metrial gland

Summary

Summary: Collection of granular epithelial cells in the uterine muscle beneath the placenta that develop during pregnancy in certain species of animals.

Top Publications

  1. Allen M, Nilsen Hamilton M. Granzymes D, E, F, and G are regulated through pregnancy and by IL-2 and IL-15 in granulated metrial gland cells. J Immunol. 1998;161:2772-9 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are NK cells that proliferate and differentiate within the murine uterus during pregnancy...
  2. Ain R, Soares M. Is the metrial gland really a gland?. J Reprod Immunol. 2004;61:129-31 pubmed
  3. Picut C, Swanson C, Parker R, Scully K, Parker G. The metrial gland in the rat and its similarities to granular cell tumors. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Metrial glands are composed of a dynamic mixed cell population of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells, endometrial stromal cells, trophoblasts, blood vessels, and fibroblasts...
  4. Parr E, Szary A, Parr M. Measurement of natural killer activity and target cell binding by mouse metrial gland cells isolated by enzymic or mechanical methods. J Reprod Fertil. 1990;88:283-94 pubmed
    ..half of the enzymically dissociated cells and nearly all of the mechanically dissociated cells were granulated metrial gland cells, but the presence of some fibroblast-like stromal cells among the latter population was not ruled out...
  5. Zheng L, Joag S, Parr M, Parr E, Young J. Perforin-expressing granulated metrial gland cells in murine deciduoma. J Exp Med. 1991;174:1221-6 pubmed
    It has previously been shown that granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells of the pregnant uterus express abundant quantities of the lymphocyte pore-forming protein, perforin...
  6. Wang C, Tanaka T, Nakamura H, Umesaki N, Hirai K, Ishiko O, et al. Granulated metrial gland cells in the murine uterus: localization, kinetics, and the functional role in angiogenesis during pregnancy. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:420-9 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are a major immune cell population in the murine pregnant uterus, and contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy by functioning as uterus-specific natural killer (NK) cells...
  7. Guimond M, Wang B, Fujita J, Terhorst C, Croy B. Pregnancy-associated uterine granulated metrial gland cells in mutant and transgenic mice. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1996;35:501-9 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are pregnancy-specific uterine lymphocytes found in rodents...
  8. Croy B, Kiso Y. Granulated metrial gland cells: a natural killer cell subset of the pregnant murine uterus. Microsc Res Tech. 1993;25:189-200 pubmed
    The metrial gland develops in the uterus of many rodent species during normal pregnancy...
  9. Croy B. Granulated metrial gland cells: hypotheses concerning possible functions during murine gestation. J Reprod Immunol. 1994;27:85-94 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are morphologically distinctive lymphoid cells found in the murine uterus only during gestation...

More Information

Publications90

  1. Parr E, Parr M, Young J. Localization of a pore-forming protein (perforin) in granulated metrial gland cells. Biol Reprod. 1987;37:1327-35 pubmed
    Several studies have suggested that the granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells of the metrial gland (MG) may be natural killer (NK)-like cells...
  2. Mukhtar D, Stewart I, Croy B. Leucocyte membrane antigens on mouse granulated metrial gland cells. J Reprod Immunol. 1989;15:269-79 pubmed
    ..technique has been used to study the expression of leucocyte membrane antigens on mouse granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells...
  3. Parr E, Parr M, Zheng L, Young J. Mouse granulated metrial gland cells originate by local activation of uterine natural killer lymphocytes. Biol Reprod. 1991;44:834-41 pubmed
    ..1 or asialo GM1 antibodies had no effect or only a small effect on the numbers of LGL-1-or perforin-positive cells seen in the uterus later in pregnancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  4. Croy B, Reed N, Malashenko B, Kim K, Kwon B. Demonstration of YAC target cell lysis by murine granulated metrial gland cells. Cell Immunol. 1991;133:116-26 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are a consistently observed but poorly understood feature of the murine uterus during successful pregnancy...
  5. Furukawa S, Hayashi S, Usuda K, Abe M, Ogawa I. The impairment of metrial gland development in tamoxifen exposed rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Histopathologically, the size of metrial gland in the tamoxifen group was reduced on all sampling times...
  6. Croy B, McBey B, Villeneuve L, Kusakabe K, Kiso Y, van den Heuvel M. Characterization of the cells that migrate from metrial glands of the pregnant mouse uterus during explant culture. J Reprod Immunol. 1997;32:241-63 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are estrogen-receptor and Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor positive lymphocytes of the Natural Killer cell lineage found in the murine uterus during pregnancy...
  7. Redline R, Lu C. Localization of fetal major histocompatibility complex antigens and maternal leukocytes in murine placenta. Implications for maternal-fetal immunological relationship. Lab Invest. 1989;61:27-36 pubmed
    ..These latter cells correspond to previously described granulated metrial gland cells that may be involved in local immunoregulation.
  8. Yoshida M, Sasahara K, Ando Lu J, Takahashi M, Maekawa A. Appearance of eosinophilic granule cells as pathological changes in the uteri of two aged virgin Donryu rats. Toxicol Pathol. 1997;25:321-5 pubmed
    ..as pathological changes in the uteri of 2 aged virgin Donryu rats were described and compared with granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells of a pregnant rat...
  9. Straatsburg I, Gossrau R. Comparative enzyme histochemistry of the early and term rat decidua with special attention to decidual regression. Histochem J. 1994;26:239-51 pubmed
    ..The enzyme activities of decidual stromal cells and fibroblasts of the metrial gland exhibited three main fluctuations...
  10. Stadler K, Handler J, Schoenkypl S, Walter I. A three-dimensional culture model of canine uterine glands. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:35-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro reconstitution of the canine endometrium is a promising tool to study the cyclic events in the normal endometrium as well as alterations in the affected uterus. ..
  11. Wang C, Umesaki N, Nakamura H, Tanaka T, Nakatani K, Sakaguchi I, et al. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by granulated metrial gland cells in pregnant murine uteri. Cell Tissue Res. 2000;300:285-93 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are a characteristic uterine component belonging to a natural killer cell lineage...
  12. Fukazawa Y, Yamamura Y, Sato T, Iguchi T, Ohta Y. Mode of cell death in the rat metrial gland during peripartum regression. Anat Rec. 1998;252:369-77 pubmed
    In the rodent uterus, the metrial gland develops during midpregnancy and undergoes regression prior to parturation. The involution of the gland is reported to be accompanied by the loss of gland cells due to their death in situ...
  13. Daki N, Stewart I, Wild A. Receptors for IgG2b on cells of the mouse metrial gland. J Reprod Immunol. 1989;16:249-60 pubmed
    ..Rosettes, indicating Fc gamma receptors, were found on both granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells and non-GMG cells, comprising mainly stromal cells, from each stage of pregnancy...
  14. Sobis H, Waer M, Vandeputte M. Normal and malignant trophoblasts do not recruit granulated metrial gland cells. Tumour Biol. 1996;17:13-9 pubmed
    A possible relationship between the development of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells and trophoblast was studied. Trophoblast implanted in ectopic sites (e.g. kidney capsule) did not induce decidua and did not recruit GMG cells...
  15. Damjanov A, Damjanov I. Isolation of serine protease from granulated metrial gland cells of mice and rats with lectin from Dolichos biflorus. J Reprod Fertil. 1992;95:679-84 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland cells were the only cells in the endometria of pregnant mice and rats that reacted histochemically with fluoresceinated lectin (DBA) from Dolichos biflorus...
  16. Stewart I, Mukhtar D, Sawyer A, Wild A. Monoclonal antibodies directed against surface and intracellular antigens of mouse granulated metrial gland cells. J Immunol Methods. 1994;172:125-30 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that GMG cells share this common progenitor cell but are otherwise independent of the NK or T cell lineages. ..
  17. Bacon S, McClintock M. Sex ratio bias in postpartum-conceived Norway rat litters is produced by embryonic loss in midpregnancy. J Reprod Fertil. 1999;117:403-11 pubmed
    ..the loss occurs in midpregnancy between the attachment of the blastocyst to the uterine wall on day 5 and full metrial gland development on day 14...
  18. Linnemeyer P, Pollack S. Murine granulated metrial gland cells at uterine implantation sites are natural killer lineage cells. J Immunol. 1991;147:2530-5 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells, a population of morphologically distinct, bone marrow-derived cells in murine decidua that react with mAb 4H12, are shown in this report to express NK-specific Ag and to become cytolytic to the NK ..
  19. Mikhailov V. Secretory function of cells in the rat metrial gland. Biomed Sci. 1991;2:477-80 pubmed
    The immunochemical determination of antigens, products of the secretory activity of metrial gland cells, in the serum of pregnant rats is described...
  20. Mitchell B, Peel S. Uptake of immunoglobulin and albumin by granulated metrial gland cells in vitro. J Reprod Fertil. 1987;81:59-64 pubmed
    Single cell suspensions of metrial gland tissue from rats at Day 14 of pregnancy were prepared for maintenance in vitro...
  21. Kiso Y, McBey B, Croy B. Granulated metrial gland cells in the pregnant uterus of mice expressing the collagen mutation tight-skin (Tsk/+). Cell Tissue Res. 1992;268:393-6 pubmed
    Influences of the extracellular matrix (ECM) on the differentiation and distribution of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells, a uterine natural killer (NK)-like cell subset, were studied by histological examination of implantation sites ..
  22. Wiemers D, Ain R, Ohboshi S, Soares M. Migratory trophoblast cells express a newly identified member of the prolactin gene family. J Endocrinol. 2003;179:335-46 pubmed
    ..A survey of PLP-N mRNA expression by Northern analysis indicated that PLP-N showed extensive expression in the metrial gland and minimal expression in the chorioallantoic placenta or other tIssues...
  23. Kiso Y, Yoshizawa M, Wilson J, McBey B, Croy B. Immunohistochemical analysis of beta 1-integrin receptors displayed by murine uterine natural killer cells over the course of successful pregnancy. J Reprod Immunol. 1994;27:213-25 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are a natural killer (NK) cell-like population present in large numbers in the pregnant rodent uterus...
  24. Smith B, Donovan G, Risco C, Littell R, Young C, Stanker L, et al. Comparison of various antibiotic treatments for cows diagnosed with toxic puerperal metritis. J Dairy Sci. 1998;81:1555-62 pubmed
    ..Because all groups showed a favorable response, this study suggests that there is no difference in treatment efficacy among antibiotics used to treat cows affected with toxic puerperal metritis. ..
  25. Mukhtar D, Stewart I. Migration of granulated metrial gland cells from cultured explants of mouse metrial gland tissue. Cell Tissue Res. 1988;253:413-7 pubmed
    The migration of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells from cultured explants of metrial gland tissue obtained from mice killed between days 10 and 16 of pregnancy has been studied...
  26. Kaloglu C, Bulut H. Vascular endothelial growth factor production by rat granulated metrial gland cells and their morphological features in normal and pathological conditions. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2007;19:341-50 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are pregnancy-specific cells that may have many functions in successful placentation and pregnancy...
  27. Zheng L, Ojcius D, Liu C, Kramer M, Simon M, Parr E, et al. Immunogold labeling of perforin and serine esterases in granulated metrial gland cells. FASEB J. 1991;5:79-85 pubmed
    ..Perforin has also been localized in granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells of the murine embryo implantation site by light microscopic immunostaining...
  28. Stewart I, Clarke J. Granulated metrial gland cells in the uterine wall and placenta of the pregnant woodmouse, Apodemus sylvaticus. J Anat. 1995;186 ( Pt 2):411-5 pubmed
    ..Apodemus sylvaticus, was studied with particular attention to the differentiation and migration of granulated metrial gland cells...
  29. Peel S, Adam E. The killing of rat placental cells by rat and mouse granulated metrial gland cells in vitro. Placenta. 1991;12:161-71 pubmed
    Small round cells which migrated from explant cultures of rat metrial gland were identified as granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells. They contained large amounts of glycoprotein and displayed the leucocyte common antigen...
  30. Mukhtar D, Stewart I. Observations of the surface morphology of cultured granulated metrial gland cells. J Anat. 1993;182 ( Pt 3):415-24 pubmed
    The surface morphology of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells which had migrated from cultured explants of mouse metrial gland tissue has been studied by scanning electron microscopy...
  31. Stewart I. Granulated metrial gland cells--not part of the natural killer cell lineage?. J Reprod Immunol. 1994;26:1-15 pubmed
    The relationship of rodent granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells to the natural killer (NK) cell lineage is reviewed...
  32. Podporina A, Mikhailov V. [Immunosuppressor activity of rat endometrial granulated cells and their differentiation]. Ontogenez. 2005;36:26-34 pubmed
    ..b>Metrial gland granulated cells were used as endometrial granulated cells...
  33. Zheng L, Ojcius D, Young J. Perforin-expressing cells during spontaneous abortion. Biol Reprod. 1993;48:1014-9 pubmed
    The metrial gland of pregnant rodents contains an abundant population of natural killer (NK)-like cells called granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells...
  34. Kusakabe K, Okada T, Sasaki F, Kiso Y. Cell death of uterine natural killer cells in murine placenta during placentation and preterm periods. J Vet Med Sci. 1999;61:1093-100 pubmed
    In the murine uterus granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells appear only during normal pregnancy. GMG cells belong to a member of natural killer (NK) cells and play an important role in fetus survival and placental growth...
  35. Stewart I, Mukhtar D. A scanning electron microscopy study of interactions between mouse granulated metrial gland cells and placental trophoblast cells in vitro. J Anat. 1994;184 ( Pt 1):153-6 pubmed
    Mouse granulated metrial gland cells were cocultured with labyrinthine placental cells and cell-cell contacts examined by scanning electron microscopy...
  36. Martel D, Monier M, Roche D, De Feo V, Psychoyos A. Hormonal dependence of the metrial gland: further studies on oestradiol and progesterone receptor levels in the rat. J Endocrinol. 1989;120:465-72 pubmed
    The main objective of the present study was to analyse the hormonal dependence of the metrial gland formed in pseudopregnant animals following massive decidualization...
  37. Peel S, Stewart I. Time course of the differentiation of granulated metrial gland cells in chimeric mice. Cell Differ Dev. 1988;25:197-202 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cell differentiation was examined in deciduomata in lethally irradiated mice which had been reconstituted with rat bone marrow...
  38. Ho H, Kunz H, Misra D, Macpherson T, Gill T. A unique antigen, RT11, in the placenta of the rat. Transplantation. 1989;48:123-30 pubmed
    ..2 cM from RT1.Aa) and genes not linked to the MHC are involved. By contrast, the expression of the Pa antigen is under the control of an MHC gene only...
  39. Straatsburg I, Gossrau R. Enzyme histochemistry of the regressing rat decidua and metrial gland. Acta Histochem. 1993;94:202-19 pubmed
    ..and degradation as well as separation on the cellular level, the cell metabolism of the rat decidua and metrial gland was investigated enzyme histochemically in cryosections for activities of oxyradical-forming enzymes and ..
  40. Kokubu K, Hondo E, Sakaguchi N, Sagara E, Kiso Y. Differentiation and elimination of uterine natural killer cells in delayed implantation and parturition mice. J Reprod Dev. 2005;51:773-6 pubmed
    ..From D19 to D21 in DP mice, the metrial gland was well developed and uNK cells were present...
  41. Yamada T, Ohno H, Inoue T. Detection of metrial gland cells in rat cervix after delivery by smear method. Exp Anim. 1995;44:261-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, the migration of the metrial gland cells (MGC) from the metrial glands to the endometrium after placental desquamation was investigated by the ..
  42. Kiso Y, Kusakabe K, Tokunaga Y, Makita M, Okada T, Sasaki F. A study of granulated metrial gland cells in the pregnant, alymphoplasia (aly/aly) mice. J Vet Med Sci. 1997;59:1137-41 pubmed
    During pregnancy, a population of uterine NK cells, commonly called granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells, differentiates in the uterus of both immune competent and various immunodeficient mice...
  43. Lysiak J, Lala P. In situ localization and characterization of bone marrow-derived cells in the decidua of normal murine pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 1992;47:603-13 pubmed
    ..Labeled cells in these tissues were identified as typical decidual cells, macrophages, and granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells...
  44. Hunt J, Miller L, Vassmer D, Croy B. Expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene in mouse uterine leukocytes and potential relationships with uterine function during pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 1997;57:827-36 pubmed
    ..hybridoma cell line derived from mouse uNK cells (GWM1-2) contained iNOS mRNA, and cells migrating from mouse metrial gland explants included iNOS/ leukocytes...
  45. Kowalczyk Zieba I, Woclawek Potocka I, Piskula M, Piotrowska Tomala K, Boruszewska D, Bah M, et al. Experimentally induced mastitis and metritis modulate soy bean derived isoflavone biotransformation in diary cows. Theriogenology. 2011;76:1744-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we suggest that cows with induced mastitis and metritis are more exposed to active isoflavone metabolite actions than healthy cows...
  46. Stewart I, Peel S, Webster A. A study of natural cytotoxic (NC) activity in the metrial glands of rats and mice. Scand J Immunol. 1996;44:394-400 pubmed
    ..High cytotoxicity indices were found with metrial gland cell suspensions from rats killed on days 10 and 13 of pregnancy and from mice killed on day 12 of pregnancy...
  47. Croy B, Kassouf S. Evaluation of the murine metrial gland for immunological function. J Reprod Immunol. 1989;15:51-69 pubmed
    The metrial gland (MG) is a transient uterine structure associated with rodent pregnancy...
  48. Olivera L, Zago D, Leiser R, Jones C, Bevilacqua E. Placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2003;207:45-62 pubmed
  49. Stewart I. Granulated metrial gland cells in the mouse placenta. Placenta. 1990;11:263-75 pubmed
    A study has been made of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells and adjacent layer 1 cytotrophoblast in the labyrinthine placenta of the mouse...
  50. Peel S, Stewart I. Natural cytotoxic and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic activity of cells in the decidua basales and metrial glands of pseudopregnant rats with deciduomata. Immunol Cell Biol. 1999;77:127-30 pubmed
    ..The profile of cytotoxic activity in the uterine wall of pseudopregnant rats with deciduomata is similar to that found in pregnancy and is thus independent of semen or the products of conception...
  51. Stewart I. Granulated metrial gland cells in 'minor' species. J Reprod Immunol. 1998;40:129-46 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland cells, also known as uterine natural killer cells or large granular lymphocytes, are pregnancy associated leucocytes of granular phenotype...
  52. Stewart I, Webster A. Lectin histochemical studies of mouse granulated metrial gland cells. Histochem J. 1997;29:885-92 pubmed
    A lectin histochemical study has been carried out on mouse granulated metrial gland cells, the major leucocyte population that differentiates in the uterine wall in pregnancy...
  53. Joag S, Zheng L, Persechini P, Michl J, Parr E, Young J. The distribution of perforin in normal tissues. Immunol Lett. 1991;28:195-9 pubmed
    ..We found that perforin was expressed in the granular metrial gland (GMG) cells of the pregnant murine uterus, but not in other tissues examined...
  54. Matthews J, Peel S. The uterine response in pregnant inbred and non-inbred rats. J Anat. 1991;178:101-13 pubmed
    Comparisons were made between fetal, placental and metrial gland weights and the cellular composition of the placentae and metrial glands of pregnant inbred (Agus), outbred (Agus x Wistar) and random-bred (Wistar) rats...
  55. Ye W, Zheng L, Young J, Liu C. The involvement of interleukin (IL)-15 in regulating the differentiation of granulated metrial gland cells in mouse pregnant uterus. J Exp Med. 1996;184:2405-10 pubmed
    Previous studies have suggested that granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are bone marrow-derived lymphoid cells, which differentiate in situ in the mouse pregnant uterus into natural killer (NK)-like cells...
  56. Stewart I, Peel S. Natural killer cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity of cells of rat metrial glands. J Reprod Fertil. 1993;98:489-94 pubmed
    Cell suspensions of rat metrial gland tissue, containing healthy granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells, were assessed for their ability to lyse natural killer (NK) cell target Yac-1 myeloma cells in a [51Cr]-release cytotoxicity assay...
  57. Sladek S, Kanbour Shakir A, Watkins S, Berghorn K, Hoffman G, Roberts J. Granulated metrial gland cells contain nitric oxide synthases during pregnancy in the rat. Placenta. 1998;19:55-65 pubmed
    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme activity is present in rat decidua and metrial gland, and the activity decreases near the end of pregnancy...
  58. Peel S, Stewart I. Rat granulated metrial gland cells differentiate in pregnant chimeric mice and may be cytotoxic for mouse trophoblast. Cell Differ Dev. 1989;28:55-64 pubmed
    ..Some of the granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells which differentiated in the RBM chimeric mice were rat GMG cells, showing the contribution of ..
  59. Phichitrasilp T, Hondo E, Kusakabe K, Nakagawa Y, Ihara K, Wakitani S, et al. Uterine natural killer cells in perforin and beta(2)-microglobulin deficient mice. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:251-3 pubmed
    ..The cell population of uNK cells in the metrial gland of P(-/-) mice was tended to be higher than the control B6 mice...
  60. Markert U, Arck P, McBey B, Manuel J, Croy B, Marshall J, et al. Stress triggered abortions are associated with alterations of granulated cells into the decidua. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1997;37:94-100 pubmed
    ..Substance P release by nerves in endometrium/decidua has been found to be the key neurotransmitter in this pathway. It is still unclear which cells are stimulated by substance P to produce the increased TNF-alpha level...
  61. Peel S, Stewart I. Distribution of 125iodine-labelled mouse immunoglobulin G injected intravenously in pregnant mice. J Anat. 1992;180 ( Pt 3):481-90 pubmed
    ..with 125iodine (I) and injected intravenously into pregnant mice in order to examine whether mouse granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are able to take up IgG in vivo...
  62. Linnemeyer P, Pollack S. Prostaglandin E2-induced changes in the phenotype, morphology, and lytic activity of IL-2-activated natural killer cells. J Immunol. 1993;150:3747-54 pubmed
    ..at uterine implantation sites where NK cell activity is suppressed by PGE2, 4H12 expression is up-regulated and NK cells differentiate into large, granular and relatively nonlytic cells termed granulated metrial gland cells.
  63. Stewart I. Granulated metrial gland cells in the non-traumatized regions of the uterus of ovariectomized mice with deciduomata maintained on progesterone. J Endocrinol. 1988;116:11-5 pubmed
    A study has been made of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells in the non-traumatized regions of the uterus of ovariectomized mice maintained on progesterone and with deciduomata in part of one uterine horn...
  64. Hondo E, Kokubu K, Nagahisa A, Nakamuta N, Ozaki K, Sagara E, et al. Histological study of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells in beige (DA-bg/bg) rats. J Reprod Dev. 2005;51:799-803 pubmed
    To clarify the roles of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells for successful pregnancy in rats, GMG cells in beige rats (genotype: DA-bg/bg), whose NK cells show lysosomal dysfunction because of abnormalities in cytoplasmic granules, were ..
  65. Kanbour Shakir A, Kunz H, Gill T, Armstrong D, Macpherson T. Morphologic changes in the rat uterus following natural mating and embryo transfer. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1990;23:78-83 pubmed
    ..The only histologic parameter that showed a significant difference was the number of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells...
  66. Stewart I, Clarke J. Granulated metrial gland cells and interstitial trophoblast in the uterine wall of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus, in early pregnancy. J Anat. 1999;194 ( Pt 2):297-301 pubmed
    The morphology and distribution of granulated metrial gland cells and of interstitial trophoblast cells in the uterine wall was studied in the first half of pregnancy in the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus...
  67. Stewart I, Peel S. Mouse metrial gland cells do not kill Yac-1 myeloma cells. J Reprod Immunol. 1993;24:165-71 pubmed
    Mouse metrial gland cell suspensions, which included granulated metrial gland cells, were assessed for their ability to lyse NK cell target Yac-1 myeloma cells in a 51chromium release cytotoxicity assay...
  68. Ohta Y, Sato T, Iguchi T. Development and mitotic activity of the metrial gland in rat uterus during mid-pregnancy. In Vivo. 1993;7:121-6 pubmed
    Development and mitotic activity of metrial gland in rat uterus were investigated focusing on the point of implantation during mid-pregnancy...
  69. Peel S, Stewart I. Oestrogen and the differentiation of granulated metrial gland cells in chimeric mice. J Anat. 1986;144:181-7 pubmed
    ..However, the results have led to the suggestion that in the normal, cycling mouse oestrogen may have a role in attracting GMG cell precursors to the uterus and preparing them for differentiation...
  70. Luross J, Yamashiro S, Croy B. A study on the relationship between parity and differentiation of granulated metrial gland cells. Placenta. 1996;17:521-5 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are a feature consistently associated with rodent pregnancy. Little information is available, however, on the life history of GMG cells in pregnancies other than first pregnancy...
  71. Stewart I. Mouse granulated metrial gland cells require contact with stromal cells to maintain viability. J Anat. 2000;197 Pt 3:495-502 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells differentiate in the uterine wall in pregnancy in mice but the mechanisms which control their differentiation and maintenance are unknown...
  72. Sharma R, Bulmer D, Peel S. Effects of exogenous progesterone following ovariectomy on the metrial glands of pregnant mice. J Anat. 1986;144:189-99 pubmed
    The numbers of granulated metrial gland cells, the percentage of them incorporating tritiated thymidine and the numbers of granulated metrial gland cell precursors in a defined area of the metrial gland, and the cross sectional area of ..
  73. Mukhtar D, Stewart I. Observations of the cellular changes in cultured mouse metrial gland explants and of the maintenance of granulated metrial gland cells in vitro. Tissue Cell. 1993;25:857-64 pubmed
    Mouse metrial gland explants were cultured for periods of up to 7 days...
  74. Stewart I, Peel S. Effect of serum on mouse granulated metrial gland cell cytotoxicity. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1999;41:286-92 pubmed
    To examine factors affecting mouse granulated metrial gland cell cytotoxicity.
  75. Peel S, Stewart I. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic activity of cells in the rat metrial gland in pregnancy. Scand J Immunol. 1996;43:16-22 pubmed
    ..No killing was observed when effector metrial gland cells and target cells were cultured in the presence of non-immune rat serum...
  76. Peel S, Bulmer J. Lectin histochemistry of pregnant rat uterine tissues. J Anat. 1996;188 ( Pt 1):197-205 pubmed
    ..The glycoprotein granules of granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells in the decidua basalis and the metrial gland reacted strongly with WGA, MPA and PHA-L ..
  77. van den Heuvel M, Wilson J, McBey B, Yamashiro S, Croy B. Preliminary characterization of lymphoid hybridoma cell lines derived from the pregnant mouse uterus. J Reprod Immunol. 1994;27:13-36 pubmed
    ..pregnant random bred CD1 mice and were assumed to be cells early in the differentiation pathway to granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells. The fused cells were cloned twice at the limiting dilution...
  78. Stewart I, Peel S. Mouse granulated metrial gland cell cytotoxicity of Wehi 164 cells: is there a role for interleukin-3 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha?. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1999;41:423-7 pubmed
    Mouse granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are maternal, cytotoxic cells found in the uterine wall in pregnancy. In vivo, they are cytotoxic to layer 1 labyrinthine placental cells...
  79. Linnemeyer P, Hamilton M. A monoclonal antibody, 4H12, recognizes a surface antigen found on granulated metrial gland cells in the murine decidua. J Reprod Immunol. 1990;17:279-94 pubmed
    ..We conclude that MAb 4H12 recognizes a surface antigen found on cells historically described as granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells...
  80. Clarke G, Roberts T, Smart Y. Natural killer and natural cytotoxic cells are present at the maternal-fetal interface during murine pregnancy. Immunol Cell Biol. 1994;72:153-60 pubmed
    NK cell activity has been detected in the early murine decidua, and hypothesized to be mediated by granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells...
  81. Webster A, Stewart I. Experimental evidence of secretion by mouse granulated metrial gland cells. Placenta. 1997;18:465-8 pubmed
    Granulated metrial gland cells are cytotoxic cells found in the uterine wall in pregnancy...