harderian gland

Summary

Summary: A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.

Top Publications

  1. Satoh Y, Ishikawa K, Oomori Y, Takede S, Ono K. Secretion mode of the harderian gland of rats after stimulation by cholinergic secretagogues. Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;143:7-13 pubmed
    ..The present results suggested that the cholinergic systems regulate the secretion of rat Harderian-gland cells which have muscarinic receptors...
  2. Russell P, Dwivedi P, Davison T. The effects of cyclosporin A and cyclophosphamide on the populations of B and T cells and virus in the Harderian gland of chickens vaccinated with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1997;60:171-85 pubmed
    ..to conjunctival vaccination with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus was studied in the Harderian gland (HG) by immunohistochemistry...
  3. Tomas Zapico C, Coto Montes A, Martínez Fraga J, Rodríguez Colunga M, Hardeland R, Tolivia D. Effects of delta-aminolevulinic acid and melatonin in the harderian gland of female Syrian hamsters. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32:1197-204 pubmed
    Effects of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and melatonin were investigated in the female Syrian hamster Harderian gland. This is an organ physiologically exposed to strong oxidative stress due to the highest porphyrinogenic rates known ..
  4. Schild A, Isenmann S, Tanimoto N, Tonagel F, Seeliger M, Ittner L, et al. Impaired development of the Harderian gland in mutant protein phosphatase 2A transgenic mice. Mech Dev. 2006;123:362-71 pubmed
    ..Here we expressed an L309A mutant catalytic subunit in Harderian gland of transgenic mice...
  5. Rehorek S, Smith T. The primate Harderian gland: Does it really exist?. Ann Anat. 2006;188:319-27 pubmed
    The Harderian gland, an anterior orbital structure, is either absent or vestigial in primates. This is based upon gross anatomical observations of scattered adult specimens...
  6. Vega Naredo I, Coto Montes A. Physiological autophagy in the Syrian hamster Harderian gland. Methods Enzymol. 2009;452:457-76 pubmed publisher
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) displays a huge porphyrins metabolism with sexual dimorphism. Even in male Syrian hamsters with much lower porphyrins concentration than female HG, this activity is higher than in the liver...
  7. Sills R, Hong H, Melnick R, Boorman G, Devereux T. High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadie. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:657-62 pubmed
    ..8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations...
  8. Miyazaki M, Kim H, Man W, Ntambi J. Oleoyl-CoA is the major de novo product of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene isoform and substrate for the biosynthesis of the Harderian gland 1-alkyl-2,3-diacylglycerol. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39455-61 pubmed
    1-Alkyl-2,3-diacylglycerol (ADG) is a unique neutral lipid found in the eyeball-associated Harderian gland (HG) of the mouse and acts as a lubricant to facilitate eyelid movement...
  9. Brammer D, Riley J, Kreuser S, Zasadny K, Callahan M, Davis M. Harderian gland adenectomy: a method to eliminate confounding radio-opacity in the assessment of rat brain metabolism by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007;46:42-5 pubmed
    ..We conducted a pilot study of unilateral harderian gland adenectomy, leaving the contralateral gland intact for comparison...
  10. Vega Naredo I, Caballero B, Sierra V, Huidobro Fernández C, De Gonzalo Calvo D, García Macia M, et al. Sexual dimorphism of autophagy in Syrian hamster Harderian gland culminates in a holocrine secretion in female glands. Autophagy. 2009;5:1004-17 pubmed
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) has a large porphyrin metabolism with a sexual dimorphism, showing male HGs much lower porphyrin concentrations than female glands...

Detail Information

Publications138 found, 100 shown here

  1. Satoh Y, Ishikawa K, Oomori Y, Takede S, Ono K. Secretion mode of the harderian gland of rats after stimulation by cholinergic secretagogues. Acta Anat (Basel). 1992;143:7-13 pubmed
    ..The present results suggested that the cholinergic systems regulate the secretion of rat Harderian-gland cells which have muscarinic receptors...
  2. Russell P, Dwivedi P, Davison T. The effects of cyclosporin A and cyclophosphamide on the populations of B and T cells and virus in the Harderian gland of chickens vaccinated with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1997;60:171-85 pubmed
    ..to conjunctival vaccination with the Hitchner B1 strain of Newcastle disease virus was studied in the Harderian gland (HG) by immunohistochemistry...
  3. Tomas Zapico C, Coto Montes A, Martínez Fraga J, Rodríguez Colunga M, Hardeland R, Tolivia D. Effects of delta-aminolevulinic acid and melatonin in the harderian gland of female Syrian hamsters. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002;32:1197-204 pubmed
    Effects of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and melatonin were investigated in the female Syrian hamster Harderian gland. This is an organ physiologically exposed to strong oxidative stress due to the highest porphyrinogenic rates known ..
  4. Schild A, Isenmann S, Tanimoto N, Tonagel F, Seeliger M, Ittner L, et al. Impaired development of the Harderian gland in mutant protein phosphatase 2A transgenic mice. Mech Dev. 2006;123:362-71 pubmed
    ..Here we expressed an L309A mutant catalytic subunit in Harderian gland of transgenic mice...
  5. Rehorek S, Smith T. The primate Harderian gland: Does it really exist?. Ann Anat. 2006;188:319-27 pubmed
    The Harderian gland, an anterior orbital structure, is either absent or vestigial in primates. This is based upon gross anatomical observations of scattered adult specimens...
  6. Vega Naredo I, Coto Montes A. Physiological autophagy in the Syrian hamster Harderian gland. Methods Enzymol. 2009;452:457-76 pubmed publisher
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) displays a huge porphyrins metabolism with sexual dimorphism. Even in male Syrian hamsters with much lower porphyrins concentration than female HG, this activity is higher than in the liver...
  7. Sills R, Hong H, Melnick R, Boorman G, Devereux T. High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadie. Carcinogenesis. 1999;20:657-62 pubmed
    ..8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations...
  8. Miyazaki M, Kim H, Man W, Ntambi J. Oleoyl-CoA is the major de novo product of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene isoform and substrate for the biosynthesis of the Harderian gland 1-alkyl-2,3-diacylglycerol. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39455-61 pubmed
    1-Alkyl-2,3-diacylglycerol (ADG) is a unique neutral lipid found in the eyeball-associated Harderian gland (HG) of the mouse and acts as a lubricant to facilitate eyelid movement...
  9. Brammer D, Riley J, Kreuser S, Zasadny K, Callahan M, Davis M. Harderian gland adenectomy: a method to eliminate confounding radio-opacity in the assessment of rat brain metabolism by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007;46:42-5 pubmed
    ..We conducted a pilot study of unilateral harderian gland adenectomy, leaving the contralateral gland intact for comparison...
  10. Vega Naredo I, Caballero B, Sierra V, Huidobro Fernández C, De Gonzalo Calvo D, García Macia M, et al. Sexual dimorphism of autophagy in Syrian hamster Harderian gland culminates in a holocrine secretion in female glands. Autophagy. 2009;5:1004-17 pubmed
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) has a large porphyrin metabolism with a sexual dimorphism, showing male HGs much lower porphyrin concentrations than female glands...
  11. Santillo A, Burrone L, Minucci S, Di Giovanni M, Chieffi Baccari G. Molecular pathways involved in the cyclic activity of frog (Pelophylax esculentus) Harderian gland: Influence of temperature and testosterone. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;158:71-6 pubmed publisher
    The Harderian gland of Pelophylax esculentus (previously: Rana esculenta) shows seasonal secretory activity changes. Specifically, the secretory activity reaches a maximum during the hottest months, i.e...
  12. Chen Z, Liang Q, Yu G. Establishment of a rabbit model for keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Cornea. 2011;30:1024-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish a rabbit model for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) to study autologous submandibular gland transfer for treating severe KCS...
  13. Rehorek S. Squamate Harderian gland: an overview. Anat Rec. 1997;248:301-6 pubmed
    The Harderian gland is an orbital feature found in most terrestrial vertebrates...
  14. Djeridane Y, Touitou Y. Melatonin synthesis in the rat harderian gland: age- and time-related effects. Exp Eye Res. 2001;72:487-92 pubmed
    The Harderian gland is considered as an extrapineal source of melatonin. In the pineal gland, melatonin is known to present a circadian rhythm with high concentration during nighttime in all species studied...
  15. Jonker J, Musters S, Vlaming M, Plosch T, Gooijert K, Hillebrand M, et al. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) is expressed in the harderian gland and mediates transport of conjugated protoporphyrin IX. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C2204-12 pubmed
    ..In this study, we identified the mouse harderian gland as a novel expression site of Bcrp1...
  16. Puk O, Esposito I, Soker T, Löster J, Budde B, Nurnberg P, et al. A new Fgf10 mutation in the mouse leads to atrophy of the harderian gland and slit-eye phenotype in heterozygotes: a novel model for dry-eye disease?. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of the present study was to characterize a new slit-eye phenotype in the mouse...
  17. Djeridane Y, Lyoumi S, Puy H, Touitou Y. Light pulse induces ALA-S gene expression in the rat Harderian gland. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;61:115-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that light per se may regulate ALA-S gene expression in the rat HGs, and reveal that the ALA-S gene expression, and so heme biosynthesis, is under a photodynamic control...
  18. Horie S, Suga T. Participation of peroxisomes in lipid biosynthesis in the harderian gland of guinea pig. Biochem J. 1989;262:677-80 pubmed
    Peroxisomal enzyme activities in the guinea-pig harderian gland, which has a unique lipid composition, were studied...
  19. Sbarbati A, Calderan L, Nicolato E, Marzola P, Lunati E, Donatella B, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rat Harderian gland. J Anat. 2002;201:231-8 pubmed
    The intra-orbital lacrimal gland (Harderian gland, or HG) of the female rat was studied by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate whether MRI can be used to visualize the gland in vivo and localized-1H-spectroscopy detect its lipid ..
  20. Tom s Zapico C, Antonio Boga J, Caballero B, Vega Naredo I, Sierra V, Alvarez Garc a O, et al. Coexpression of MT1 and RORalpha1 melatonin receptors in the Syrian hamster Harderian gland. J Pineal Res. 2005;39:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both membrane and nuclear melatonin receptors have been partially characterized in Harderian gland of the Syrian hamster...
  21. Bayraktaroglu A, Ergun E. Histomorphology of the Harderian gland in the Angora rabbit. Anat Histol Embryol. 2010;39:494-502 pubmed publisher
    This study was aimed to demonstrate the morphological and histochemical properties of the Harderian gland in the Angora rabbit. Ten healthy adult Angora rabbits obtained from private breeders constituted the material of the study...
  22. Djeridane Y, Touitou Y. Effects of diazepam and its metabolites on nocturnal melatonin secretion in the rat pineal and Harderian glands. A comparative in vivo and in vitro study. Chronobiol Int. 2003;20:285-97 pubmed
    ..Neither DZP nor its metabolites affected Harderian gland melatonin content...
  23. Terao M, Barzago M, Kurosaki M, Fratelli M, Bolis M, Borsotti A, et al. Mouse aldehyde-oxidase-4 controls diurnal rhythms, fat deposition and locomotor activity. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30343 pubmed publisher
    ..Metabolomics and enzymatic data indicate that 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and tryptophan are novel endogenous AOX4 substrates, potentially involved in AOX4 systemic actions. ..
  24. Bek S, Neess D, Dixen K, Bloksgaard M, Marcher A, Chemnitz J, et al. Compromised epidermal barrier stimulates Harderian gland activity and hypertrophy in ACBP-/- mice. J Lipid Res. 2015;56:1738-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that ACBP is highly expressed in the Harderian gland, a gland that is located behind the eyeball of rodents and involved in the production of fur lipids and ..
  25. Coto Montes A, Tomas Zapico C, Rodríguez Colunga M, Tolivia Cadrecha D, Martínez Fraga J, Hardeland R, et al. Effects of the circadian mutation 'tau' on the Harderian glands of Syrian hamsters. J Cell Biochem. 2001;83:426-34 pubmed
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) is an organ continually exposed to oxidative stress caused by high concentrations of porphyric metabolites...
  26. Yoshizawa K, Kinoshita Y, Emoto Y, Tsubura A. Spontaneously occurring lymphohematopoietic tumors in three young Sprague Dawley rats. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2016;68:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..liver, bone marrow, lymph nodes, heart, kidneys, lung, pancreas, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, ovaries, Harderian gland, and/or eyes...
  27. Beland F, Olson G, Mendoza M, Marques M, Doerge D. Carcinogenicity of glycidamide in B6C3F1 mice and F344/N rats from a two-year drinking water exposure. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015;86:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In male and female mice, there were significant increases in tumors of the Harderian gland, lung, forestomach, and skin...
  28. Zhou H, Chen S, Yan B, Chen H, Wang M, Jia R, et al. LPAIV H9N2 Drives the Differential Expression of Goose Interferons and Proinflammatory Cytokines in Both In Vitro and In Vivo Studies. Front Microbiol. 2016;7:166 pubmed publisher
    ..Average AIV H9N2 viral loads were detected in the feces, Harderian gland (HG), and trachea, where higher copy numbers were detected compared with the rectum...
  29. Hirayama M. [Proof of a Concept for Bioengineered Organ Replacement to Restore Lacrimal Gland Function]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2015;119:799-806 pubmed
    ..The bioengineered lacrimal gland germ and harderian gland germ both developed in vivo; they achieved physiological functionality, including tear secretion in response ..
  30. Aoki H, Yamada Y, Hara A, Kunisada T. Two distinct types of mouse melanocyte: differential signaling requirement for the maintenance of non-cutaneous and dermal versus epidermal melanocytes. Development. 2009;136:2511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..hair follicle of the epidermis, the growth and differentiation requirements of the melanocytes in the eye, harderian gland and inner ear - the so-called non-cutaneous melanocytes - remain unclear...
  31. Oballa R, Belair L, Black W, Bleasby K, Chan C, Desroches C, et al. Development of a liver-targeted stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) inhibitor (MK-8245) to establish a therapeutic window for the treatment of diabetes and dyslipidemia. J Med Chem. 2011;54:5082-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These efforts led to the discovery of MK-8245 (7), a potent, liver-targeted SCD inhibitor with preclinical antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic efficacy with a significantly improved therapeutic window. ..
  32. Grodio J, Buckles E, Schat K. Production of house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) IgA specific anti-sera and its application in immunohistochemistry and in ELISA for detection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum-specific IgA. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;132:288-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The anti-sera were used to identify plasma cells in the Harderian gland and conjunctiva of house finches with conjunctivitis associated with Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection...
  33. Santillo A, Burrone L, Falvo S, Senese R, Lanni A, Chieffi Baccari G. Triiodothyronine induces lipid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in rat Harderian gland. J Endocrinol. 2013;219:69-78 pubmed publisher
    The rat Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland producing a copious lipid secretion. Recent studies indicate that its secretory activity is regulated by thyroid hormones...
  34. Gorchein A. Characterization of porphyrins of rat Harderian gland by thin layer chromatography and mass spectrometry: no evidence for a tricarboxylic acid porphyrin. Biomed Chromatogr. 2003;17:526-9 pubmed
    ..ion-pairing reagents are described for the separation without prior derivatization of the porphyrins of rat Harderian gland. Porphyrins with R(f) values greater than protoporphyrin but smaller than coproporphyrin, representing ..
  35. Ortiz G, Feria Velasco A, Tarpley R, Bitzer Quintero O, Rosales Corral S, Velázquez Brizuela I, et al. The orbital Harderian gland of the male atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus): a morphological study. Anat Histol Embryol. 2007;36:209-14 pubmed
    The ultrastructure of the Atlantic Bottlenose dolphin Harderian gland (HG) has been described but some questions remain unanswered...
  36. Rehorek S, Hillenius W, Leigh C, Firth B. Is it or isn't it? A reexamination of the anterior orbital glands of the fat-tailed Dunnart Sminthopsis Crassicaudata (Dasyuridae: Marsupiala) and a reevaluation of definitions for the Harderian gland. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1449-54 pubmed publisher
    ..can usually be differentiated either anatomically (nictitans gland is more anterior) or histochemically (Harderian gland secretes lipids)...
  37. Cavagnari B, Córdoba O, Veerkamp J, Santome J, Affanni J. Presence of a fatty acid-binding protein in the armadillo Harderian gland. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1998;30:465-73 pubmed
    A fatty acid-binding protein from the cytosolic fraction of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus Harderian gland was purified to homogeneity by a procedure based on gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel ..
  38. Cavagnari B, Sterin Speziale N, Affanni J, Knudsen J, Santome J. Acyl-CoA-binding protein in the armadillo Harderian gland: its primary structure and possible role in lipid secretion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1545:314-25 pubmed
    ..Identity percentages between armadillo Harderian gland ACBP and other known ACBPs show that the protein belongs to the liver-specific ACBP isoform (L-ACBP)...
  39. Ohshima K, Hiramatsu K. Immunohistochemical localization of three different immunoglobulin classes in the Harderian gland of young chickens. Tissue Cell. 2002;34:129-33 pubmed
    The chicken Harderian gland (HG) was investigated using single immunohistochemical staining for one of the three different immunoglobulins (Igs) followed by Alcian blue/periodic acid Schiff (AB/PAS) staining and triple ..
  40. Canpolat Koyutürk L. The effects of adrenalectomy on the harderian gland of the Wistar albino rats. Acta Physiol Hung. 2003;90:233-41 pubmed
    ..It is lobulated and appears homogeneous in colour and texture. Harderian gland consist of tubules with wide lumina lined by a single layer of columnar epithelial cells surrounded by ..
  41. Nikolaus S, Antke C, Beu M, Kley K, Larisch R, Wirrwar A, et al. In-vivo quantification of dose-dependent dopamine transporter blockade in the rat striatum with small animal SPECT. Nucl Med Commun. 2007;28:207-13 pubmed
    ..Moreover, alterations of striatal transporter densities may be investigated in animal models of neurological and psychiatric diseases such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease. ..
  42. Zhou Q, Zhang W, Chen S, Wang A, Sun L, Wang M, et al. Identification of Type III Interferon (IFN-λ) in Chinese Goose: Gene Structure, Age-Dependent Expression Profile, and Antiviral Immune Characteristics In Vivo and In Vitro. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2017;37:269-277 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues, such as lung, gizzard, proventriculus, skin and pancreas, and immune tissues, such as harderian gland and thymus...
  43. Cucinotta F, To K, Cacao E. Predictions of space radiation fatality risk for exploration missions. Life Sci Space Res (Amst). 2017;13:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We integrate recent heavy ion data on liver, colorectal, intestinal, lung, and Harderian gland tumors with other data from fission neutron experiments into the model analysis...
  44. Rehorek S, Firth B, Hutchinson M. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 2. Lubricatory capacity of the vomeronasal organ. J Biosci. 2000;25:181-90 pubmed
    ..The vomeronasal organ produces few secretory granules intrinsically, implying an extrinsic source for the luminal fluid. Of three possible candidates, the Harderian gland is the most likely extrinsic source of this secretion.
  45. Ramos L, Chávez B, Vilchis F. Cloning and differential expression of steroid 5 alpha-reductase type 1 (Srd5a1) and type 2 (Srd5a2) from the Harderian glands of hamsters. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;166:388-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The biochemical characteristics and relative expression of these 5 alpha-reductases support the view that both isozymes may play a relevant role in modulating androgen signaling in HG. ..
  46. Kasahara K, Fukunaga Y, Igura S, Andoh R, Saito T, Suzuki I, et al. Background data on NOD/Shi-scid IL-2R?null mice (NOG mice). J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42:689-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, small intestinal adenoma, hepatocellular adenoma, leukemia, cerebral lipomatous hamartoma, Harderian gland adenoma and uterine polyp were also observed, and their incidences were low except for that of uterine polyp...
  47. Sabry I, Al Azemi M, Al Ghaith L. The Harderian gland of the Cheesman's gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani ) of the Kuwaiti desert. Eur J Morphol. 2000;38:97-108 pubmed
    The Harderian gland is a large orbital structure...
  48. Chieffi Baccari G, Monteforte R, de Lange P, Raucci F, Farina P, Lanni A. Thyroid hormone affects secretory activity and uncoupling protein-3 expression in rat harderian gland. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3338-45 pubmed
    The effects of T(3) administration on the rat Harderian gland were examined at morphological, biochemical, and molecular levels. T(3) induced hypertrophy of the two cell types (A and B) present in the glandular epithelium...
  49. Grill V, Zweyer M, Basa M, Bareggi R, Martelli A, Bratina F, et al. Histochemical and ultrastructural investigation on the cytotypes in the mouse Harderian gland. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1994;70:199-206 pubmed
    The presence of melatonin and other biogenic indoleamines in the Harderian gland has been proposed by various authors...
  50. Chen Z, Jie Y, Yu G. Treatment of severe keratoconjunctivitis sicca by parotid duct transposition after tympanic neurectomy in rabbits. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:6964-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In the KCS group, the lacrimal gland, harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were removed...
  51. Bhattacharya D, Yu L, Wang M. Expression patterns of conjunctival mucin 5AC and aquaporin 5 in response to acute dry eye stress. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187188 pubmed publisher
    ..A mixed-mechanism rabbit DE model, in which the main lacrimal gland, Harderian gland, and nictitating membrane were resected, was further explored in this study...
  52. Chen W, Kelly M, Opitz Araya X, Thomas R, Low M, Cone R. Exocrine gland dysfunction in MC5-R-deficient mice: evidence for coordinated regulation of exocrine gland function by melanocortin peptides. Cell. 1997;91:789-98 pubmed
    ..glands, and was also shown to be required for production and stress-regulated synthesis of porphyrins by the Harderian gland and ACTH/MSH-regulated protein secretion by the lacrimal gland...
  53. Ortiz G, Feria Velasco A, Falcón Franco M, Bitzer Quintero O, Garcia J, Rosales S, et al. Different patterns in the histology and autofluorescence of the Harderian glands of the Syrian Hamster, rat, mouse, Mongolian gerbil and guinea pig. Anat Histol Embryol. 2001;30:107-15 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the Harderian glands of the animal species examined exhibit a variety of histological autofluorescence patterns. ..
  54. Lyoumi S, Martin Schmitt C, Touitou Y, Puy H, Djeridane Y. Melatonin and environmental lighting regulate ALA-S gene expression and So porphyrin biosynthesis in the rat harderian gland. Chronobiol Int. 2008;25:851-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that melatonin and environmental lighting regulate ALA-S gene expression in the rat HG. ..
  55. Tomas Zapico C, Coto Montes A, Martínez Fraga J, Rodríguez Colunga M, Tolivia D. Effects of continuous light exposure on antioxidant enzymes, porphyric enzymes and cellular damage in the Harderian gland of the Syrian hamster. J Pineal Res. 2003;34:60-8 pubmed
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG), an organ present in the male two secretory cell types (type-I and type-II cells), is physiologically exposed to high oxidative stress because of high concentrations of porphyrins and their ..
  56. Vilchis F, Ramos L, Timossi C, Chavez B. The influence of sex steroid hormones on ferrochelatase gene expression in Harderian gland of hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). J Endocrinol. 2006;189:103-12 pubmed
    ..The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG) is known for its ability to produce and accumulate large amounts of protoporphyrins...
  57. Ghanayem B. Inhibition of urethane-induced carcinogenicity in cyp2e1-/- in comparison to cyp2e1+/+ mice. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:331-9 pubmed
    ..In the Harderian gland, the incidences of hyperplasia and adenomas were significantly lower in Cyp2e1-/- compared to Cyp2e+/+ mice ..
  58. Rehorek S, Smith T, Bhatnagar K. The orbitofacial glands of bats: an investigation of the potential correlation of gland structure with social organization. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2010;293:1433-48 pubmed publisher
    ..the lacrimal and Meibomian glands in a handful of bat species, but there is as yet no description of a Harderian gland in bats. In this study we examined serial sections of orbitofacial glands in eight families of bats...
  59. Panin M, Gabai G, Ballarin C, Peruffo A, Cozzi B. Evidence of melatonin secretion in cetaceans: plasma concentration and extrapineal HIOMT-like presence in the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;177:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..involved in the biosynthesis of the hormone), suggested extrapineal melatonin production by the retina, the Harderian gland and the gut...
  60. Konishi Y, Iwamuro S, Hasunuma I, Kobayashi T, Kikuyama S. Molecular cloning and multifunctional characterization of host defense peptides from the bullfrog Harderian gland with special reference to catesbeianalectin. Zoolog Sci. 2013;30:185-91 pubmed publisher
    The Harderian gland (HG) is an orbital gland found in many terrestrial vertebrates that possess a nictitating membrane...
  61. Jiang D, Liu X, Hu J. Topical administration of Esculetin as a potential therapy for experimental dry eye syndrome. Eye (Lond). 2017;31:1724-1732 pubmed publisher
    ..DES models were established after removing of the main lacrimal gland, Harderian gland and nictitating membrane in the left eyes and randomly divided into group DES control, group CsA, group ..
  62. Setlow R. The U.S. National Research Council's views of the radiation hazards in space. Mutat Res. 1999;430:169-75 pubmed
  63. Esposito T, Astore E, Cardone A, Angelini F, Varriale B. Regulation of androgen receptor mRNA expression in primary culture of Harderian gland cells: cross-talk between steroid hormones. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2002;132:97-105 pubmed
    ..Previous results gained from the Harderian gland, a tubulo-alveolar gland located in the orbital cavity of the golden hamster, indicate that Harderian gland ..
  64. Santillo A, Burrone L, Senese R, Cioffi F, Lanni A, Chieffi Baccari G. Effect of D-aspartate uptake on uncoupling protein-3 and ?-tubulin expressions in rat Harderian gland. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011;879:3344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the oxidative stress response to D-Asp treatment in rat Harderian gland (HG) by measuring total cellular hydroperoxide levels...
  65. Ohnishi M, Umeda Y, Katagiri T, Kasai T, Ikawa N, Nishizawa T, et al. Inhalation carcinogenicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in rats and mice. Inhal Toxicol. 2013;25:298-306 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of Harderian gland adenomas was significantly increased in the 3200?ppm-exposed group, and malignant lymphomas of spleen at this ..
  66. Krane I, Leder P. NDF/heregulin induces persistence of terminal end buds and adenocarcinomas in the mammary glands of transgenic mice. Oncogene. 1996;12:1781-8 pubmed
    ..Additionally, about 50% of MMTV-NDF transgenic mice developed Harderian (lachrymal) gland hyperplasia, a benign tumor that does not progress to frank malignancy. ..
  67. Ortiz G, Coto Montes A, Bitzer Quintero O, Falcón Franco M, Ruiz Rizo L, Bravo Cuellar A, et al. Effects of melatonin on the Harderian gland of lipopolysaccharide-treated rats: morphological observations. Biomed Pharmacother. 1999;53:432-7 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we studied the morphological changes and lipid peroxidation in the Harderian gland after LPS administration and the effects of melatonin in preventing the induced changes...
  68. Dicello J, Christian A, Cucinotta F, Gridley D, Kathirithamby R, Mann J, et al. In vivo mammary tumourigenesis in the Sprague-Dawley rat and microdosimetric correlates. Phys Med Biol. 2004;49:3817-30 pubmed
  69. Vlaming M, Lagas J, Schinkel A. Physiological and pharmacological roles of ABCG2 (BCRP): recent findings in Abcg2 knockout mice. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009;61:14-25 pubmed publisher
    ..observed, including extrusion of porphyrins and/or porphyrin conjugates from hematopoietic cells, liver and harderian gland, as well as secretion of vitamin B(2) (riboflavin) and possibly other vitamins (biotin, vitamin K) into ..
  70. Kengkoom K, Klinkhamhom A, Sirimontaporn A, Singha O, Ketjareon T, Panavechkijkul Y, et al. Effects on high cholesterol-fed to liver, retina, hippocampus, and Harderian gland in Goto-Kakizaki rat. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;6:639-49 pubmed
    ..in non obese type 2 diabetes mellitus, and histological perturbations on liver, retina, hippocampus, and Harderian gland, we maintained rat on a diet high in cholesterol for fourteen weeks, then analyzed blood lipid profiles, ..
  71. Chernyavskiy P, Edmondson E, Weil M, Little M. High-energy particle beam and gamma radiation exposure, familial relatedness and cancer in mice. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..There is periodicity in the effect of familial relatedness for various cancer sites. The effects per unit dose of high-energy charged particle beams are no higher than ninefold those of lower-energy gamma radiation. ..
  72. Nagai M, Nagai T, Yamamoto M, Goto K, Bishop T, Hayashi N, et al. Novel regulation of delta-aminolevulinate synthase in the rat harderian gland. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997;53:643-50 pubmed
    ..synthase (ALAS), as well as that of mRNAs for other heme pathway enzymes, was examined in the rat Harderian gland. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses demonstrated that the non-specific ALAS (ALAS-N) mRNA is ..
  73. Djeridane Y, Touitou Y. Lack of effect of ghrelin treatment on melatonin production in rat pineal and Harderian glands. Life Sci. 2005;76:2393-401 pubmed
    ..At the concentrations used, ghrelin does not influence melatonin production in rat pineal and Harderian glands, and therefore is not involved in the regulation of melatonin secretion, at least under our experimental conditions. ..
  74. Scott T, Messersmith A, McCrary W, Herlong J, Burgess S. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase in the chicken Harderian gland. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2005;108:295-306 pubmed
    The Harderian gland (HG), a sero-mucous secreting organ in the eye orbit, has long been recognized as immunologically important in chickens...
  75. Rehorek S, Hillenius W, Sanjur J, Chapman N. One gland, two lobes: organogenesis of the "Harderian" and "nictitans" glands of the Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) and fallow deer (Dama dama). Ann Anat. 2007;189:434-46 pubmed
    ..The Harderian gland was originally described, and first distinguished from the nictitans gland, in adult deer...
  76. Hasunuma I, Iwamuro S, Kobayashi T, Shirama K, Conlon J, Kikuyama S. Expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides in the Harderian gland of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2010;152:301-5 pubmed publisher
    The Harderian gland is an orbital gland found in many tetrapod species that possess a nictitating membrane. While the main role of the Harderian gland is lubrication of the eyeballs, numerous other functions are attributed to this gland...
  77. Yan X, Liu F, Chen S, Zhao Q, Qi Y, Wang M, et al. Molecular cloning, characterization and tissue expression of CD4 in Chinese goose. Gene. 2013;519:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..infection, the obvious increase in CD4 gene expression was observed in the spleen, bursa of fabricius and harderian gland. Interestingly, a notable decrease in CD4 mRNA expression in the small intestine at 5d PI and followed by an ..
  78. Bejdić P, Avdić R, Amidžić L, Ćutahija V, Tandir F, Hadziomerović N, et al. Ultrastructure of plasma cells in harderian gland of laying hens. Anat Histol Embryol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    Ultrastructure of plasma cells in Harderian gland was investigated using the transmission electron microscopy...
  79. Hoffman R, Johnson L, Vaughan M, Reiter R. Interaction of harderian glands, illumination, and temperature on thyroid hormones in golden hamsters. J Comp Physiol B. 1989;158:697-702 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the Harderian gland of males enhances the sensitivity of the TSH-thyroid axis to photic intensity and to lower temperatures, and ..
  80. Pinard C, Weiss M, Brightman A, Fenwick B, Davidson H. Evaluation of lysozyme and lactoferrin in lacrimal and other ocular glands of bison and cattle and in tears of bison. Am J Vet Res. 2003;64:104-8 pubmed
    ..Differences in other tear components may be responsible for variability in the susceptibility to infectious corneal diseases that exists between bison and cattle. ..
  81. Santillo A, Monteforte R, Raucci F, D Aniello A, Baccari G. Occurrence of D-aspartate in the harderian gland of Podarcis s. sicula and its effect on gland secretion. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2006;305:610-9 pubmed
    ..D-Asp), an amino acid well known for its neuroexcitatory activity, are endogeneously present in the Harderian gland (HG) of the lizard Podarcis s. sicula...
  82. Vrolyk V, Haruna J, Benoit Biancamano M. Neonatal and Juvenile Ocular Development in Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Histomorphological and Immunohistochemical Study. Vet Pathol. 2017;:300985817738098 pubmed publisher
    ..anterior epithelium of the lens, the inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers of the developing retina, and the Harderian gland, and was involved in the regression of the hyaloid vasculature...
  83. Menendez Pelaez A, Reiter R, Gonzalez Brito A, Howes K. N-acetyltransferase activity and indole contents of the male Syrian hamster Harderian gland: changes during the light:dark cycle. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1989;268:20-5 pubmed
    ..In agreement with previous work on the Harderian glands of female Syrian hamsters, the present results in males suggest that light onset is associated with marked changes in Harderian indoleamine metabolism. ..
  84. Percy D, Wojcinski Z, Schunk M. Sequential changes in the harderian and exorbital lacrimal glands in Wistar rats infected with sialodacryoadenitis virus. Vet Pathol. 1989;26:238-45 pubmed
    ..Persistent lesions also indicate that normal functions of these glands may be compromised for up to several weeks following outbreaks of SDA...
  85. Coto Montes A, Boga J, Tomas Zapico C, Rodríguez Colunga M, Martínez Fraga J, Tolivia Cadrecha D, et al. Porphyric enzymes in hamster Harderian gland, a model of damage by porphyrins and their precursors. A chronobiological study on the role of sex differences. Chem Biol Interact. 2001;134:135-49 pubmed
    The Syrian hamster Harderian gland (HG), representing a highly porphyrogenic organ, was used as a model system for studying physiologically occurring damage of biomolecules by porphyrins and their precursors, phenomena associated with ..
  86. Costabel M, Ermácora M, Santomé J, Alzari P, Guerin D. Structure of armadillo ACBP: a new member of the acyl-CoA-binding protein family. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:958-61 pubmed
    The X-ray structure of the tetragonal form of apo acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from the Harderian gland of the South American armadillo Chaetophractus villosus has been solved...
  87. Di Giovanni M, Topo E, Santillo A, D Aniello A, Chieffi Baccari G. D-Aspartate binding sites in rat Harderian gland. Amino Acids. 2010;38:229-35 pubmed publisher
    Radioligand binding of D-[(3)H]aspartic and L-[(3)H]glutamic acids to plasma membranes from rat Harderian gland was evaluated...
  88. Westwood F, Iswaran T, Greaves P. Long-term effects of an inotropic phosphodiesterase inhibitor (ICI 153,110) on the rat salivary gland, harderian gland, and intestinal mucosa. Toxicol Pathol. 1991;19:214-23 pubmed
    ..produced hypertrophy of salivary glands, hyperplasia of intestinal mucosa, and dacryoadenitis of the harderian gland. As the functions of these glandular tissues can be modified by factors which alter cyclic nucleotide ..
  89. Cardalda C, Batlle A, Juknat A. Sequence and structure of the rat housekeeping PBG-D isoform. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;249:438-43 pubmed
    ..Potential phosphorylation, glycosylation, and myristoylation sites were revealed through motif searches. Housekeeping PBG-D contains coiled-coil segments known to be involved in dynamic rearrangements in the active site...
  90. Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Katsumi Y, Tsukada H, Shibasaki H. Issues in measuring glucose metabolism of rat brain using PET: the effect of harderian glands on the frontal lobe. Neurosci Lett. 1998;255:99-102 pubmed
    We estimated the effect of the Harderian gland (an orbital gland of land vertebrates) on the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGIc) of the rat brain using positron emission tomography (PET) for animal use...
  91. Compton S, Smith A, Gaertner D. Comparison of the pathogenicity in rats of rat coronaviruses of different neutralization groups. Lab Anim Sci. 1999;49:514-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study was to determine whether antigenically different strains of RCV vary in their pathogenic potential in rats...