfactory memory by shibire(ts1), adult TNT ..
  5. Serway C, Kaufman R, Strauss R, de Belle J. Mushroom bodies enhance initial motor activity in Drosophila. J Neurogenet. 2009;23:173-84 pubmed publisher
    The central body (or central complex, CCX) and the mushroom bodies (MBs) are brain structures in most insect phyla that have been shown to influence aspects of locomotion...
  6. Luo L, O Leary D. Axon retraction and degeneration in development and disease. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2005;28:127-56 pubmed
    ..Here we review examples of these phenomena and consider potential cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie axon retraction and degeneration and how they might relate to each other in development and disease. ..
  7. Fukushima R, Kanzaki R. Modular subdivision of mushroom bodies by Kenyon cells in the silkmoth. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:315-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show a correlation between the axonal projections of KCs in the lobes and dendritic morphology in the calyx, and indicate different functional roles for the subdivisions. ..
  8. Gasque G, Labarca P, Delgado R, Darszon A. Bridging behavior and physiology: ion-channel perspective on mushroom body-dependent olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:1046-53 pubmed
    ..established between each mutation and the operation of VDICs in Kenyon cells, the intrinsic neurons of the mushroom bodies (MBs). In Drosophila, MBs are essential to the emergence of olfactory associative learning and retention...
  9. Marin E, Watts R, Tanaka N, Ito K, Luo L. Developmentally programmed remodeling of the Drosophila olfactory circuit. Development. 2005;132:725-37 pubmed
    ..As with MB gamma neurons, PN pruning requires cell-autonomous reception of the nuclear hormone ecdysone. Thus, these synaptic partners are independently programmed to prune their dendrites and axons. ..

More Information

Publications157 found, 100 shown here

  1. Johard H, Enell L, Gustafsson E, Trifilieff P, Veenstra J, Nassel D. Intrinsic neurons of Drosophila mushroom bodies express short neuropeptide F: relations to extrinsic neurons expressing different neurotransmitters. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1479-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Mushroom bodies constitute prominent paired neuropils in the brain of insects, known to be involved in higher olfactory processing and learning and memory...
  2. Grillenzoni N, Flandre A, Lasbleiz C, Dura J. Respective roles of the DRL receptor and its ligand WNT5 in Drosophila mushroom body development. Development. 2007;134:3089-97 pubmed
    In recent decades, Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs) have become a powerful model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying brain development and function...
  3. Tamura T, Horiuchi D, Chen Y, Sone M, Miyashita T, Saitoe M, et al. Drosophila PQBP1 regulates learning acquisition at projection neurons in aversive olfactory conditioning. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14091-101 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mushroom bodies (MBs) and antennal lobes were morphologically normal in dPQBP1-mutant flies...
  4. Sakai T, Sato S, Ishimoto H, Kitamoto T. Significance of the centrally expressed TRP channel painless in Drosophila courtship memory. Learn Mem. 2012;20:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, targeted expression of painRNAi in either the mushroom bodies (MBs) or insulin-producing cells (IPCs) resulted in defective courtship LTM...
  5. Plaçais P, Trannoy S, Isabel G, Aso Y, Siwanowicz I, Belliart Guérin G, et al. Slow oscillations in two pairs of dopaminergic neurons gate long-term memory formation in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:592-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade, after aversive olfactory conditioning, of three pairs of dopaminergic neurons projecting on mushroom bodies, the olfactory memory center, enhanced ARM, whereas their overactivation conversely impaired ARM...
  6. Hekmat Scafe D, Mercado A, Fajilan A, Lee A, Hsu R, Mount D, et al. Seizure sensitivity is ameliorated by targeted expression of K+-Cl- cotransporter function in the mushroom body of the Drosophila brain. Genetics. 2010;184:171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, phenotypic rescue is largely accounted for by targeted, circumscribed expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs) and the ellipsoid body (EB) of the central complex...
  7. Kim Y, Lee H, Han K. D1 dopamine receptor dDA1 is required in the mushroom body neurons for aversive and appetitive learning in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2007;27:7640-7 pubmed
    ..The findings described here unambiguously clarify the critical roles of D1 dopamine receptor in aversive and appetitive pavlovian conditioning. ..
  8. Luo S, Axel R, Abbott L. Generating sparse and selective third-order responses in the olfactory system of the fly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10713-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Lei Z, Chen K, Li H, Liu H, Guo A. The GABA system regulates the sparse coding of odors in the mushroom bodies of Drosophila. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;436:35-40 pubmed publisher
    In the mushroom bodies (MBs) of Drosophila, an analogue of the mammalian olfactory cortex, olfactory stimuli are sparsely encoded by Kenyon cells (KCs) that exhibit a high level of odor selectivity...
  10. Zhu S, Lin S, Kao C, Awasaki T, Chiang A, Lee T. Gradients of the Drosophila Chinmo BTB-zinc finger protein govern neuronal temporal identity. Cell. 2006;127:409-22 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we suggest that a temporal gradient of Chinmo (Chinmo(high) --> Chinmo(low)) helps specify distinct birth order-dependent cell fates in an extended neuronal lineage. ..
  11. Davis R. Traces of Drosophila memory. Neuron. 2011;70:8-19 pubmed publisher
  12. Yamazaki Y, Shirai K, Paul R, Fujiyuki T, Wakamoto A, Takeuchi H, et al. Differential expression of HR38 in the mushroom bodies of the honeybee brain depends on the caste and division of labor. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2667-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the forager brain, expression was concentrated in a subset of the mushroom body neurons, suggesting that ecdysteroid-signaling in the mushroom bodies might be involved in the division of labor of the workers.
  13. Tessier C, Broadie K. The fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates the strength and fidelity of calcium signaling in Drosophila mushroom body neurons. Neurobiol Dis. 2011;41:147-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in the magnitude and fidelity of calcium signals in the absence of dFMRP likely contribute to defects in neuronal structure/function, leading to the hallmark learning and memory dysfunction of FXS. ..
  14. Fahrbach S. Structure of the mushroom bodies of the insect brain. Annu Rev Entomol. 2006;51:209-32 pubmed
    ..has produced an explosion of new information on the development, neuroanatomy, and possible functions of the mushroom bodies. This review provides a concise, contemporary overview of the structure of the mushroom bodies...
  15. Devaud J, Blunk A, Podufall J, Giurfa M, Grunewald B. Using local anaesthetics to block neuronal activity and map specific learning tasks to the mushroom bodies of an insect brain. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:3193-206 pubmed
    ..We conclude that intact MB activity is required for the acquisition of reversal learning, but not for simple differential learning tasks. ..
  16. Qin H, Cressy M, Li W, Coravos J, Izzi S, DUBNAU J. Gamma neurons mediate dopaminergic input during aversive olfactory memory formation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2012;22:608-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that DA-mediated CS-US association is formed in ? neurons followed by communication between ? and ?/? neurons to drive consolidation. ..
  17. Knapek S, Kahsai L, Winther A, Tanimoto H, Nassel D. Short neuropeptide F acts as a functional neuromodulator for olfactory memory in Kenyon cells of Drosophila mushroom bodies. J Neurosci. 2013;33:5340-5 pubmed publisher
    ..many complex behaviors, including olfactory memory, are controlled by a paired brain structure, the so-called mushroom bodies (MB)...
  18. Honjo K, Furukubo Tokunaga K. Distinctive neuronal networks and biochemical pathways for appetitive and aversive memory in Drosophila larvae. J Neurosci. 2009;29:852-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results as a whole suggest that the genetically programmed memory circuitries might provide predisposition in the efficacy of inducing longer-lived memory components in associative learning. ..
  19. Kucherenko M, Barth J, Fiala A, Shcherbata H. Steroid-induced microRNA let-7 acts as a spatio-temporal code for neuronal cell fate in the developing Drosophila brain. EMBO J. 2012;31:4511-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data propose a novel role for miRNAs as transducers between chronologically regulated developmental signalling and physical cell adhesion. ..
  20. Caron S, Ruta V, Abbott L, Axel R. Random convergence of olfactory inputs in the Drosophila mushroom body. Nature. 2013;497:113-7 pubmed publisher
  21. Copf T, Goguel V, Lampin Saint Amaux A, Scaplehorn N, Preat T. Cytokine signaling through the JAK/STAT pathway is required for long-term memory in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8059-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analysis showed that the cytokine Upd is enriched in the Drosophila memory center, the mushroom bodies. Using tissue- and adult-specific expression of RNAi and dominant-negative proteins, we show that not only is ..
  22. Assisi C, Stopfer M, Laurent G, Bazhenov M. Adaptive regulation of sparseness by feedforward inhibition. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1176-84 pubmed
    ..This simple adaptive mechanism could maintain the sparseness of sensory representations across wide ranges of stimulus conditions. ..
  23. Berry J, Krause W, Davis R. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila. Prog Brain Res. 2008;169:293-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a long-term protein synthesis-dependent cellular memory trace was discovered in the mushroom bodies, a structure long implicated in olfactory learning and memory...
  24. Farris S. Structural, functional and developmental convergence of the insect mushroom bodies with higher brain centers of vertebrates. Brain Behav Evol. 2008;72:1-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates that one higher brain center of insects, the mushroom bodies, displays a number of similarities with mammalian higher brain centers that are arguably the products of ..
  25. Christiansen F, Zube C, Andlauer T, Wichmann C, Fouquet W, Owald D, et al. Presynapses in Kenyon cell dendrites in the mushroom body calyx of Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9696-707 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly identified KC-derived presynapses in the calyx are, inter alia, candidate sites for the formation of memory traces during olfactory learning. ..
  26. Komischke B, Sandoz J, Malun D, Giurfa M. Partial unilateral lesions of the mushroom bodies affect olfactory learning in honeybees Apis mellifera L. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;21:477-85 pubmed
    The mushroom bodies (MBs) are central structures in the insect brain that have been associated with olfactory learning and memory. Here we used hydroxyurea (HU) to treat honeybee larvae and induce partial MB ablations at the adult stage...
  27. Farris S. Are mushroom bodies cerebellum-like structures?. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2011;40:368-79 pubmed publisher
    The mushroom bodies are distinctive neuropils in the protocerebral brain segments of many protostomes...
  28. Hu A, Zhang W, Wang Z. Functional feedback from mushroom bodies to antennal lobes in the Drosophila olfactory pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10262-7 pubmed publisher
    Feedback plays important roles in sensory processing. Mushroom bodies are believed to be involved in olfactory learning/memory and multisensory integration in insects...
  29. Belay A, Scheiner R, So A, Douglas S, Chakaborty Chatterjee M, Levine J, et al. The foraging gene of Drosophila melanogaster: spatial-expression analysis and sucrose responsiveness. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:570-82 pubmed
    ..We found that pan-neuronal expression of for caused an increase in the SR of sitters, demonstrating a neural function for PKG in this food-related behavior. ..
  30. MARTIN J, Beyerlein A, Dacks A, Reisenman C, Riffell J, Lei H, et al. The neurobiology of insect olfaction: sensory processing in a comparative context. Prog Neurobiol. 2011;95:427-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this perspective is beneficial for insect olfactory neurobiology in particular and sensory neurobiology in general...
  31. Zhang K, Guo J, Peng Y, Xi W, Guo A. Dopamine-mushroom body circuit regulates saliency-based decision-making in Drosophila. Science. 2007;316:1901-4 pubmed
    ..behavior consists of early and late phases; the former requires activation of the dopaminergic system and mushroom bodies, whereas the latter is independent of these activities...
  32. Yamazaki D, Horiuchi J, Miyashita T, Saitoe M. Acute inhibition of PKA activity at old ages ameliorates age-related memory impairment in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:15573-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In Drosophila, AMI is highly correlated with PKA activity in the mushroom bodies, neural centers essential for forming associative olfactory memories...
  33. Séjourné J, Plaçais P, Aso Y, Siwanowicz I, Trannoy S, Thoma V, et al. Mushroom body efferent neurons responsible for aversive olfactory memory retrieval in Drosophila. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:903-10 pubmed publisher
    Aversive olfactory memory is formed in the mushroom bodies in Drosophila melanogaster...
  34. Farris S, Roberts N. Coevolution of generalist feeding ecologies and gyrencephalic mushroom bodies in insects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17394-9 pubmed
    ..quot;Gyrencephalic" mushroom bodies with increased surface area and volume of calycal synaptic neuropils and increased intrinsic neuron number ..
  35. Peng Y, Xi W, Zhang W, Zhang K, Guo A. Experience improves feature extraction in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2007;27:5139-45 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that previous experience can enhance visual feature extraction in Drosophila and that MBs are required for this experience-dependent visual cognition. ..
  36. Wu C, Xia S, Fu T, Wang H, Chen Y, Leong D, et al. Specific requirement of NMDA receptors for long-term memory consolidation in Drosophila ellipsoid body. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1578-86 pubmed
  37. Higuchi N, Kohno K, Kadowaki T. Specific retention of the protostome-specific PsGEF may parallel with the evolution of mushroom bodies in insect and lophotrochozoan brains. BMC Biol. 2009;7:21 pubmed publisher
    ..of PsGEF containing the C2, PDZ, and RhoGEF domains among metazoans appears to coincide with the presence of mushroom bodies. Mushroom bodies are prominent neuropils involved in the processing of multiple sensory inputs as well as ..
  38. Pan L, Zhang Y, Woodruff E, Broadie K. The Drosophila fragile X gene negatively regulates neuronal elaboration and synaptic differentiation. Curr Biol. 2004;14:1863-70 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data show that dFMRP is a potent negative regulator of neuronal architecture and synaptic differentiation in both peripheral and central nervous systems. ..
  39. Brown S, Strausfeld N. Development-dependent and -independent ubiquitin expression in divisions of the cockroach mushroom body. J Comp Neurol. 2006;496:556-71 pubmed
    It has been proposed that the alpha and beta divisions of the mushroom bodies support intermediate and long-term memory whereas the gamma lobes support short-term memory...
  40. Wu C, Shih M, Lai J, Yang H, Turner G, Chen L, et al. Heterotypic gap junctions between two neurons in the drosophila brain are critical for memory. Curr Biol. 2011;21:848-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that the heterotypic gap junctions between the APL and DPM neurons are an essential part of the MB circuitry for memory formation, potentially constituting a recurrent neural network to stabilize ASM. ..
  41. Ishii Y, Kubota K, Hara K. Postembryonic development of the mushroom bodies in the ant, Camponotus japonicus. Zoolog Sci. 2005;22:743-53 pubmed
    b>Mushroom bodies (MB) are insect brain centers involved in learning and other complex behaviors and they are particularly large in ants. We describe the larval and pupal development of the MB in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus...
  42. Demmer H, Kloppenburg P. Intrinsic membrane properties and inhibitory synaptic input of kenyon cells as mechanisms for sparse coding?. J Neurophysiol. 2009;102:1538-50 pubmed publisher
    The insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are multimodal signal processing centers and are essential for olfactory learning...
  43. Campbell R, Honegger K, Qin H, Li W, Demir E, Turner G. Imaging a population code for odor identity in the Drosophila mushroom body. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10568-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these different behaviors can be understood in the context of a single physiological framework. ..
  44. Li H, Li Y, Lei Z, Wang K, Guo A. Transformation of odor selectivity from projection neurons to single mushroom body neurons mapped with dual-color calcium imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12084-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our strategy provides a unique perspective on the process of information transmission and integration in a model neural circuit and may be broadly applicable for the study of the origin of neuronal response properties. ..
  45. Keleman K, Krüttner S, Alenius M, Dickson B. Function of the Drosophila CPEB protein Orb2 in long-term courtship memory. Nat Neurosci. 2007;10:1587-93 pubmed
    ..Memory was restored by expressing Orb2 selectively in fruitless (fru)-positive gamma neurons of the mushroom bodies and by providing Orb2 function in mushroom bodies only during and shortly after training...
  46. Tanaka N, Tanimoto H, Ito K. Neuronal assemblies of the Drosophila mushroom body. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:711-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural differences between lobes are also discussed. ..
  47. Goguel V, Belair A, Ayaz D, Lampin Saint Amaux A, Scaplehorn N, Hassan B, et al. Drosophila amyloid precursor protein-like is required for long-term memory. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1032-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It was previously shown that APPL expression is highly enriched in the mushroom bodies (MBs), a specialized brain structure involved in olfactory memory...
  48. Farris S, Abrams A, Strausfeld N. Development and morphology of class II Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. J Comp Neurol. 2004;474:325-39 pubmed
    ..Kenyon cells, defined by their early birthdate and unique dendritic arborizations, have been observed in the mushroom bodies of evolutionarily divergent insects...
  49. Krashes M, Waddell S. Rapid consolidation to a radish and protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory after single-session appetitive olfactory conditioning in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3103-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Last, experiments feeding and/or starving flies after training reveals a critical motivational drive that enables appetitive LTM retrieval. ..
  50. Papadopoulou M, Cassenaer S, Nowotny T, Laurent G. Normalization for sparse encoding of odors by a wide-field interneuron. Science. 2011;332:721-5 pubmed publisher
    ..insect olfactory system, the representation of general odors is dense in the antennal lobes but sparse in the mushroom bodies, only one synapse downstream...
  51. Claridge Chang A, Roorda R, Vrontou E, Sjulson L, Li H, Hirsh J, et al. Writing memories with light-addressable reinforcement circuitry. Cell. 2009;139:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The delineation of core reinforcement circuitry is an essential first step in dissecting the neural mechanisms that compute and represent valuations, store associations, and guide actions. ..
  52. Kirilly D, Gu Y, Huang Y, Wu Z, Bashirullah A, Low B, et al. A genetic pathway composed of Sox14 and Mical governs severing of dendrites during pruning. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:1497-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings indicate that a previously unknown pathway composed of Sox14 and its cytoskeletal target Mical governs dendrite severing. ..
  53. Shuai Y, Hu Y, Qin H, Campbell R, Zhong Y. Distinct molecular underpinnings of Drosophila olfactory trace conditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The distinct molecular signature of trace conditioning revealed here shall contribute to the understanding of how the brain overcomes a temporal gap in potentially related events. ..
  54. Perez Orive J, Bazhenov M, Laurent G. Intrinsic and circuit properties favor coincidence detection for decoding oscillatory input. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6037-47 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find that a decoding strategy that is based on coincidence detection enhances both noise tolerance and input discriminability by KCs. ..
  55. Chen S, SPLETTER M, Ni X, White K, Luo L, Long M. Frequent recent origination of brain genes shaped the evolution of foraging behavior in Drosophila. Cell Rep. 2012;1:118-32 pubmed publisher
    ..recent evolution in Drosophila, new genes have frequently acquired neuronal expression, particularly in the mushroom bodies. Evolutionary signatures combined with expression profiling showed that natural selection influenced the ..
  56. Waddell S. Reinforcement signalling in Drosophila; dopamine does it all after all. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2013;23:324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It now seems crucial to understand how the dopaminergic neurons are controlled and what the released dopamine does to the underlying circuits to convey opposite valence. ..
  57. Ren Q, Li H, Wu Y, Ren J, Guo A. A GABAergic inhibitory neural circuit regulates visual reversal learning in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2012;32:11524-38 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibition from a single pair of giant GABAergic neurons, the anterior paired lateral (APL) neurons, onto the mushroom bodies (MBs) selectively facilitates behavioral flexibility during visual reversal learning...
  58. Yu D, Akalal D, Davis R. Drosophila alpha/beta mushroom body neurons form a branch-specific, long-term cellular memory trace after spaced olfactory conditioning. Neuron. 2006;52:845-55 pubmed
  59. Ishimoto H, Kitamoto T. The steroid molting hormone Ecdysone regulates sleep in adult Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2010;185:269-81 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors showed reduced sleep, and conditional overexpression of wild-type ecdysone receptors in the adult mushroom bodies resulted in an isoform-specific increase in sleep...
  60. Waddell S. Dopamine reveals neural circuit mechanisms of fly memory. Trends Neurosci. 2010;33:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..of these DA neurons is likely to reveal the functional organization of aversive and appetitive memory in the mushroom bodies. Combinations of fly DA neurons might code negative and positive value, consistent with a motivational ..
  61. Fushima K, Tsujimura H. Precise control of fasciclin II expression is required for adult mushroom body development in Drosophila. Dev Growth Differ. 2007;49:215-27 pubmed
    ..Our findings also suggest that the alpha'/beta' lobe play a role in guiding the pathfinding by alpha/beta axons. ..
  62. Strausfeld N, Sinakevitch I, Brown S, Farris S. Ground plan of the insect mushroom body: functional and evolutionary implications. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:265-291 pubmed publisher
    ..Such taxa retain mushroom body lobes that are as elaborate as those of mushroom bodies equipped with calyces...
  63. Pai T, Chen C, Lin H, Chin A, Lai J, Lee P, et al. Drosophila ORB protein in two mushroom body output neurons is necessary for long-term memory formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7898-903 pubmed publisher
  64. Leiss F, Groh C, Butcher N, Meinertzhagen I, Tavosanis G. Synaptic organization in the adult Drosophila mushroom body calyx. J Comp Neurol. 2009;517:808-24 pubmed publisher
    Insect mushroom bodies are critical for olfactory associative learning...
  65. Ng J. Wnt/PCP proteins regulate stereotyped axon branch extension in Drosophila. Development. 2012;139:165-77 pubmed publisher
    ..I found that Wnt/PCP components do not need to be asymmetrically localized to distinct branches to execute branching functions. However, Prickle axonal localization depends on Frizzled and Strabismus. ..
  66. Burke C, Huetteroth W, Owald D, Perisse E, Krashes M, Das G, et al. Layered reward signalling through octopamine and dopamine in Drosophila. Nature. 2012;492:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, they reconcile previous findings with octopamine and dopamine and suggest that reinforcement systems in flies are more similar to mammals than previously thought. ..
  67. Li Y, Ray P, Rao E, Shi C, Guo W, Chen X, et al. A Drosophila model for TDP-43 proteinopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressing hTDP-43 in mushroom bodies (MBs) resulted in dramatic axon losses and neuronal death...
  68. Pasch E, Muenz T, R ssler W. CaMKII is differentially localized in synaptic regions of Kenyon cells within the mushroom bodies of the honeybee brain. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:3700-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work in adult honeybees has shown that a single CaMKII gene is strongly expressed in the mushroom bodies (MBs), brain centers associated with sensory integration, and learning and memory formation...
  69. Liu C, Plaçais P, Yamagata N, Pfeiffer B, Aso Y, Friedrich A, et al. A subset of dopamine neurons signals reward for odour memory in Drosophila. Nature. 2012;488:512-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The output sites of the PAM neurons are mainly localized to the medial lobes of the mushroom bodies (MBs), where appetitive olfactory associative memory is formed...
  70. Sinakevitch I, Strausfeld N. Comparison of octopamine-like immunoreactivity in the brains of the fruit fly and blow fly. J Comp Neurol. 2006;494:460-75 pubmed
    ..The results are also discussed with respect to recent studies on octopamine-immunoreactive organization in honey bees and cockroaches and the suggested roles of octopamine in sensory processing, learning, and memory...
  71. Keene A, Krashes M, Leung B, Bernard J, Waddell S. Drosophila dorsal paired medial neurons provide a general mechanism for memory consolidation. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1524-30 pubmed
    ..Dorsal Paired Medial (DPM) neurons innervate the mushroom bodies, and DPM neuron output is required for the stability of punished odor memory...
  72. Farris S, Schulmeister S. Parasitoidism, not sociality, is associated with the evolution of elaborate mushroom bodies in the brains of hymenopteran insects. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278:940-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In insects, higher brain centres called mushroom bodies are enlarged and morphologically elaborate (having doubled, invaginated and subcompartmentalized calyces that ..
  73. Gupta N, Stopfer M. Olfactory coding: giant inhibitory neuron governs sparse odor codes. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R504-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrophysiological investigations in locusts have revealed that the sparseness of odor representations, in the brain region expected to mediate olfactory learning, is shaped by a unique inhibitory neuron. ..
  74. Keene A, Stratmann M, Keller A, Perrat P, Vosshall L, Waddell S. Diverse odor-conditioned memories require uniquely timed dorsal paired medial neuron output. Neuron. 2004;44:521-33 pubmed
    ..DPM neurons ramify throughout the mushroom bodies in the adult fly brain, and they are required for stable memory...
  75. Boyle M, Nighorn A, Thomas J. Drosophila Eph receptor guides specific axon branches of mushroom body neurons. Development. 2006;133:1845-54 pubmed
    ..Thus, Eph/Ephrin signaling acts to guide a subset of mushroom body branches to their correct synaptic targets. ..
  76. King I, Tsai L, Pflanz R, Voigt A, Lee S, Jackle H, et al. Drosophila tao controls mushroom body development and ethanol-stimulated behavior through par-1. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1139-48 pubmed publisher
  77. Bushey D, Cirelli C. From genetics to structure to function: exploring sleep in Drosophila. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2011;99:213-44 pubmed publisher
    ..several genes that affect sleep are involved in synaptic plasticity and have preferential expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs). Moreover, altering MB neuronal activity alters sleep...
  78. Akalal D, Wilson C, Zong L, Tanaka N, Ito K, Davis R. Roles for Drosophila mushroom body neurons in olfactory learning and memory. Learn Mem. 2006;13:659-68 pubmed
    Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli...
  79. Tomer R, Denes A, Tessmar Raible K, Arendt D. Profiling by image registration reveals common origin of annelid mushroom bodies and vertebrate pallium. Cell. 2010;142:800-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we compare vertebrate pallium development to that of the mushroom bodies, sensory-associative brain centers, in an annelid...
  80. Kirschner S, Kleineidam C, Zube C, Rybak J, Grunewald B, Rossler W. Dual olfactory pathway in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. J Comp Neurol. 2006;499:933-52 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that olfactory input in the honeybee is processed via two separate, mainly uPN pathways to the MB calyx and LH and several pathways to the lateral protocerebrum. ..
  81. Wang X, Green D, Roberts S, de Belle J. Thermal disruption of mushroom body development and odor learning in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1125 pubmed
    ..Hence, heat stress of ecologically relevant duration and intensity can impair brain development and learning potential. ..
  82. Brembs B. Mushroom bodies regulate habit formation in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1351-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, experiments with wild-type and transgenic flies revealed that a prominent insect neuropil, the mushroom bodies (MBs), regulates habit formation in flies by inhibiting the operant learning system when a predictive ..
  83. Brooks E, Greer C, Romero Calderon R, Serway C, Grygoruk A, Haimovitz J, et al. A putative vesicular transporter expressed in Drosophila mushroom bodies that mediates sexual behavior may define a neurotransmitter system. Neuron. 2011;72:316-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Insect mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for several behaviors, including learning, but the neurotransmitters released by the ..
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    The mushroom bodies are bilaterally arranged structures in the protocerebrum of Drosophila and most other insect species...
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    ..the entire brain but show preferential expression in several neurons surrounding the dendritic region of the mushroom bodies. Hypomorphic mutations of the essential dNR1 gene disrupt olfactory learning, and this learning defect is ..
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    ..Further genetic manipulations and immunohistological analysis revealed that the dopamine system and mushroom bodies are indispensable for such a clear-cut or nonlinear decision...
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    ..gene encodes a transcription factor required for the proper development of Drosophila eyes, legs, and mushroom bodies. The mushroom bodies of dachshund mutants exhibit a marked reduction in the size of the vertical lobes and ..
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    The mushroom bodies of insects are viewed as key neuropils for sensory integration and perhaps learning and memory...
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    ..Taken together, this study lays groundwork for functional dissection of the mushroom body...
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    ..PN axons from the same glomerulus reconverge in the lateral horn, where pooling redundant signals may allow lateral horn neurons to average out noise that arises independently in these PNs...
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    ..These data suggest that rutabaga functions as a coincidence detector in an intact neuronal circuit, with dopamine and octopamine bidirectionally influencing the generation of cAMP...