animal tarsus


Summary: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.

Top Publications

  1. Gnagey L, Clayton H, Lanovaz J. Effect of standing tarsal angle on joint kinematics and kinetics. Equine Vet J. 2006;38:628-33 pubmed
    ..However, the smaller net joint moment may reduce the risk of plantar ligament desmitis. The effects of conformation on kinematics and kinetics of the tarsal joint may influence both performance and soundness. ..
  2. Joosten L, Helsen M, Saxne T, van de Loo F, Heinegard D, van den Berg W. IL-1 alpha beta blockade prevents cartilage and bone destruction in murine type II collagen-induced arthritis, whereas TNF-alpha blockade only ameliorates joint inflammation. J Immunol. 1999;163:5049-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that blocking of IL-1 is a cartilage- and bone-protective therapy in destructive arthritis, whereas the TNF-alpha antagonist has little effect on tissue destruction...
  3. Guilliard M. Central tarsal bone fracture in the border collie. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48:414-7 pubmed
    ..A cadaver study to assess the mechanism of luxation showed that it is unlikely to occur naturally. ..
  4. Reid J, Arcese P, Keller L. Individual phenotype, kinship, and the occurrence of inbreeding in song sparrows. Evolution. 2008;62:887-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Such correlations could bias estimated inbreeding loads, and should be considered in quantitative genetic analyses of phenotypic variance in populations in which inbreeding occurs. ..
  5. Marshall W, Dee J, Spencer C. What is your diagnosis? Tarsometatarsal subluxation. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:1809-10 pubmed
  6. Guzman D, Bubenik L, Lauer S, Vasanjee S, Mitchell M. Repair of a coracoid luxation and a tibiotarsal fracture in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). J Avian Med Surg. 2007;21:188-95 pubmed
    ..7-mm DCP. The bird was successfully released, 105 days after the first surgery, near the location where it was found. ..
  7. Lescun T, Adams S, Wu C, Bill R, Van Sickle D. Effects of continuous intra-articular infusion of gentamicin on synovial membrane and articular cartilage in the tarsocrural joint of horses. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63:683-7 pubmed
    ..Continuous infusion of GM into the tarsocrural joint of horses for 5 days is an acceptable method for the treatment of septic arthritis. ..
  8. Percival Smith A, Teft W, Barta J. Tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster. Genome. 2005;48:712-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the possibility exists that normal tarsus determination is HOX independent. ..
  9. Anderson T, McIlwraith C, Douay P. The role of conformation in musculoskeletal problems in the racing Thoroughbred. Equine Vet J. 2004;36:571-5 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates relationships between conformation and musculoskeletal disease in the racehorse. The information may be useful in selection and management of the racing Thoroughbred. ..

More Information

Publications146 found, 100 shown here

  1. Rabuffo T, Richardson D, Baird D. What is your diagnosis? An osseous mass associated with the lateral aspect of the tuber calcaneus, with some degree of soft-tissue swelling. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221:635-6 pubmed
  2. Bolz D, Sundsbak R, Ma Y, Akira S, Kirschning C, Zachary J, et al. MyD88 plays a unique role in host defense but not arthritis development in Lyme disease. J Immunol. 2004;173:2003-10 pubmed
    ..The findings presented here point to a dichotomy between the recruitment of inflammatory cells to tissue and an inability of these cells to kill localized spirochetes. ..
  3. Kane A, McIlwraith C, Park R, Rantanen N, Morehead J, Bramlage L. Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings. Part 2: Associations with racing performance. Equine Vet J. 2003;35:366-74 pubmed
    ..Although the radiographic examination of yearlings has become commonplace at some large Thoroughbred sales, there are few data to support the decisions facing veterinarians who are asked to evaluate future racing potential...
  4. Buczek A, Buczek L, Kuśmierz A, Olszewski K, Stanko M. [Morphometric features of tarsus in Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794) (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) larvae from Polish and Slovakian populations]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:291-5 pubmed
    ..The other examined morphologic features were similar, what may result from the same environmental conditions of both populations. ..
  5. Oliver L, Baird D, Baird A, Moore G. Prevalence and distribution of radiographically evident lesions on repository films in the hock and stifle joints of yearling Thoroughbred horses in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2008;56:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge of the normal prevalence will assist veterinarians to identify abnormally high or low prevalences on individual farms, to further investigate the pathogenesis of the lesions. ..
  6. O Neill H, Bladon B. Arthroscopic removal of fractures of the lateral malleolus of the tibia in the tarsocrural joint: a retrospective study of 13 cases. Equine Vet J. 2010;42:558-62 pubmed publisher
  7. Rioja I, Clayton C, Graham S, Life P, Dickson M. Gene expression profiles in the rat streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis model identified using microarray analysis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7:R101-17 pubmed
    ..These findings improve our understanding of the molecular events that underlie the pathology in this animal model, which is potentially a valuable comparator to human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ..
  8. Higham T, Biewener A. Integration within and between muscles during terrestrial locomotion: effects of incline and speed. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:2303-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate the capacity for functional diversity between and within muscle synergists, which occur with changes in gait, speed and grade. ..
  9. Back W, Schamhardt H, Barneveld A. Are kinematics of the walk related to the locomotion of a warmblood horse at the trot?. Vet Q. 1996;18 Suppl 2:S79-84 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, kinematics recorded at the walk in a group of horses were similar to and thus predictive for locomotion at the trot providing the decreased stance duration and the increased speed of the trot are taken into consideration. ..
  10. Cuzzocrea S, McDonald M, Mazzon E, Siriwardena D, Calabro G, Britti D, et al. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin AG126 reduces the development of acute and chronic inflammation. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:145-58 pubmed
  11. Corr S, Maxwell M, Gentle M, Bennett D. Preliminary study of joint disease in poultry by the analysis of synovial fluid. Vet Rec. 2003;152:549-54 pubmed
    ..The birds fed ad libitum which were treated with carprofen had more cells in the synovial fluid than the birds given the placebo. A large number of the samples of synovial fluid from the ad libitum-fed broilers contained blood. ..
  12. Vinayak A, Weigel J, Henry G, Johnson C. What is your diagnosis? Avulsion fracture of the plantar aspect of the distal end of the calcaneus and plantar proximal intertarsal subluxation. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;224:39-40 pubmed
  13. McLennan M. Ankylosis of tarsometatarsal luxations using external fixation. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48:508-13 pubmed
    ..The result of this treatment was to ankylose the tarsometatarsal luxation and allow the dogs to return to normal function. ..
  14. Saijo S, Asano M, Horai R, Yamamoto H, Iwakura Y. Suppression of autoimmune arthritis in interleukin-1-deficient mice in which T cell activation is impaired due to low levels of CD40 ligand and OX40 expression on T cells. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:533-44 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, expression of CD40L and OX40 on T cells was greatly reduced in IL-1alpha/beta-/- mice. These observations suggest that T cell activation by IL-1 is important for the development of autoimmunity and arthritis in these mice. ..
  15. Nilsson J, Akesson M, Nilsson J. Heritability of resting metabolic rate in a wild population of blue tits. J Evol Biol. 2009;22:1867-74 pubmed publisher
    ..178 +/- 0.456) between the two traits. This indicates that the additive variance of body mass, although low, might still somewhat constrain the independent evolvability of RMR. ..
  16. Janicek J, Cook J, Wilson D, Ketzner K. Multiple osteochondral autografts for treatment of a medial trochlear ridge subchondral cystic lesion in the equine tarsus. Vet Surg. 2010;39:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the outcome of this case, osteochondral autografting appears to be a safe, valuable and realistic option for treating SCL of the proximal MTR of the talus in equine athletes. ..
  17. Møller A, Hobson K. Heterogeneity in stable isotope profiles predicts coexistence of populations of barn swallows Hirundo rustica differing in morphology and reproductive performance. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:1355-62 pubmed
    ..Polymorphism can be maintained only if fitness is similar for birds from categories of isotope profiles. We suggest that fluctuating selection or migration-selection balance may maintain the observed polymorphism. ..
  18. Buczek A, Olszewski K, Andrearczyk A, Zwolinski J. [Morphology of tick tarsus (Acari: Ixodida)--modifications connected with life cycle, behaviour, and habitat]. Wiad Parazytol. 2004;50:285-94 pubmed
    ..persicus (Oken, 1818), Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794), and Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758)...
  19. Lecocq M, Girard C, Fogarty U, Beauchamp G, Richard H, Laverty S. Cartilage matrix changes in the developing epiphysis: early events on the pathway to equine osteochondrosis?. Equine Vet J. 2008;40:442-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The collagen structure was variable through the growing epiphysis and a differential in biomechanical properties at focal sites may predispose them to injury. ..
  20. Stein R, Misiaszek J, Pearson K. Functional role of muscle reflexes for force generation in the decerebrate walking cat. J Physiol. 2000;525 Pt 3:781-91 pubmed
  21. Dunn R, Sybalsky J, Conroy G, Rasmussen D. Hindlimb adaptations in Ourayia and Chipetaia, relatively large-bodied omomyine primates from the Middle Eocene of Utah. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2006;131:303-10 pubmed
    ..The results of our comparisons suggest that the later, larger, more herbivorous omomyines from Utah retained a skeletal structure characteristic of earlier, smaller North American omomyids. ..
  22. Ablin J, Entin Meer M, Aloush V, Oren S, Elkayam O, George J, et al. Protective effect of eotaxin-2 inhibition in adjuvant-induced arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;161:276-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of eotaxin-2 by monoclonal antibodies has a significant protective effect in adjuvant arthritis. These results may introduce a novel therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis and additional inflammatory joint disorders. ..
  23. Farnsworth K, White N, Robertson J. The effect of implanting gentamicin-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads in the tarsocrural joint of the horse. Vet Surg. 2001;30:126-31 pubmed
    ..Temporary intra-articular administration of antibiotic-impregnated PMMA may be an effective way to treat septic joints that require constant high concentrations of antibiotics. ..
  24. DeLaurier A, Schweitzer R, Logan M. Pitx1 determines the morphology of muscle, tendon, and bones of the hindlimb. Dev Biol. 2006;299:22-34 pubmed
    ..In contrast, misexpression of Tbx4 in the forelimb does not result in a transformation of limb-type morphology. These results demonstrate that Pitx1, but not Tbx4, determines the morphological identity of hindlimb tissues...
  25. Marsh A, Eggebeen J, Kornegay J, Markert C, Childers M. Kinematics of gait in golden retriever muscular dystrophy. Neuromuscul Disord. 2010;20:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first kinematic study of gait in the GRMD dog, an important step in using this model in pre-clinical trials. ..
  26. Nelson F, Roberts T. Task-dependent force sharing between muscle synergists during locomotion in turkeys. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:1211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the LG produced all of the force required for limb extension during swing. This change in the pattern of force sharing between stance and swing supports the theory that force sharing between muscle synergists is task-dependent. ..
  27. Kane A, Park R, McIlwraith C, Rantanen N, Morehead J, Bramlage L. Radiographic changes in Thoroughbred yearlings. Part 1: Prevalence at the time of the yearling sales. Equine Vet J. 2003;35:354-65 pubmed
    ..Radiography in presale examinations of TB yearlings has become standard practice in recent years...
  28. Harcourt Brown N. Development of the skeleton and feathers of dusky parrots (Pionus fuscus) in relation to their behaviour. Vet Rec. 2004;154:42-8 pubmed
    ..These findings may help to explain the high rate of juvenile osteodystrophy in hand-reared parrots; premature exercise could lead to pathological deformity of the long bones, especially the major weight-bearing bone, the tibiotarsus. ..
  29. Kofler J, Altenbrunner Martinek B. [Ultrasonographic findings of disorders of the tarsal region in 97 cattle--arthritis, bursitis, tenosynovitis, periarticular abscess and vein thrombosis]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2008;121:145-58 pubmed
  30. Lorenc Koci E, Wardas J, Wolfarth S, Pilc A. (S)-4C3HPG, a mixed group I mGlu receptor antagonist and a group II agonist, administered intrastriatally, counteracts parkinsonian-like muscle rigidity in rats. Brain Res. 2001;903:177-84 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that blockade of mGluR1 receptors and/or activation of mGluR2 ones, localized in the rostral part of the striatum, may be responsible for the anti-parkinsonian effect of (S)-4C3HPG. ..
  31. Ollivier Lanvin K, Lemay M, Tessler A, Burns A. Neuromuscular transmission failure and muscle fatigue in ankle muscles of the adult rat after spinal cord injury. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009;107:1190-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that, although there may be a mild decrement in NMJ function, NMJ transmission remains largely intact for supramaximal nerve stimulation. ..
  32. Cuzzocrea S, McDonald M, Mazzon E, Siriwardena D, Serraino I, Dugo L, et al. Calpain inhibitor I reduces the development of acute and chronic inflammation. Am J Pathol. 2000;157:2065-79 pubmed
    ..Thus, prevention of the activation of calpain I reduces the development of acute and chronic inflammation. Inhibition of calpain I activity may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the therapy of inflammation. ..
  33. Gielen I, Van Bree H, Van Ryssen B, De Clercq T, De Rooster H. Radiographic, computed tomographic and arthroscopic findings in 23 dogs with osteochondrosis of the tarsocrural joint. Vet Rec. 2002;150:442-7 pubmed
    ..Arthroscopy provided information about synovial inflammation and damage to the joint cartilage, and made it possible to remove fragments of bone from one-third of the cases. ..
  34. Ingalls C, Warren G, Zhang J, Hamilton S, Armstrong R. Dihydropyridine and ryanodine receptor binding after eccentric contractions in mouse skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:1619-25 pubmed
    ..We also concluded that the loss in ryanodine receptors 3 days after injury is not the primary cause of excitation-contraction uncoupling at that time. ..
  35. Smits J, Bortolotti G, Baos R, Jovani R, Tella J, Hoffmann W. Disrupted bone metabolism in contaminant-exposed white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in southwestern Spain. Environ Pollut. 2007;145:538-44 pubmed
    ..Storks from the contaminated colony were unable to control P levels and Ca:P ratios within the narrow limits necessary for normal bone development...
  36. Vollmer S, Vater A, Licha K, Gemeinhardt I, Gemeinhardt O, Voigt J, et al. Extra domain B fibronectin as a target for near-infrared fluorescence imaging of rheumatoid arthritis affected joints in vivo. Mol Imaging. 2009;8:330-40 pubmed
    ..Given that AP39 is a fully human antibody fragment, this molecular imaging approach for arthritis detection might be translated to humans. ..
  37. Branch M, Murray R, Dyson S, Goodship A. Is there a characteristic distal tarsal subchondral bone plate thickness pattern in horses with no history of hindlimb lameness?. Equine Vet J. 2005;37:450-5 pubmed
    ..This reflects the pattern of loading across the joints. This study provides evidence of a consistent osteochondral pattern in the equine tarsus for reference in identification of osteoarticular pathologies. ..
  38. Bentley V, Sample S, Livesey M, Scollay M, Radtke C, Frank J, et al. Morphologic changes associated with functional adaptation of the navicular bone of horses. J Anat. 2007;211:662-72 pubmed
  39. Rexing J, Dunning D, Siegel A, Knap K, Werbe B. Effects of cold compression, bandaging, and microcurrent electrical therapy after cranial cruciate ligament repair in dogs. Vet Surg. 2010;39:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CC, METB, and CCB should be considered as viable options to limit soft tissue swelling after extracapsular repair of CCLR in dogs. ..
  40. Santschi E, Leibsle S, Morehead J, Prichard M, Clayton M, Keuler N. Carpal and fetlock conformation of the juvenile Thoroughbred from birth to yearling auction age. Equine Vet J. 2006;38:604-9 pubmed
    ..There is little information available about conformational changes in the forelimbs of growing foals...
  41. Cooper R. Differences in stride between healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) and those affected by tibiotarsal rotation. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2007;78:52-3 pubmed
    ..05) reduced speeds. Hens may be able to escape danger faster than cocks. The occurrence of tibiotarsal rotation necessitates consideration of genetics, management, sex, nutrition and growth rates. ..
  42. Telleria Diaz A, Ebersberger A, Vasquez E, Schache F, Kahlenbach J, Schaible H. Different effects of spinally applied prostaglandin D2 on responses of dorsal horn neurons with knee input in normal rats and in rats with acute knee inflammation. Neuroscience. 2008;156:184-92 pubmed publisher
  43. Santos P, Williams S, Thomas S. Neuromuscular evaluation using rat gait analysis. J Neurosci Methods. 1995;61:79-84 pubmed
    ..The rat gait model is a sensitive and reproducible method for non-invasive evaluation of neuromuscular function during nerve recovery after a peroneal crush injury. ..
  44. Bolon B, Morony S, Cheng Y, Hu Y, Feige U. Osteoclast numbers in Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis: identification of preferred sites and parameters for rapid quantitative analysis. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:30-6 pubmed
    ..These data show that the navicular tarsal is the most sensitive site at which to assess arthritis in rats with this variant of adjuvant-induced arthritis. ..
  45. Shanil J, Yeshurun Y, Shahar R. Arthrodesis of the tarsometatarsal joint, using type II ESF with acrylic connecting bars in four dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2006;19:61-3 pubmed
    ..This technique enables the patient to bear weight on the limb immediately after surgery until bony fusion is achieved, without the need for an additional protecting splint...
  46. Judex S, Zernicke R. High-impact exercise and growing bone: relation between high strain rates and enhanced bone formation. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;88:2183-91 pubmed
    ..Comparing the mechanical milieus produced by running and drop jumps revealed that jumping significantly elevated only peak strain rates. This further emphasized the sensitivity of immature bone to high strain rates...
  47. Crochiere M, Kubilus J, Linsenmayer T. Perichondrial-mediated TGF-beta regulation of cartilage growth in avian long bone development. Int J Dev Biol. 2008;52:63-70 pubmed
  48. Mayer M, Yoshikawa H, Moriarity L, Sidhu N. Use of a petroleum-based bolus for photon radiation therapy of distal extremities in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50:235-8 pubmed
    ..This petroleum-based bolus is equivalent to water in its photon attenuation, conforms well to an irregular patient contour, and retains its shape after positioning. Applications to other anatomical sites could be considered. ..
  49. Herzog W. Force-sharing among the primary cat ankle muscles. Eur J Morphol. 1998;36:280-7 pubmed
  50. Solomon S, Kolb C, Mohanty S, Jeisy Walder E, Preyer R, Schöllhorn V, et al. Transmission of antibody-induced arthritis is independent of complement component 4 (C4) and the complement receptors 1 and 2 (CD21/35). Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:644-51 pubmed
    ..The crucial role of complement C5, while neither classical nor lectin pathway is necessary, indicates that the alternative complement pathway may have a role in the K/BxN serum-induced RA model. ..
  51. Hwu Y, Tsai W, Je J, Seol S, Kim B, Groso A, et al. Synchrotron microangiography with no contrast agent. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:501-8 pubmed
    ..The images have excellent contrast plus unprecedented spatial resolution for microangiography (< 10 microm). This result is likely to impact many different areas of biological and medical research and of diagnostic radiology. ..
  52. Salicki W, Kalisińska E. [Fluorine and calcium concentrations in bones of the wood pigeon from the environs of Szczecin: a 2002-2004 study]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52 Suppl 1:89-95 pubmed
    ..It is highly probable that fluorine content in wood pigeon bone reflects environmental fluorine contamination from industrial plants in Szczecin and its environs which are the major source of fluorine emissions. ..
  53. Inauen R, Koch D, Bass M. Arthrodesis of the tarsometatarsal joints in a cat with a two hole advanced locking plate system. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2009;22:166-9 pubmed
    ..Radiographs made after six weeks showed uneventful healing. ALPS offers an alternative to existing plating systems when selecting an implant for the stabilisation of dorsal tarsometatarsal instabilities in cats. ..
  54. Judex S, Zernicke R. Does the mechanical milieu associated with high-speed running lead to adaptive changes in diaphyseal growing bone?. Bone. 2000;26:153-9 pubmed
    ..This study also supports the tenet that the exercise-generated mechanical milieu must differ substantially from the habitual milieu to induce significant adaptations. ..
  55. da Gracca Macoris D, Bertone A. Intra-articular pressure profiles of the cadaveric equine fetlock joint in motion. Equine Vet J. 2001;33:184-90 pubmed
    ..5. Additional in vivo studies are necessary to confirm our conclusions from this study and to identify the contributions of fluid absorption and the presence of ischaemia in a vascularised joint. ..
  56. Wittwer C, Löhring K, Drogemuller C, Hamann H, Rosenberger E, Distl O. Mapping quantitative trait loci for osteochondrosis in fetlock and hock joints and palmar/plantar osseus fragments in fetlock joints of South German Coldblood horses. Anim Genet. 2007;38:350-7 pubmed
    ..Significant QTL for POF in fetlock joints were located on equine chromosomes 1, 4, 8, 12 and 18. This genome scan is an important step towards the identification of genes responsible for OC in horses. ..
  57. Cotel F, Antri M, Barthe J, Orsal D. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2748-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, during the early postnatal development, a significant part of the population of extensor motoneurons, but not flexors, are able to produce self-sustained discharges known to involve the activation of persistent inward currents. ..
  58. Bulling D, Kelly D, Bond S, McQueen D, Seckl J. Adjuvant-induced joint inflammation causes very rapid transcription of beta-preprotachykinin and alpha-CGRP genes in innervating sensory ganglia. J Neurochem. 2001;77:372-82 pubmed
  59. Harasen G. Arthrodesis--Part II: The tarsus. Can Vet J. 2002;43:806-8 pubmed
  60. Straw M. What is your diagnosis? Gastrocnemius enthesiopathy. J Small Anim Pract. 2005;46:507-9 pubmed
  61. Smith M, Wright I, Smith R. Endoscopic assessment and treatment of lesions of the deep digital flexor tendon in the navicular bursae of 20 lame horses. Equine Vet J. 2007;39:18-24 pubmed
    ..The diagnostic information obtained from and therapeutic options offered by bursoscopy justify its use in horses with clinical findings localising lameness to the navicular bursa. ..
  62. Willems M, Stauber W. Force output during and following active stretches of rat plantar flexor muscles: effect of velocity of ankle rotation. J Biomech. 2000;33:1035-8 pubmed
    ..The change in time constant of force decay during stress relaxation in response to a series of repeated stretches might provide information on the sarcomere length distribution in skeletal muscles. ..
  63. Wang D, Bose P, Parmer R, Thompson F. Chronic intrathecal baclofen treatment and withdrawal: I. Changes in ankle torque and hind limb posture in normal rats. J Neurotrauma. 2002;19:875-86 pubmed
    ..These studies were performed to provide a foundation for evaluation of treatment and withdrawal in the setting of experimental chronic contusion spinal cord injury. ..
  64. Ricklefs R. Small clades at the periphery of passerine morphological space. Am Nat. 2005;165:651-9 pubmed
  65. Taylor A, Durbaba R, Ellaway P, Rawlinson S. Static and dynamic gamma-motor output to ankle flexor muscles during locomotion in the decerebrate cat. J Physiol. 2006;571:711-23 pubmed
    ..The dynamic gamma pattern sensitizes the primary afferents to detect the onset of muscle lengthening and to detect departures from the intended movement trajectory. ..
  66. Post E, Singer E, Clegg P. An anatomic study of the calcaneal bursae in the horse. Vet Surg. 2007;36:3-9 pubmed
    ..The GCB may be an alternative site for synoviocentesis when there is septic calcaneal bursitis. Improved knowledge of calcaneal bursae anatomy may aid in diagnosis and treatment of lesions involving these structures. ..
  67. Vanderperren K, Raes E, Hoegaerts M, Saunders J. Diagnostic imaging of the equine tarsal region using radiography and ultrasonography. Part 1: the soft tissues. Vet J. 2009;179:179-87 pubmed
    ..In current clinical practice a combination of radiography and ultrasonography is still most frequently used to arrive at a diagnosis. ..
  68. Relave F, Meulyzer M, Alexander K, Beauchamp G, Marcoux M. Comparison of radiography and ultrasonography to detect osteochondrosis lesions in the tarsocrural joint: a prospective study. Equine Vet J. 2009;41:34-40 pubmed
    ..Radiographic examination should include a dorso30 degrees view for detection of lesions on the medial malleolus and ultrasonography should be considered to diagnose osteochondrosis in the tarsocrural joints. ..
  69. Grill W, Mortimer J. The effect of stimulus pulse duration on selectivity of neural stimulation. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1996;43:161-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the response of a passive cable model to different duration stimuli indicated that PW dependent contributions of distributed sources to membrane polarization accounted for the observed differences in selectivity. ..
  70. Axelsson M, Eksell P, Roneus B, Broström H, Haggstrom J, Carlsten J. Relationship between hind limb lameness and radiographic signs of bone spavin in Icelandic horses in Sweden. Acta Vet Scand. 1998;39:349-57 pubmed
    ..Using palpation, motion evaluation, and flexion test 75% of the horses with RSBS were identified. The rate of agreement between the clinical examination and the radiographic examination was 73%. ..
  71. Eksell P, Carlsson S, Lord P, Carlsten J. Effects of a digital filter on detectability of a phantom lesion in a scintigram of the equine tarsus. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2000;41:365-70 pubmed
    ..Based on receiver operating characteristic analysis, filtering of a 50 kcount image improved image quality to that of a 150 kcount image. ..
  72. McKnight A, Manduca A, Felmlee J, Rossman P, McGee K, Ehman R. Motion-correction techniques for standing equine MRI. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2004;45:513-9 pubmed
    ..The motion artifacts were nearly eliminated with the use of both techniques in series. Although significant hurdles remain, these results suggest promise for allowing diagnostic quality MRI of the carpus and tarsus in the standing horse...
  73. Zill S, Keller B, Chaudhry S, Duke E, Neff D, Quinn R, et al. Detecting substrate engagement: responses of tarsal campaniform sensilla in cockroaches. J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol. 2010;196:407-20 pubmed publisher
  74. Brown C, Reiner S. Development of lyme arthritis in mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase. J Infect Dis. 1999;179:1573-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, NO does not have a critical role in susceptibility to Lyme arthritis through tissue damage via an overexuberant inflammatory response, nor is it required in resistance through the clearance of spirochetes from tissues. ..
  75. Olstad K, Ytrehus B, Ekman S, Carlson C, Dolvik N. Epiphyseal cartilage canal blood supply to the tarsus of foals and relationship to osteochondrosis. Equine Vet J. 2008;40:30-9 pubmed
    ..Involvement of cartilage canals in the pathogenesis of equine tarsal OC plausibly explains several clinical features of this disease. ..
  76. Lombard J, Tucker C, von Keyserlingk M, Kopral C, Weary D. Associations between cow hygiene, hock injuries, and free stall usage on US dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:4668-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of this national survey indicate that tail docking provides no benefit to cow hygiene and that stall base and bedding are key factors influencing hock injuries and stall usage on US free stall dairy farms. ..
  77. Percival Smith A, Hayden D. Analysis in Drosophila melanogaster of the interaction between sex combs reduced and extradenticle activity in the determination of tarsus and arista identity. Genetics. 1998;150:189-98 pubmed
  78. Nurminskaya M, Recheis B, Nimpf J, Magee C, Linsenmayer T. Transglutaminase factor XIIIA in the cartilage of developing avian long bones. Dev Dyn. 2002;223:24-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, transglutaminases, in particular FXIIIA, are involved in the formation of long bones through its activity both in the hypertrophic region of the growth plate and in the formation of articular/epiphyseal cartilages...
  79. Bjornsdottir S, Ekman S, Eksell P, Lord P. High detail radiography and histology of the centrodistal tarsal joint of Icelandic horses age 6 months to 6 years. Equine Vet J. 2004;36:5-11 pubmed
    ..Osteoarthrosis (OA) in the distal tarsal joints, bone spavin, is a well known condition which is common in Icelandic horses age 6-12 years...
  80. Stock K, Hamann H, Distl O. Estimation of genetic parameters for the prevalence of osseous fragments in limb joints of Hanoverian Warmblood horses. J Anim Breed Genet. 2005;122:271-80 pubmed
    ..75). We conclude from our results that osseous fragments in phalangeal and hock joints are genetically different traits but sex-specific expression of osseous fragments was unlikely...
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    ..4). Our study shows that claw disorders are associated with poorer reproductive performance and some production diseases...
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    ..For this group of traits, the phenotypic gambit cannot be made and we suggest caution when inferring genetic patterns from phenotypic data, especially for behavioural and life-history traits...
  83. Miller J, Beale B. Tibiotarsal arthroscopy. Applications and long-term outcome in dogs. Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol. 2008;21:159-65 pubmed
    ..The minimally invasive nature of arthroscopy preserved joint stability while allowing complete examination of the articular cartilage. In most cases long term tibiotarsal DJD advancement was the rule...
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    ..Further investigations are needed to understand the role of calcium availability as possible causal agent of deviant eggs and its relation to the maculation phenomenon...
  85. Sherlock C, Mair T, Ter Braake F. Osseous lesions in the metacarpo(tarso)phalangeal joint diagnosed using low-field magnetic resonance imaging in standing horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2009;50:13-20 pubmed
    ..We conclude that lameness originating from the MCP or MTP joint may be associated with osseous damage in horses of any signalment in the absence of radiographic changes...
  86. Hashmi J, Yashpal K, Holdsworth D, Henry J. Sensory and vascular changes in a rat monoarthritis model: prophylactic and therapeutic effects of meloxicam. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine the ability of meloxicam prophylaxis and therapy to blunt the effect of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced monoarthritis...
  87. Lipscomb V, Lawes T, Goodship A, Muir P. Asymmetric densitometric and mechanical adaptation of the left fifth metacarpal bone in racing greyhounds. Vet Rec. 2001;148:308-11 pubmed
    ..Fifth metacarpal remodelling in response to asymmetric cyclic loading is bone-specific, and structural properties are enhanced in the left fifth metacarpal of greyhounds with a fracture of the right central tarsal bone...
  88. Di Nino D, Crochiere M, Linsenmayer T. Multiple mechanisms of perichondrial regulation of cartilage growth. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:250-9 pubmed
  89. Lens L, Van Dongen S, Norris K, Githiru M, Matthysen E. Avian persistence in fragmented rainforest. Science. 2002;298:1236-8 pubmed
    ..More generally, for conservation tactics to stand a high chance of success, they should include action both within sites, to minimize habitat deterioration, and across landscapes, to maximize dispersal...
  90. Godde B, Berkefeld T, David Jürgens M, Dinse H. Age-related changes in primary somatosensory cortex of rats: evidence for parallel degenerative and plastic-adaptive processes. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2002;26:743-52 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of these findings for cognitive functions at old age and possible treatments of age-related changes in human subjects...
  91. Jenner F, Solano M, Gliatto J, Lavallee S, Kirker Head C. Osteosarcoma of the tarsus in a horse. Equine Vet J. 2003;35:214-6 pubmed
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    ..Therefore, when evaluating Ca and P in phytase-supplemented diets for broilers, it is necessary to bear in mind the environmental conditions of experimentation...