hemolymph

Summary

Summary: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.

Top Publications

  1. Wasielewski O, Skonieczna M. Pleiotropic effects of the neuropeptides CCAP and myosuppressin in the beetle, Tenebrio molitor L. J Comp Physiol B. 2008;178:877-85 pubmed publisher
    ..10(-9)-10(-3) M) into 4-day-old adult reproductive females increased the concentration of soluble proteins in hemolymph in comparison to the saline injected controls...
  2. Cardoen D, Ernst U, Van Vaerenbergh M, Boerjan B, de Graaf D, Wenseleers T, et al. Differential proteomics in dequeened honeybee colonies reveals lower viral load in hemolymph of fertile worker bees. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20043 pubmed publisher
    ..In an attempt to reveal key players in the regulatory network, we made a proteomic comparison of hemolymph profiles of workers with completely activated ovaries vs. rudimentary ovaries...
  3. Florez Barros F, Prado Alvarez M, Mendez J, Fernandez Tajes J. Evaluation of genotoxicity in gills and hemolymph of clam Ruditapes decussatus fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74:971-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in DNA damage was observed at the lower concentration and only in gill tissue. The results obtained may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying genotoxic effects induced by OA on bivalves...
  4. Pakkianathan B, Singh N, Krishnan M, König S. A proteomic view on the developmental transfer of homologous 30 kDa lipoproteins from peripheral fat body to perivisceral fat body via hemolymph in silkworm, Bombyx mori. BMC Biochem. 2012;13:5 pubmed publisher
    ..in silkworm larval peripheral fat body (PPFB) tissues and transported into the open circulatory system (hemolymph) in a time-depended fashion to be eventually stored as granules in the pupal perivisceral fat body (PVFB) ..
  5. Garbutt J, Belles X, Richards E, Reynolds S. Persistence of double-stranded RNA in insect hemolymph as a potential determiner of RNA interference success: evidence from Manduca sexta and Blattella germanica. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that rapid degradation of dsRNA in insect hemolymph could impede gene silencing by RNAi and experimentally investigate the dynamics of dsRNA persistence in two ..
  6. Shoji K, Akiyama Y, Suzuki M, Hoshino T, Nakamura N, Ohno H, et al. Insect biofuel cells using trehalose included in insect hemolymph leading to an insect-mountable biofuel cell. Biomed Microdevices. 2012;14:1063-8 pubmed publisher
    In this paper, an insect biofuel cell (BFC) using trehalose included in insect hemolymph was developed...
  7. Cilia M, Peter K, Bereman M, Howe K, Fish T, Smith D, et al. Discovery and targeted LC-MS/MS of purified polerovirus reveals differences in the virus-host interactome associated with altered aphid transmission. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48177 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the genes coding for the plant proteins associated with virus may be examined as targets in breeding cereal crops for new modes of virus resistance that disrupt phloem-virus or aphid-virus interactions...
  8. Cheng S, Shieh L, Chen J. Changes in hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, acid-base balance, and electrolytes in Marsupenaeus japonicus under combined ammonia and nitrite stress. Aquat Toxicol. 2013;130-131:132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the effects of a combined treatment with these two compounds on the hemolymph acid-base balance, electrolytes and oxyhemocyanin content in kuruma shrimp, (Marsupenaeus japonicus)...
  9. Mukherjee K, Abu Mraheil M, Silva S, Muller D, Cemič F, Hemberger J, et al. Anti-Listeria activities of Galleria mellonella hemolymph proteins. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011;77:4237-40 pubmed publisher
    We report the use of antimicrobial hemolymph proteins from the model host Galleria mellonella as an inhibitor for various Listeria strains, providing a novel source for antilisterial therapeutics...

More Information

Publications106 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zhang L, Zhang Y, Adusumilli S, Liu L, Narasimhan S, Dai J, et al. Molecular interactions that enable movement of the Lyme disease agent from the tick gut into the hemolymph. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002079 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi outer-surface lipoprotein, interfere with the migration of the spirochete from tick gut into the hemolymph during tick feeding...
  2. Carmo A, Giovanni D, Corrêa T, Martins L, Stocco R, Suazo C, et al. Expression of an antiviral protein from Lonomia obliqua hemolymph in baculovirus/insect cell system. Antiviral Res. 2012;94:126-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Several studies have shown the presence of active properties in the hemolymph of arthropods, some of which are of interest for the development of new pharmacological drugs...
  3. Palm W, Sampaio J, Brankatschk M, Carvalho M, Mahmoud A, Shevchenko A, et al. Lipoproteins in Drosophila melanogaster--assembly, function, and influence on tissue lipid composition. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002828 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoB-family lipoprotein Lipophorin (Lpp) is the major hemolymph lipid carrier...
  4. Saur M, Moeller V, Kapetanopoulos K, Braukmann S, Gebauer W, Tenzer S, et al. Acetylcholine-binding protein in the hemolymph of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata is a pentagonal dodecahedron (60 subunits). PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43685 pubmed publisher
    ..All these proteins are ring-like pentamers. Here we report that AChBP exists in the hemolymph of the planorbid snail Biomphalaria glabrata (vector of the schistosomiasis parasite) as a regular pentagonal ..
  5. Park J, Lee J, Park H, Rhee W, Choi S, Park T. A protein delivery system using 30Kc19 cell-penetrating protein originating from silkworm. Biomaterials. 2012;33:9127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report a cell-penetrating protein, 30Kc19, originating from the hemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori...
  6. Dus M, Min S, Keene A, Lee G, Suh G. Taste-independent detection of the caloric content of sugar in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11644-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The preference for calorie-rich food correlates with a decrease in the two main hemolymph sugars, trehalose and glucose, and in glycogen stores, indicating that this sensor is triggered when the ..
  7. Yoshino T, Wu X, Liu H, Gonzalez L, Deelder A, Hokke C. Glycotope sharing between snail hemolymph and larval schistosomes: larval transformation products alter shared glycan patterns of plasma proteins. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1569 pubmed publisher
    ..mansoni LTPs to plasma proteins of susceptible and resistant B. glabrata strains may significantly impact early anti-larval immune reactivity, and in turn, compatibility, in this parasite-host system...
  8. Malik Z, Amir S, Venekei I. SERINE proteinase like activity in apolipophorin III from the hemolymph of desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2012;80:26-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, a protease from the hemolymph of Schistocerca gregaria was purified to homogeneity and its enzymatic activity was examined...
  9. Chen J, Honeyager S, Schleede J, Avanesov A, Laughon A, Blair S. Crossveinless d is a vitellogenin-like lipoprotein that binds BMPs and HSPGs, and is required for normal BMP signaling in the Drosophila wing. Development. 2012;139:2170-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Cv-d is made in the liver-like fat body and other tissues, and can diffuse into the pupal wing via the hemolymph. Cv-d binds to the BMPs Dpp and Gbb through its Vg domain, and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which are well-..
  10. Ares A, Nozal M, Bernal J, Martin Hernandez R, M Higes -, Bernal J. Liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry to evaluate juvenile hormone III levels in bee hemolymph from Nosema spp. infected colonies. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2012;899:146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..infection on JH III levels in bee hemolymph. Honey bee hemolymph was extracted by centrifugation and mixed with a solution of phenylthiourea in methanol...
  11. Handke B, Poernbacher I, Goetze S, Ahrens C, Omasits U, Marty F, et al. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67208 pubmed publisher
    ..have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of ..
  12. Woltedji D, Fang Y, Han B, Feng M, Li R, Lu X, et al. Proteome analysis of hemolymph changes during the larval to pupal development stages of honeybee workers (Apis mellifera ligustica). J Proteome Res. 2013;12:5189-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemolymph is vital for the flow and transportation of nutrients, ions, and hormones in the honey bee and plays role in innate immune defense...
  13. Teal P, Jones D, Jones G, Torto B, Nyasembe V, Borgemeister C, et al. Identification of methyl farnesoate from the hemolymph of insects. J Nat Prod. 2014;77:402-5 pubmed publisher
    ..farnesoate, [methyl (2E,6E)-3,7,11-trimethyldodeca-2,6,10-trienoate (1)] has not been thought be present in the hemolymph of insects, although it is the immediate biosynthetic precursor of the circulating insect hormone juvenile ..
  14. Poynton H, Taylor N, Hicks J, Colson K, Chan S, Clark C, et al. Metabolomics of microliter hemolymph samples enables an improved understanding of the combined metabolic and transcriptional responses of Daphnia magna to cadmium. Environ Sci Technol. 2011;45:3710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Crustacean hemolymph represents a largely untapped biochemical resource for such toxicity studies...
  15. Kostal V, Dolezal P, Rozsypal J, Moravcova M, Zahradnícková H, Simek P. Physiological and biochemical analysis of overwintering and cold tolerance in two Central European populations of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:1136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..No activity of thermal hysteresis factors (stabilizers of supercooled state) was detected in hemolymph. Lethal times for 50% mortality (Lts50) in the supercooled state at -5, -10 or -15°C are weeks (autumn, spring) ..
  16. Huang J, Lee H. RNA interference unveils functions of the hypertrehalosemic hormone on cyclic fluctuation of hemolymph trehalose and oviposition in the virgin female Blattella germanica. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:858-64 pubmed publisher
    ..neuropeptide within the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that induces a release of trehalose from fat body into hemolymph in a number of insects...
  17. Matsumoto Y, Sumiya E, Sugita T, Sekimizu K. An invertebrate hyperglycemic model for the identification of anti-diabetic drugs. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18292 pubmed publisher
    ..Sugar levels in silkworm hemolymph increased immediately after feeding silkworms a high glucose-containing diet, resulting in impaired growth...
  18. Yang J, Ma X, He Y, Li W, Kang Y, Bao R, et al. Crystal structure of the 30 K protein from the silkworm Bombyx mori reveals a new member of the ?-trefoil superfamily. J Struct Biol. 2011;175:97-103 pubmed publisher
    The hemolymph of the fifth instar larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori contains a group of homologous proteins with a molecular weight of approximately 30 kDa, termed B...
  19. Limmer S, Haller S, Drenkard E, Lee J, Yu S, Kocks C, et al. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RhlR is required to neutralize the cellular immune response in a Drosophila melanogaster oral infection model. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17378-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that orally ingested P. aeruginosa crosses the intestinal barrier and then proliferates in the hemolymph, thereby causing the infected flies to die of bacteremia. Host defenses against ingested P...
  20. Klußmann Fricke B, Prendini L, Wirkner C. Evolutionary morphology of the hemolymph vascular system in scorpions: a character analysis. Arthropod Struct Dev. 2012;41:545-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Building on earlier work we present a more detailed description of the hemolymph vascular system (HVS) in scorpions, based on comparison of the vascular structures of the heart and the ..
  21. Aliferis K, Copley T, Jabaji S. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling of worker honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) hemolymph for the study of Nosema ceranae infection. J Insect Physiol. 2012;58:1349-59 pubmed publisher
    ..by the newly emerged obligate intracellular parasite Nosema ceranae based on metabolite profiling of hemolymph. Because of the severity of the disease, early detection is crucial for its efficient control...
  22. Suwanchaichinda C, Ochieng R, Zhuang S, Kanost M. Manduca sexta serpin-7, a putative regulator of hemolymph prophenoloxidase activation. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that serpin-7 has serine protease inhibitory activity and is likely involved in regulation of proPO activation or other protease-mediated aspects of innate immunity in M. sexta...
  23. Grigorian M, Mandal L, Hartenstein V. Hematopoiesis at the onset of metamorphosis: terminal differentiation and dissociation of the Drosophila lymph gland. Dev Genes Evol. 2011;221:121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells of the secondary lobes undergo a rapid phase of proliferation that lasts until 8 h APF, followed by expression of Pxn and dispersal. These hemocytes do not express P1, indicating that they disperse prior to full maturation...
  24. Guo J, Dong S, Ye G, Li K, Zhu J, Fang Q, et al. Oosorption in the endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum. J Insect Sci. 2011;11:90 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the details of oosorption in P. puparum, both levels of hemolymph vitellogenin and ovarian vitellin were determined using sandwich ELISA...
  25. Mello D, Proença L, Barracco M. Comparative study of various immune parameters in three bivalve species during a natural bloom of Dinophysis acuminata in Santa Catarina Island, Brazil. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2:1166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Various immunological parameters were assessed in the hemolymph of the animals: total and differential hemocyte counts, percentage of apoptotic hemocytes, protein concentration,..
  26. Ferré L, Medesani D, García C, Grodzielski M, Rodríguez E. Vitellogenin levels in hemolymph, ovary and hepatopancreas of the freshwater crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda: Parastacidae) during the reproductive cycle. Rev Biol Trop. 2012;60:253-61 pubmed
    ..in spawned eggs, can be synthesized in the ovary and/or hepatopancreas of most crustaceans, being the hemolymph the way for transporting Vg throughout the reproductive cycle...
  27. Piyankarage S, Featherstone D, Shippy S. Nanoliter hemolymph sampling and analysis of individual adult Drosophila melanogaster. Anal Chem. 2012;84:4460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Introduced here is a method to sample nanoliter hemolymph volumes from individual adult fruit-flies for chemical analysis...
  28. Hammer K, Pedersen S, Størseth T. Elevated seawater levels of CO(2) change the metabolic fingerprint of tissues and hemolymph from the green shore crab Carcinus maenas. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2012;7:292-302 pubmed publisher
    ..1)H NMR spectroscopy was applied to extracts of hemolymph, gills and leg muscle from shore crabs (Carcinus maenas) to examine the metabolic response to elevated levels of ..
  29. Beevers N, Kilbride E, Atkinson R, Neil D. Hematodinium infection seasonality in the Firth of Clyde (Scotland) Nephrops norvegicus population: a re-evaluation. Dis Aquat Organ. 2012;100:95-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons with 'susceptible-infected-recovered/removed' (SIR) models suggest that this high prevalence is maintained through high birth rates of susceptible host N. norvegicus...
  30. Zdybicka Barabas A, Stączek S, Mak P, Skrzypiec K, Mendyk E, Cytryńska M. Synergistic action of Galleria mellonella apolipophorin III and lysozyme against Gram-negative bacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:1449-56 pubmed publisher
    ..g. apolipophorin III (apoLp-III), lysozyme, and anionic peptide 2, are present constitutively in the hemolymph of non-challenged Galleria mellonella larvae...
  31. Clark K, Strand M. Hemolymph melanization in the silkmoth Bombyx mori involves formation of a high molecular mass complex that metabolizes tyrosine. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:14476-87 pubmed publisher
    The phenoloxidase (PO) cascade regulates the melanization of blood (hemolymph) in insects and other arthropods. Most studies indicate that microbial elicitors activate the PO cascade, which results in processing of the zymogen PPO to PO...
  32. Feng C, Song Q, Lu W, Lu J. Purification and characterization of hemolymph prophenoloxidase from Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;151:139-46 pubmed publisher
    Prophenoloxidase (PPO) was isolated from the hemolymph of Ostrinia furnacalis larvae and purified to homogeneity. A 369.85-fold purification and 35...
  33. Andrejko M, Mizerska Dudka M, Jakubowicz T. Antibacterial activity in vivo and in vitro in the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;152:118-23 pubmed publisher
    The antibacterial activity of hemolymph from Galleria mellonella infected with entomopathogenic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-pathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli was studied...
  34. Tian L, Guo E, Diao Y, Zhou S, Peng Q, Cao Y, et al. Genome-wide regulation of innate immunity by juvenile hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the Bombyx fat body. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:549 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we demonstrate that JH acts as an immune-activator while 20E inhibits innate immunity in the fat body during Bombyx postembryonic development. ..
  35. Thomas P, Kenny N, Eyles D, Moreira L, O Neill S, Asgari S. Infection with the wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia leads to higher levels of melanization in the hemolymph of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans and Aedes aegypti. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:360-5 pubmed publisher
    ..D. simulans infected with other strains of Wolbachia did not display this difference. HPLC analysis of hemolymph from mosquitoes showed that this difference was not due to dopamine levels in the host as they were no different ..
  36. Babcock D, Brock A, Fish G, Wang Y, Perrin L, Krasnow M, et al. Circulating blood cells function as a surveillance system for damaged tissue in Drosophila larvae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10017-22 pubmed publisher
    Insects have an open circulatory system in which the heart pumps blood (hemolymph) into the body cavity, where it directly bathes the internal organs and epidermis...
  37. Zhao P, Xia Q, Li J, Fujii H, Banno Y, Xiang Z. Purification, characterization and cloning of a chymotrypsin inhibitor (CI-9) from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Protein J. 2007;26:349-57 pubmed
    b>Hemolymph chymotrypsin inhibitor 9 (CI-9) from the hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, Butyl Toyopearl hydrophobic chromatography, gel filtration through Sephadex C-50 and chymotrypsin-..
  38. Dushay M. Insect hemolymph clotting. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:2643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The few similarities between coagulation in different insect species and life stages, and the current state of knowledge about coagulation in insects are discussed. ..
  39. Zhang C, Xia Y. Identification of genes differentially expressed in vivo by Metarhizium anisopliae in the hemolymph of Locusta migratoria using suppression-subtractive hybridization. Curr Genet. 2009;55:399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed in vivo by M. anisopliae CQMa102 in the hemolymph of infected Locusta migratoria...
  40. Bidla G, Hauling T, Dushay M, Theopold U. Activation of insect phenoloxidase after injury: endogenous versus foreign elicitors. J Innate Immun. 2009;1:301-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid PO activation in Drosophila was limited to discrete areas of the hemolymph clot which forms after injury...
  41. Andereck J, King J, HILLYER J. Contraction of the ventral abdomen potentiates extracardiac retrograde hemolymph propulsion in the mosquito hemocoel. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12943 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart...
  42. Ishii K, Hamamoto H, Kamimura M, Sekimizu K. Activation of the silkworm cytokine by bacterial and fungal cell wall components via a reactive oxygen species-triggered mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:2185-91 pubmed
    ..fungal cell wall components peptidoglycan and glucan stimulate muscle contraction via activation of PP in the hemolymph. Anti-PP antibody suppressed the muscle contraction induced by PP, peptidoglycan, or glucan...
  43. Clark T, Lawecki J, Shepherd J, Hirschler A, Samandu T. Effects of serotonergic agents on survival and hemolymph composition of the larval mosquito Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae, L.) in vivo: does serotonin regulate hemolymph acid-base homeostasis?. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3728-36 pubmed publisher
    The role of serotonin in the regulation of larval Aedes aegypti hemolymph composition was investigated in vivo using two reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), alaproclate HCl and 6-nitroquipazine maleate, and the receptor antagonist methiothepin ..
  44. Waterhouse R, Povelones M, Christophides G. Sequence-structure-function relations of the mosquito leucine-rich repeat immune proteins. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:531 pubmed publisher
    ..These sequence-structure-function relations of mosquito LRIMs will serve to guide the experimental elucidation of their molecular roles in mosquito immunity. ..
  45. Buresova V, Hajdusek O, Franta Z, Sojka D, Kopacek P. IrAM-An alpha2-macroglobulin from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus: characterization and function in phagocytosis of a potential pathogen Chryseobacterium indologenes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..developmental stages and tissues, except for the gut, and the protein was detected to be mainly present in the hemolymph. Silencing of IrAM by dsRNA interference markedly reduced the phagocytosis of a potential pathogen, ..
  46. Arif A, Gullipalli D, Scheller K, Dutta Gupta A. Significance of the 19-kDa hemolymph protein HP19 for the development of the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica: morphological and biochemical effects caused by antibody application. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2007;66:32-44 pubmed
    The hemolymph protein HP19 of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica, mediates the 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)-dependent acid phosphatase (ACP) activity at a nongenomic level...
  47. Bai X, Grewal P. Identification of two down-regulated genes in entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora infective juveniles upon contact with insect hemolymph. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2007;156:162-6 pubmed
    ..subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique to study the gene expression in the IJs upon contact with the insect hemolymph in vitro...
  48. Tran D, Massabuau J, Garnier Laplace J. Impact of hypoxia on hemolymph contamination by uranium in an aquatic animal, the freshwater clam Corbicula fluminea. Environ Pollut. 2008;156:821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We searched for an explanation by analyzing hemolymph U-transport in Corbicula exposed to 0.36 microM dissolved uranium at various O2-levels for 10 days...
  49. Povelones M, Waterhouse R, Kafatos F, Christophides G. Leucine-rich repeat protein complex activates mosquito complement in defense against Plasmodium parasites. Science. 2009;324:258-61 pubmed publisher
    ..gambiae, two such proteins that antagonize malaria parasite infections, LRIM1 and APL1C, circulate in the hemolymph as a high-molecular-weight complex held together by disulfide bridges...
  50. Pulido X, Perez G, Vallejo G. Preliminary characterization of a Rhodnius prolixus hemolymph trypanolytic protein, this being a determinant of Trypanosoma rangeli KP1(+) and KP1(-) subpopulations' vectorial ability. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2008;103:172-9 pubmed
    ..The present work has identified a trypanolytic protein against T. rangeli KP1(-) in the R. prolixus hemolymph which was fractioned with ammonium sulfate (following dialysis)...
  51. Haine E, Pollitt L, Moret Y, Siva Jothy M, Rolff J. Temporal patterns in immune responses to a range of microbial insults (Tenebrio molitor). J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:1090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no long-lasting upregulation of phenoloxidase activity, suggesting that this immune effector system is not involved in the management of microbial infections over a long time scale...
  52. Li X, Zhang R, Sun R, Lan J, Zhao X, Wang J. Three Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors from the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii and the characterization, function analysis of hcPcSPI2. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:942-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, after V. anguillarum challenge, the hcPcSPI2 protein could also be detected in cell-free hemolymph. Subsequently, the biochemical characteristics and bacteriostatic activity of hcPcSPI2 were assayed...
  53. Piyankarage S, Augustin H, Grosjean Y, Featherstone D, Shippy S. Hemolymph amino acid analysis of individual Drosophila larvae. Anal Chem. 2008;80:1201-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper describes a direct sampling technique capable of obtaining 50-300 nL of hemolymph from individual Drosophila larvae...
  54. Park E, Ishikiriyama M, Nishina T, Kato T, Yagi H, Kato K, et al. Human IgG1 expression in silkworm larval hemolymph using BmNPV bacmids and its N-linked glycan structure. J Biotechnol. 2009;139:108-14 pubmed publisher
    ..light chains of human 29IJ6 IgG was constructed and used to secrete recombinant antibody into silkworm larval hemolymph. Fifth instar silkworm larvae were reared and injected into the dorsum of the larvae with recombinant cysteine ..
  55. Araujo R, Maciel C, Hartfelder K, Capurro M. Effects of Plasmodium gallinaceum on hemolymph physiology of Aedes aegypti during parasite development. J Insect Physiol. 2011;57:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti occurring upon infection with Plasmodium gallinaceum, such as reduced ecdysteroid levels in hemolymph as well as altered expression patterns for genes involved in vitellogenesis, lipid transport and immune response...
  56. Wang Z, Wilhelmsson C, Hyrsl P, Loof T, Dobes P, Klupp M, et al. Pathogen entrapment by transglutaminase--a conserved early innate immune mechanism. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000763 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared clotting of human blood and insect hemolymph to study the best-conserved component of clotting systems, namely the Drosophila enzyme transglutaminase and its ..
  57. Chung J. Hemolymph ecdysteroids during the last three molt cycles of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus: quantitative and qualitative analyses and regulation. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol. 2010;73:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Ecdysteroid patterns are remarkably similar in terms of peak concentrations ranging between 210-330 ng/ml hemolymph. Analysis of hemolymph at late premolt stage revealed six different types of ecdysteroids with ponasterone A (..
  58. Brown S, Howard A, Kasprzak A, Gordon K, East P. A peptidomics study reveals the impressive antimicrobial peptide arsenal of the wax moth Galleria mellonella. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;39:792-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining data from separate trypsin, Glu-C and Asp-N digests of immune hemolymph allowed detection of 18 known or putative G...
  59. Hyrsl P, Dobes P, Wang Z, Hauling T, Wilhelmsson C, Theopold U. Clotting factors and eicosanoids protect against nematode infections. J Innate Immun. 2011;3:65-70 pubmed publisher
    We show that hemolymph clotting protects Drosophila melanogaster against infections with an entomopathogenic nematode and its symbiotic bacterium...
  60. Michitsch J, Steele J. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in cockroach (Periplaneta americana) fat body are both activated by low and similar concentrations of Peram-AKH II. Peptides. 2008;29:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter amount also lowers the level of neutral lipid (NL) and phospholipid (PL) in the hemolymph. The evidence supports the idea that Peram-AKH II promotes the liberation of fatty acids from hemolymph ..
  61. Glenn J, King J, HILLYER J. Structural mechanics of the mosquito heart and its function in bidirectional hemolymph transport. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..to the midline of the abdominal tergum by six complete and three incomplete pairs of alary muscles, and propels hemolymph at an average velocity of 8 mm s(-1) by sequentially contracting muscle fibers oriented in a helical twist with ..
  62. Mayack C, Naug D. Parasitic infection leads to decline in hemolymph sugar levels in honeybee foragers. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:1572-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that infection by the microsporidian gut parasite Nosema ceranae can lower the hemolymph sugar level of an individual forager and uncouple its energetic state from its normally tight correlation with ..
  63. Kusaba T, Fujimaki Y, Vincent A, Aoki Y. In vitro chemotaxis of Brugia pahangi infective larvae to the sera and hemolymph of mammals and lower animals. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..pahangi infective larvae was compared in vitro to that of sera or hemolymph of a wide variety of other organisms including mammals, reptiles, fishes and invertebrates...
  64. Arif A, Manohar D, Gullipalli D, Dutta Gupta A. Regulation of hexamerin receptor phosphorylation by hemolymph protein HP19 and 20-hydroxyecdysone directs hexamerin uptake in the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:307-19 pubmed publisher
    Hexamerins are stage specifically sequestered during the non-feeding stages mainly by the fat body cells from hemolymph through ecdysteroid regulated receptor-mediated endocytosis...
  65. An C, Ishibashi J, Ragan E, Jiang H, Kanost M. Functions of Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinases HP6 and HP8 in two innate immune pathways. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19716-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified more than 20 serine proteinases in hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, but functions are known for only a few of them...
  66. Du D, Kato T, Suzuki F, Park E. Binding affinity of full-length and extracellular domains of recombinant human (pro)renin receptor to human renin when expressed in the fat body and hemolymph of silkworm larvae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2009;108:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..were expressed in fat body of silkworm larvae, and the extracellular domain of hPRR (hPRR-DeltaTMDeltaCD) in hemolymph. Three forms of hPRR were used for investigation of the interaction between receptor and ligand using surface ..
  67. Asami Y, Horie R, Hamamoto H, Sekimizu K. Use of silkworms for identification of drug candidates having appropriate pharmacokinetics from plant sources. BMC Pharmacol. 2010;10:7 pubmed publisher
    ..Three compounds were detected in the silkworm hemolymph by HPLC analysis after midgut injection of acetone extracts of seihi, an herbal medicine obtained from orange ..
  68. Matsuda Y, Osaki T, Hashii T, Koshiba T, Kawabata S. A cysteine-rich protein from an arthropod stabilizes clotting mesh and immobilizes bacteria at injury sites. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33545-52 pubmed
    b>Hemolymph coagulation in arthropods plays key roles in host defense, including sealing wounds to staunch bleeding and immobilizing invading microorganisms...
  69. Leal W, Ishida Y. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3762 pubmed publisher
    ..Given their expression pattern, GP-9s are hemolymph proteins, which are more likely to be involved in the transport of lipids and small ligands within the homocoel...
  70. Haine E, Moret Y, Siva Jothy M, Rolff J. Antimicrobial defense and persistent infection in insects. Science. 2008;322:1257-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that understanding of the management of antimicrobial peptides in natural systems might inform medical treatment strategies that avoid the risk of drug resistance. ..
  71. Kanamori Y, Saito A, Hagiwara Komoda Y, Tanaka D, Mitsumasu K, Kikuta S, et al. The trehalose transporter 1 gene sequence is conserved in insects and encodes proteins with different kinetic properties involved in trehalose import into peripheral tissues. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:30-7 pubmed publisher
  72. Gandhe A, Janardhan G, Nagaraju J. Immune upregulation of novel antibacterial proteins from silkmoths (Lepidoptera) that resemble lysozymes but lack muramidase activity. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;37:655-66 pubmed
    ..Substantial increase in hemolymph bacterial load was observed in B. mori upon RNA interference mediated in vivo knockdown of BLLP1...
  73. An C, Kanost M. Manduca sexta serpin-5 regulates prophenoloxidase activation and the Toll signaling pathway by inhibiting hemolymph proteinase HP6. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinase-6 (HP6) is a component of both pathways...
  74. Ragan E, An C, Yang C, Kanost M. Analysis of mutually exclusive alternatively spliced serpin-1 isoforms and identification of serpin-1 proteinase complexes in Manduca sexta hemolymph. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:29642-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that M. sexta serpin-1 isoforms A, E, and J can inhibit hemolymph proteinase 8, which activates the cytokine spätzle...
  75. Vecera J, Krishnan N, Alquicer G, Kodrik D, Socha R. Adipokinetic hormone-induced enhancement of antioxidant capacity of Pyrrhocoris apterus hemolymph in response to oxidative stress. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007;146:336-42 pubmed
    ..protein carbonylation (a biomarker for oxidative stress) and a depletion of glutathione (GSH) pool in the hemolymph. Interestingly, AKH titer was significantly enhanced in hemolymph at 4 h post inoculation of PQ, while its ..
  76. Furusawa T, Rakwal R, Nam H, Hirano M, Shibato J, Kim Y, et al. Systematic investigation of the hemolymph proteome of Manduca sexta at the fifth instar larvae stage using one- and two-dimensional proteomics platforms. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:938-59 pubmed publisher
    Manduca sexta is an excellent insect model for studying insect physiology, including hemolymph proteins. Larvae stages of this insect are highly damaging to tobacco leaves causing a drastic decrease in crop yield...
  77. Lindgren M, Riazi R, Lesch C, Wilhelmsson C, Theopold U, Dushay M. Fondue and transglutaminase in the Drosophila larval clot. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:586-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Hemolymph coagulation is vital for larval hemostasis and important in immunity, yet the molecular basis of coagulation is not well understood in insects...
  78. Lehr T, Frank S, Natsuka S, Geyer H, Beuerlein K, Doenhoff M, et al. N-Glycosylation patterns of hemolymph glycoproteins from Biomphalaria glabrata strains expressing different susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:592-602 pubmed publisher
    Comparative analyses of the N-glycosylation pattern of hemolymph glycoproteins from Biomphalaria glabrata strains Puerto Rico (BgPR) and Salvador (BgBS-90), differing in their susceptibility towards Schistosoma mansoni infection, were ..
  79. Freitak D, Wheat C, Heckel D, Vogel H. Immune system responses and fitness costs associated with consumption of bacteria in larvae of Trichoplusia ni. BMC Biol. 2007;5:56 pubmed
    ..Here, we examine the immune system response and consequences of exposing a lepidopteran agricultural pest to non-infectious microorganisms via simple oral consumption...
  80. Griebler M, Westerlund S, Hoffmann K, Meyering Vos M. RNA interference with the allatoregulating neuropeptide genes from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda and its effects on the JH titer in the hemolymph. J Insect Physiol. 2008;54:997-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..JH biosynthesis is thought to be the main factor influencing the JH titer in the hemolymph and there is evidence that neuropeptides either act stimulatory (allatotropins) or inhibitory (allatostatins) on ..
  81. Scherfer C, Tang H, Kambris Z, Lhocine N, Hashimoto C, Lemaitre B. Drosophila Serpin-28D regulates hemolymph phenoloxidase activity and adult pigmentation. Dev Biol. 2008;323:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that the so far uncharacterized Serpin-28D (Spn28D, CG7219) regulates the proPO cascade in both hemolymph and tracheal compartments. spn28D is the serpin gene most strongly induced upon injury...
  82. Jiang R, Kim E, Gong J, Kwon H, Kim C, Ryu K, et al. Three pairs of protease-serpin complexes cooperatively regulate the insect innate immune responses. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35652-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we purified three novel serpins (SPN40, SPN55, and SPN48) from the hemolymph of T. molitor...
  83. Stopforth E, Neitz A, Gaspar A. A proteomics approach for the analysis of hemolymph proteins involved in the immediate defense response of the soft tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, when challenged with Candida albicans. Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;51:309-25 pubmed publisher
    A proteomics approach was employed to identify proteins secreted into the hemolymph of Ornithodorus savignyi ticks 2 h after immune-challenge with the yeast, Candida albicans...
  84. Antunes F, Hinzmann M, Lopes Lima M, Machado J, Martins da Costa P. Association between environmental microbiota and indigenous bacteria found in hemolymph, extrapallial fluid and mucus of Anodonta cygnea (Linnaeus, 1758). Microb Ecol. 2010;60:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that A. cygnea has the ability to filter and eliminate E. coli, present in the surrounding environment, through an active phagocytic process conducted by hemolymph circulating cells, the hemocytes.
  85. Eleftherianos I, Revenis C. Role and importance of phenoloxidase in insect hemostasis. J Innate Immun. 2011;3:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..a key enzyme that leads to the formation of melanin at wound sites and around intruding microorganisms in the hemolymph. Clotting is critical in limiting hemolymph loss and initiating wound healing following injury; it quickly acts ..
  86. Nehme N, Liegeois S, Kele B, Giammarinaro P, Pradel E, Hoffmann J, et al. A model of bacterial intestinal infections in Drosophila melanogaster. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e173 pubmed
    ..that is regulated by the imd pathway and phagocytosis by hemocytes of bacteria that have escaped into the hemolymph. Interestingly, bacteria present in the hemolymph elicit a systemic immune response only when phagocytosis is ..
  87. Bogaerts A, Baggerman G, Vierstraete E, Schoofs L, Verleyen P. The hemolymph proteome of the honeybee: gel-based or gel-free?. Proteomics. 2009;9:3201-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent sequencing and annotation of the honeybee genome facilitates the study of its hemolymph, which reflects the physiological condition and mediates immune responses...
  88. Fagutao F, Koyama T, Kaizu A, Saito Taki T, Kondo H, Aoki T, et al. Increased bacterial load in shrimp hemolymph in the absence of prophenoloxidase. FEBS J. 2009;276:5298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, invertebrate hemolymph, even that of healthy individuals, has been shown to contain bacterial species...
  89. Rai S, Aggarwal K, Mitra B, Das T, Babu C. Purification, characterization and immunolocalization of a novel protease inhibitor from hemolymph of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta. Peptides. 2010;31:474-81 pubmed publisher
    A novel serine protease inhibitor (AmPI) was purified from larval hemolymph of tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta by two-step process of trypsin-affinity and gel-filtration (FPLC) chromatography...
  90. Abou Elseoud S, Abdel Fattah N, Ezz El Din H, Abdel Al H, Mossalem H, Elleboudy N. Carboxylic acids as biomarkers of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:127-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay was done in both hemolymph and digestive gland-gonad complex (DGG) samples in a total of 300 B. alexandrina snails...
  91. An C, Ragan E, Kanost M. Serpin-1 splicing isoform J inhibits the proSpätzle-activating proteinase HP8 to regulate expression of antimicrobial hemolymph proteins in Manduca sexta. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, hemolymph proteinase 8 (HP8) promotes the synthesis of antimicrobial proteins by cleaving proSpätzle, the putative ligand ..
  92. Andrejko M, Mizerska Dudka M. Elastase B of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stimulates the humoral immune response in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..activity, namely, we observed appearance of antimicrobial peptides and a higher level of lysozyme in cell-free hemolymph. Elastase B seems to be a more potent elicitor than thermolysin because similar maximal antibacterial activity ..