Summary: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.

Top Publications

  1. Vaez M, Follett S, Bed Hom B, Gourichon D, Tixier Boichard M, Burke T. A single point-mutation within the melanophilin gene causes the lavender plumage colour dilution phenotype in the chicken. BMC Genet. 2008;9:7 pubmed publisher
    ..This mutation results in the amino acid change R35W, at a site also associated with similar phenotypes in mice, humans and cats. This is the first time that an avian species with a mutation in the MLPH gene has been reported. ..
  2. D Alba L, Kieffer L, Shawkey M. Relative contributions of pigments and biophotonic nanostructures to natural color production: a case study in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) feathers. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:1272-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Feathers from all morphs contained quasi-ordered air-keratin 'spongy layer' matrices, but these were highly reduced and ..
  3. Metcalf J, Banack S, Kotut K, Krienitz L, Codd G. Amino acid neurotoxins in feathers of the Lesser Flamingo, Phoeniconaias minor. Chemosphere. 2013;90:835-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Deposition of these cyanotoxins into P. minor feathers has been shown to occur, consistent with the presence of cyanotoxins in the livers, stomach and faecal contents ..
  4. Field D, D Alba L, Vinther J, Webb S, Gearty W, Shawkey M. Melanin concentration gradients in modern and fossil feathers. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59451 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that the pattern was found most frequently in distantly related groups that share aquatic ecologies (e.g. waterfowl Anseriformes, penguins Sphenisciformes), suggesting a potential adaptive function with ancient origins. ..
  5. Fairhurst G, Marchant T, Soos C, Machin K, Clark R. Experimental relationships between levels of corticosterone in plasma and feathers in a free-living bird. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:4071-81 pubmed publisher
    Integrated measures of corticosterone (CORT), such as from feathers (CORTf), have intuitive appeal because they incorporate both the duration and amplitude of glucocorticoid secretion...
  6. Moreno R, Jover L, Diez C, Sanpera C. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill. Environ Pollut. 2011;159:2454-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels ..
  7. Stavenga D, Tinbergen J, Leertouwer H, Wilts B. Kingfisher feathers--colouration by pigments, spongy nanostructures and thin films. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:3960-7 pubmed publisher
    ..the common kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, reside in the barbs of the three main types of feather: the orange breast feathers, the cyan back feathers and the blue tail feathers...
  8. Soler J, Peralta Sánchez J, Martín Platero A, Martin Vivaldi M, Martinez Bueno M, Møller A. The evolution of size of the uropygial gland: mutualistic feather mites and uropygial secretion reduce bacterial loads of eggshells and hatching failures of European birds. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:1779-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The antimicrobial properties of uropygial secretions may prevent colonization and growth of microorganisms on feathers, skin and eggshells...
  9. Cedrola S, de Melo A, Mazotto A, Lins U, Zingali R, Rosado A, et al. Keratinases and sulfide from Bacillus subtilis SLC to recycle feather waste. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012;28:1259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Activity was higher using the inoculum propagated for 72 h on 1% whole feathers supplemented with 0.1% yeast extract...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Zheng X, Zhou Z, Wang X, Zhang F, Zhang X, Wang Y, et al. Hind wings in Basal birds and the evolution of leg feathers. Science. 2013;339:1309-12 pubmed publisher
    Recent discoveries of large leg feathers in some theropods have implications for our understanding of the evolution of integumentary features on the avialan leg, and particularly of their relevance for the origin of avialan flight...
  2. Lebarbenchon C, Poulson R, Shannon K, Slagter J, Slusher M, Wilcox B, et al. Isolation of influenza A viruses from wild ducks and feathers in Minnesota (2010-2011). Avian Dis. 2013;57:677-80 pubmed
    We investigated the feasibility of testing feathers as a complementary approach to detect low pathogenic influenza A viruses (IAVs) in wild duck populations...
  3. Wang X, Nudds R, Palmer C, Dyke G. Size scaling and stiffness of avian primary feathers: implications for the flight of Mesozoic birds. J Evol Biol. 2012;25:547-55 pubmed publisher
    The primary feathers of birds are subject to cyclical forces in flight causing their shafts (rachises) to bend. The amount the feathers deflect during flight is dependent upon the flexural stiffness of the rachises...
  4. Xia Y, Massé D, McAllister T, Kong Y, Seviour R, Beaulieu C. Identity and diversity of archaeal communities during anaerobic co-digestion of chicken feathers and other animal wastes. Bioresour Technol. 2012;110:111-9 pubmed publisher
    Digestion of raw feathers in anaerobic digesters inoculated with adapted swine manure, slaughterhouse sludge or dairy manure was investigated using twelve 42-L anaerobic digesters at 25°C...
  5. Winder V, Emslie S. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32257 pubmed publisher
    ..We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies...
  6. Haq K, Fear T, Ibraheem A, Abdul Careem M, Sharif S. Influence of vaccination with CVI988/Rispens on load and replication of a very virulent Marek's disease virus strain in feathers of chickens. Avian Pathol. 2012;41:69-75 pubmed publisher
    ..to study the interactions between a vaccine strain (CVI988/Rispens) and a very virulent strain of MDV (RB1B) in feathers. We examined genome load and replication of CVI988 and MDV-RB1B strains at various time points post infection...
  7. Clark C, Elias D, Girard M, Prum R. Structural resonance and mode of flutter of hummingbird tail feathers. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:3404-13 pubmed publisher
    b>Feathers can produce sound by fluttering in airflow. This flutter is hypothesized to be aeroelastic, arising from the coupling of aerodynamic forces to one or more of the feather's intrinsic structural resonance frequencies...
  8. Godefroit P, Sinitsa S, Dhouailly D, Bolotsky Y, Sizov A, McNamara M, et al. Dinosaur evolution. A Jurassic ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia with both feathers and scales. Science. 2014;345:451-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous deposits from northeastern China have yielded varied theropod dinosaurs bearing feathers. Filamentous integumentary structures have also been described in ornithischian dinosaurs, but whether these ..
  9. Eikenaar C, Whitham M, Komdeur J, van der Velde M, Moore I. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23288 pubmed publisher
    ..Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males...
  10. Broggi J, Gamero A, Hohtola E, Orell M, Nilsson J. Interpopulation variation in contour feather structure is environmentally determined in great tits. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24942 pubmed publisher
    The plumage of birds is important for flying, insulation and social communication. Contour feathers cover most of the avian body and among other functions they provide a critical insulation layer against heat loss...
  11. Polito M, Trivelpiece W, Karnovsky N, Ng E, Patterson W, Emslie S. Integrating stomach content and stable isotope analyses to quantify the diets of pygoscelid penguins. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26642 pubmed publisher
  12. Yoshihara C, Fukao A, Ando K, Tashiro Y, Taniuchi S, Takahashi S, et al. Elaborate color patterns of individual chicken feathers may be formed by the agouti signaling protein. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2012;175:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the elaborate color pattern of individual feathers is formed in part by the antagonistic action of ASIP that is produced by multiple mRNA variants in chicken ..
  13. Bourgeon S, Leat E, Magnusdottir E, Fisk A, Furness R, Strøm H, et al. Individual variation in biomarkers of health: influence of persistent organic pollutants in Great skuas (Stercorarius skua) breeding at different geographical locations. Environ Res. 2012;118:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, it is suggested that other ecological factors such as food availability could constrain physiological indicators more than anthropogenic contaminants...
  14. Ansara Ross T, Ross M, Wepener V. The use of feathers in monitoring bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids in the South African endangered African grass-owl (Tyto capensis). Ecotoxicology. 2013;22:1072-83 pubmed publisher
    ..quantified metals in South African species and no published data on residues specifically in South African owl feathers exist...
  15. McKellar R, Chatterton B, Wolfe A, Currie P. A diverse assemblage of Late Cretaceous dinosaur and bird feathers from Canadian amber. Science. 2011;333:1619-22 pubmed publisher
    The fossil record of early feathers has relied on carbonized compressions that lack fine structural detail. Specimens in amber are preserved in greater detail, but they are rare...
  16. Winder V, Emslie S. Mercury in non-breeding sparrows of North Carolina salt marshes. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:325-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thus provide a baseline for future Hg assessments in these species in NC...
  17. Guigueno M, Elliott K, Levac J, Wayland M, Elliott J. Differential exposure of alpine ospreys to mercury: melting glaciers, hydrology or deposition patterns?. Environ Int. 2012;40:24-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Mercury levels in feathers of nestlings increased with increasing modeled atmospheric deposition rates and decreased with lake size...
  18. Bairlein F, Norris D, Nagel R, Bulte M, Voigt C, Fox J, et al. Cross-hemisphere migration of a 25 g songbird. Biol Lett. 2012;8:505-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable-hydrogen isotope analysis of winter-grown feathers sampled from breeding birds generally support the notion that Alaskan birds overwinter primarily in eastern ..
  19. Kim M, Park K, Park J, Kwak I. Heavy metal contamination and metallothionein mRNA in blood and feathers of Black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris) from South Korea. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:2221-30 pubmed publisher
    The objectives of this study were to determine levels of heavy metal in the feathers and blood of Black-tailed gulls (Larus crassirostris), to evaluate metallothionein (MT) mRNA level in Black-tailed gulls on three independent islets, and ..
  20. Markowski M, Kaliński A, Skwarska J, Wawrzyniak J, Bańbura M, Markowski J, et al. Avian feathers as bioindicators of the exposure to heavy metal contamination of food. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2013;91:302-5 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using feathers of blue tit nestlings to assess the level of endogenous accumulation of lead...
  21. Foth C, Tischlinger H, Rauhut O. New specimen of Archaeopteryx provides insights into the evolution of pennaceous feathers. Nature. 2014;511:79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Urvogel' Archaeopteryx into context and have yielded important new data on the origin and early evolution of feathers. However, the biological context under which pennaceous feathers evolved is still debated...
  22. Pittman H, Bowerman W, Grim L, Grubb T, Bridges W. Using nestling feathers to assess spatial and temporal concentrations of mercury in bald eagles at Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, USA. Ecotoxicology. 2011;20:1626-35 pubmed publisher
    ..For the past 20 years, researchers have collected feathers from nestling bald eagles to assess their dietary exposure to mercury (Hg) on Rainy, Kabetogama, and Namakan ..
  23. Dorshorst B, Molin A, Rubin C, Johansson A, Strömstedt L, Pham M, et al. A complex genomic rearrangement involving the endothelin 3 locus causes dermal hyperpigmentation in the chicken. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002412 pubmed publisher
    ..This complex genomic rearrangement causing a specific monogenic trait in the chicken illustrates how novel mutations with major phenotypic effects have been reused during breed formation in domestic animals...
  24. Sahoo D, Das A, Thatoi H, Mondal K, Mohapatra P. Keratinase production and biodegradation of whole chicken feather keratin by a newly isolated bacterium under submerged fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;167:1040-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The manuscript first time describes B. weihenstephanensis PKD 5-mediated keratinase production under submerged fermentation and whole chicken feather biodegradation...
  25. Li Q, Gao K, Meng Q, Clarke J, Shawkey M, D Alba L, et al. Reconstruction of Microraptor and the evolution of iridescent plumage. Science. 2012;335:1215-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding and estimation of Microraptor feathering consistent with an ornamental function for the tail suggest a centrality for signaling in early evolution of plumage and feather color...
  26. Hobson K, Van Wilgenburg S, Wassenaar L, Larson K. Linking hydrogen (δ2H) isotopes in feathers and precipitation: sources of variance and consequences for assignment to isoscapes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35137 pubmed publisher
    ..Naturally occurring stable isotopes of H (δ(2)H) in feathers provide an alternative intrinsic marker of animal origin due to the predictable spatial linkage to underlying ..
  27. Giraudeau M, Czirják G, Duval C, Bretagnolle V, Gutierrez C, Guillon N, et al. Effect of preen oil on plumage bacteria: an experimental test with the mallard. Behav Processes. 2013;92:1-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Feathers are essential for avian thermoregulation, communication or flight and a reduction of plumage condition may alter these functions and reduce individual fitness...
  28. Greenwold M, Sawyer R. Linking the molecular evolution of avian beta (?) keratins to the evolution of feathers. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2011;316:609-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Feathers of today's birds are constructed of beta (?)-keratins, structural proteins of the epidermis that are found solely in reptiles and birds...
  29. Pietsch S, Hobson K, Wassenaar L, Tütken T. Tracking cats: problems with placing feline carnivores on δO, δD isoscapes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24601 pubmed publisher
  30. Barden H, Wogelius R, Li D, Manning P, Edwards N, van Dongen B. Morphological and geochemical evidence of eumelanin preservation in the feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird, Gansus yumenensis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25494 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses with morphological observations to investigate the preservation of melanosomes and melanin within feathers of the Early Cretaceous bird, Gansus yumenensis...
  31. Angamuthu R, Baskaran S, Gopal D, Devarajan J, Kathaperumal K. Rapid detection of the Marek's disease viral genome in chicken feathers by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:961-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAMP procedure is simple and does not rely on any special equipment. The detection of serotype 1 MDV by LAMP will be useful for detecting and controlling oncogenic Marek's disease...
  32. Evans S, Sheldon B. Quantitative genetics of a carotenoid-based color: heritability and persistent natal environmental effects in the great tit. Am Nat. 2012;179:79-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses demonstrate the context dependence of components of color variation and suggest that color patches may convey multiple aspects of individual state...
  33. Vágási C, Pap P, Vincze O, Benkő Z, Marton A, Barta Z. Haste makes waste but condition matters: molt rate-feather quality trade-off in a sedentary songbird. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40651 pubmed publisher
    ..House sparrows Passer domesticus experiencing accelerated molt developed shorter flight feathers with more fault bars and body feathers with supposedly lower insulation capacity (i.e...
  34. Kowata K, Nakaoka M, Nishio K, Fukao A, Satoh A, Ogoshi M, et al. Identification of a feather ?-keratin gene exclusively expressed in pennaceous barbule cells of contour feathers in chicken. Gene. 2014;542:23-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Feathers are elaborate skin appendages shared by birds and theropod dinosaurs that have hierarchical branching of the rachis, barbs, and barbules...
  35. Czirják G, Pap P, Vágási C, Giraudeau M, Mureşan C, Mirleau P, et al. Preen gland removal increases plumage bacterial load but not that of feather-degrading bacteria. Naturwissenschaften. 2013;100:145-51 pubmed publisher
  36. Veiga J, Polo V. Feathers at nests are potential female signals in the spotless starling. Biol Lett. 2005;1:334-7 pubmed
    Although the presence of feathers in the nest is widespread among birds, it has not been previously suggested that feathers can be used as sexual signals...
  37. Turner A, Makovicky P, Norell M. Feather quill knobs in the dinosaur Velociraptor. Science. 2007;317:1721 pubmed
    Some nonavian theropod dinosaurs were at least partially covered in feathers or filamentous protofeathers...
  38. Parejo D, Silva N. Methionine supplementation influences melanin-based plumage colouration in Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, nestlings. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3576-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide support for a non-genetic determination of a melanin-based plumage patch in the two sexes of nestling kestrels. ..
  39. Noh H, Liew S, Saranathan V, Mochrie S, Prum R, Dufresne E, et al. How noniridescent colors are generated by quasi-ordered structures of bird feathers. Adv Mater. 2010;22:2871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Under omni-directional lighting, colors from the quasi-ordered structures are invariant with the viewing angle. The non-iridescent coloration results from the isotropic nature of structures instead of strong backscattering. ..
  40. Michalak I, Chojnacka K, Dobrzanski Z, Gorecki H, Zielinska A, Korczynski M, et al. Effect of macroalgae enriched with microelements on egg quality parameters and mineral content of eggs, eggshell, blood, feathers and droppings. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2011;95:374-87 pubmed publisher
    ..feeding experiment, weight of laying hens, weight of eggs, eggshell thickness and mineral content of blood, feathers, droppings, eggs content (separately yolk and egg white) and eggshell were measured...
  41. Eising C, Müller W, Groothuis T. Avian mothers create different phenotypes by hormone deposition in their eggs. Biol Lett. 2006;2:20-2 pubmed
  42. Shawkey M, Morehouse N, Vukusic P. A protean palette: colour materials and mixing in birds and butterflies. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6 Suppl 2:S221-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we suggest directions for future research on colour optics and evolution that will be invaluable as we move towards a fuller understanding of colour in the natural world. ..
  43. Peresani M, Fiore I, Gala M, Romandini M, Tagliacozzo A. Late Neandertals and the intentional removal of feathers as evidenced from bird bone taphonomy at Fumane Cave 44 ky B.P., Italy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..fractures and a breakthrough, are observed exclusively on wings, indicating the intentional removal of large feathers by Neandertals...
  44. Lebas N. Female finery is not for males. Trends Ecol Evol. 2006;21:170-3 pubmed
    ..Here, I discuss that female ornamentation might be selected more often through female competition over resources than through competition over mates, as exemplified in a recent study by Heinsohn and colleagues. ..
  45. Gupta V, Mittal A, Kurup L, Mittal J. Adsorption of a hazardous dye, erythrosine, over hen feathers. J Colloid Interface Sci. 2006;304:52-7 pubmed
    ..Removal of erythrosine has been carried out using waste material--hen feathers--as adsorbent. The effects of pH, concentration of the dye, temperature, and adsorbent dosage have been studied...
  46. Nadeau N, Mundy N, Gourichon D, Minvielle F. Association of a single-nucleotide substitution in TYRP1 with roux in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). Anim Genet. 2007;38:609-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the Phe282 amino acid appears to be of functional significance, as it is highly conserved across the vertebrates. This is the first demonstration that TYRP1 has a role in pigmentation in birds...
  47. Jacot A, Romero Diaz C, Tschirren B, Richner H, Fitze P. Dissecting carotenoid from structural components of carotenoid-based coloration: a field experiment with great tits (Parus major). Am Nat. 2010;176:55-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of carotenoid availability and early growth condition on different components of the yellow breast feathers. By defining independent measures of feather carotenoid content (absolute carotenoid chroma) and background ..
  48. Roulin A, Almasi B, Meichtry Stier K, Jenni L. Eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based colour advertise resistance to oxidative stress in opposite ways. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:2241-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based colourations can be redundant signals of resistance to oxidative stress. ..
  49. Drew C, Lin C, Jiang T, Blunt G, Mou C, Chuong C, et al. The Edar subfamily in feather placode formation. Dev Biol. 2007;305:232-45 pubmed
    ..Our findings illustrate the roles of these three receptors during avian skin morphogenesis and also suggest that activators of feather placode fate undergo mutual regulation to reach a decision on skin appendage location and size. ..
  50. Lin C, Jiang T, Baker R, Maini P, Widelitz R, Chuong C. Spots and stripes: pleomorphic patterning of stem cells via p-ERK-dependent cell chemotaxis shown by feather morphogenesis and mathematical simulation. Dev Biol. 2009;334:369-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This generic cell behavior model can be applied to model stem cell patterning behavior at large. ..
  51. Alibardi L, Sawyer R. Cell structure of developing downfeathers in the zebrafinch with emphasis on barb ridge morphogenesis. J Anat. 2006;208:621-42 pubmed
    The present ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study on the embryonic feathers of the zebrafinch, an altricial passerine bird, describes cellular differentiation of developing downfeathers...
  52. Nadeau N, Minvielle F, Ito S, Inoue Murayama M, Gourichon D, Follett S, et al. Characterization of Japanese quail yellow as a genomic deletion upstream of the avian homolog of the mammalian ASIP (agouti) gene. Genetics. 2008;178:777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of ventral-specific ASIP expression in birds shows that this feature is conserved across vertebrates...
  53. Burger J, Gochfeld M, Jeitner C, Burke S, Volz C, Snigaroff R, et al. Mercury and other metals in eggs and feathers of glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) in the Aleutians. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;152:179-94 pubmed publisher
    ..examined concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in the eggs, and the feathers of fledgling and adult glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens) nesting in breeding colonies on Adak, Amchitka, ..
  54. Eeva T, Sillanpää S, Salminen J, Nikkinen L, Tuominen A, Toivonen E, et al. Environmental pollution affects the plumage color of Great tit nestlings through carotenoid availability. Ecohealth. 2008;5:328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Breast feathers of birds in territories exposed to heavy metals are less yellow than those in unpolluted environments...
  55. Hadfield J, Owens I. Strong environmental determination of a carotenoid-based plumage trait is not mediated by carotenoid availability. J Evol Biol. 2006;19:1104-14 pubmed
    ..The low heritability of this colour trait suggests environmental factors are likely to underlie the majority of variation in these processes. ..
  56. Nakagawa S, Lee J, Woodward B, Hatchwell B, Burke T. Differential selection according to the degree of cheating in a status signal. Biol Lett. 2008;4:667-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that differential selection can act on a trait according to the degree of cheating. ..
  57. Mougeot F, Martinez Padilla J, Bortolotti G, Webster L, Piertney S. Physiological stress links parasites to carotenoid-based colour signals. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..on body mass, carotenoid-based coloration of a main social signal and the amount of corticosterone deposited in feathers grown during the experiment...
  58. Gienapp P, Merilä J. Genetic and environmental effects on a condition-dependent trait: feather growth in Siberian jays. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:715-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, variation in feather growth rates as assessed with ptilochronological methods can provide information about heritable genetic differences in condition. ..
  59. Zaghloul T, Embaby A, Elmahdy A. Biodegradation of chicken feathers waste directed by Bacillus subtilis recombinant cells: scaling up in a laboratory scale fermentor. Bioresour Technol. 2011;102:2387-93 pubmed publisher
    Biodegradation of chicken feathers waste directed by Bacillus subtilis DB 100 (p5.2) cells was successfully carried out in 14L Bio Flo 110 laboratory scale fermentor...
  60. Nudds R, Kaiser G, Dyke G. Scaling of avian primary feather length. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e15665 pubmed publisher
    The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation...
  61. Van den Steen E, Covaci A, Jaspers V, Dauwe T, Voorspoels S, Eens M, et al. Experimental evaluation of the usefulness of feathers as a non-destructive biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using silastic implants as a novel method of exposure. Environ Int. 2007;33:257-64 pubmed
    ..alternative method of exposure for use in toxicological studies and at the same time evaluated the usefulness of feathers as a non-destructive biomonitor for PCBs...
  62. Stoddard M, Prum R. Evolution of avian plumage color in a tetrahedral color space: a phylogenetic analysis of new world buntings. Am Nat. 2008;171:755-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Evolution of avian ultraviolet/violet opsin sensitivity in relation to chromatic experience is discussed. ..
  63. Siitari H, Alatalo R, Halme P, Buchanan K, Kilpimaa J. Color signals in the black grouse (Tetrao tetrix): signal properties and their condition dependency. Am Nat. 2007;169 Suppl 1:S81-92 pubmed publisher
  64. Michalik A, McGill R, Furness R, Eggers T, van Noordwijk H, Quillfeldt P. Black and white--does melanin change the bulk carbon and nitrogen isotope values of feathers?. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010;24:875-8 pubmed publisher
    Bird feathers are employed in a wide range of carbon and nitrogen isotope studies relating to diet and migration. Feathers are chemically inert with respect to carbon and nitrogen, after synthesis...
  65. Yamamoto Y, Nakamura K, Kitagawa K, Ikenaga N, Yamada M, Mase M, et al. Severe nonpurulent encephalitis with mortality and feather lesions in call ducks (Anas platyrhyncha var. domestica) inoculated intravenously with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. Avian Dis. 2007;51:52-7 pubmed
    ..Viruses were isolated from all examined organs including the skin with many feathers. Serum antibody against the virus was detected in all surviving birds on day 10 PI by hemagglutination-inhibition ..
  66. Hõrak P, Sild E, Soomets U, Sepp T, Kilk K. Oxidative stress and information content of black and yellow plumage coloration: an experiment with greenfinches. J Exp Biol. 2010;213:2225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..BSO treatment also reduced the brightness (i.e. increased blackness) of the tips of tail feathers grown during the experiment...
  67. Widelitz R, Veltmaat J, Mayer J, Foley J, Chuong C. Mammary glands and feathers: comparing two skin appendages which help define novel classes during vertebrate evolution. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007;18:255-66 pubmed
    It may appear counter-intuitive to compare feathers and mammary glands. However, through this Evo-Devo analysis, we appreciate how species interact with the environment, requiring different ectodermal organs...
  68. Burger J, Gochfeld M. Mercury and other metals in feathers of common eider (Somateria mollissima) and tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) from the Aleutian chain of Alaska. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009;56:596-606 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the feathers of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and tufted puffins (Fratercula cirrhata) from Amchitka and Kiska islands (Aleutians)...
  69. Barnett J, Tauson R, Downing J, Janardhana V, Lowenthal J, Butler K, et al. The effects of a perch, dust bath, and nest box, either alone or in combination as used in furnished cages, on the welfare of laying hens. Poult Sci. 2009;88:456-70 pubmed publisher
  70. Delhey K, Burger C, Fiedler W, Peters A. Seasonal changes in colour: a comparison of structural, melanin- and carotenoid-based plumage colours. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11582 pubmed publisher
    ..After moult, plumage coloration has been deemed fixed due to the fact that feathers are dead structures...
  71. Saag P, Tilgar V, Mand R, Kilgas P, Mägi M. Plumage bacterial assemblages in a breeding wild passerine: relationships with ecological factors and body condition. Microb Ecol. 2011;61:740-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and sex-related variation in feather-degrading and free-living bacteria inhabiting the birds' yellow ventral feathers and to investigate associations with body condition...
  72. Rajaei F, Esmaili Sari A, Savabieasfahani M, Bahramifar N, Ghasempouri M. Liver and breast feather mercury in piscivorous birds of the Caspian Sea: monitoring changes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2011;86:521-4 pubmed publisher
    Mercury in the liver and breast feathers of the Common Cormorant, and in three species of Grebes from the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, were determined. The Common Cormorant had significantly more mercury in its tissues (liver: 8...
  73. Bleiweiss R. On the ecological basis of interspecific homoplasy in carotenoid-bearing signals. Evolution. 2007;61:2861-78 pubmed
  74. Vinther J, Briggs D, Prum R, Saranathan V. The colour of fossil feathers. Biol Lett. 2008;4:522-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Feathers are complex integumentary appendages of birds and some other theropod dinosaurs. They are frequently coloured and function in camouflage and display...
  75. Pointer M, Mundy N. Testing whether macroevolution follows microevolution: are colour differences among swans (Cygnus) attributable to variation at the MCIR locus?. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:249 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore provides a novel example where previously described intraspecific genotype/phenotype associations occur at the macroevolutionary level. ..
  76. Ramos R, Gonzalez Solis J, Forero M, Moreno R, Gómez Díaz E, Ruiz X, et al. The influence of breeding colony and sex on mercury, selenium and lead levels and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope signatures in summer and winter feathers of Calonectris shearwaters. Oecologia. 2009;159:345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..as well as stable isotope ratios of C(13C/12C, delta13C) and N(15N/14N, delta15N) in breeding- and winter-season feathers on males and females of two related shearwater species, providing information on spatiotemporal patterns of ..
  77. Hu D, Hou L, Zhang L, Xu X. A pre-Archaeopteryx troodontid theropod from China with long feathers on the metatarsus. Nature. 2009;461:640-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the extensive feathering of this specimen, particularly the attachment of long pennaceous feathers to the pes, sheds new light on the early evolution of feathers and demonstrates the complex distribution of ..
  78. Vágási C, Pap P, Barta Z. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14215 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt. ..
  79. Peters A, Kurvers R, Roberts M, Delhey K. No evidence for general condition-dependence of structural plumage colour in blue tits: an experiment. J Evol Biol. 2011;24:976-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These and previously published results suggest that structural colour might be sensitive to stress, rather than reduced body condition, during moult. ..
  80. Cahaner A, Ajuh J, Siegmund Schultze M, Azoulay Y, Druyan S, Zárate A. Effects of the genetically reduced feather coverage in naked neck and featherless broilers on their performance under hot conditions. Poult Sci. 2008;87:2517-27 pubmed publisher
    ..breast meat yield because dissipation of their excessively produced internal (metabolic) heat is hindered by the feathers. Therefore, it was hypothesized that heat stress can be alleviated by using the naked-neck gene (Na) or the ..
  81. Surmacki A, Nowakowski J. Soil and preen waxes influence the expression of carotenoid-based plumage coloration. Naturwissenschaften. 2007;94:829-35 pubmed
    The signaling function of carotenoid-based plumage is mainly determined by the concentration of pigments in feathers. For this reason, most studies of the proximate control of coloration focus on processes during and preceding moult...
  82. Kojadinovic J, Bustamante P, Churlaud C, Cosson R, Le Corre M. Mercury in seabird feathers: insight on dietary habits and evidence for exposure levels in the western Indian Ocean. Sci Total Environ. 2007;384:194-204 pubmed
    Breast feathers were used to estimate mercury levels in six marine birds nesting in the tropical western Indian Ocean, i.e...
  83. Bonier F, Martin P, Jensen J, Butler L, Ramenofsky M, Wingfield J. Pre-migratory life history stages of juvenile Arctic birds: costs, constraints, and trade-offs. Ecology. 2007;88:2729-35 pubmed
    Many young birds on the Arctic tundra are confronted by a challenging task: they must molt their feathers and accumulate fat stores for the autumn migration before climatic conditions deteriorate...
  84. Fraser R, Parry D. Molecular packing in the feather keratin filament. J Struct Biol. 2008;162:1-13 pubmed publisher
    Avian feathers have a filament-matrix texture and X-ray diffraction studies show that the filament has a helical structure with four repeating units per turn...
  85. Abdul Careem M, Read L, Parvizi P, Thanthrige Don N, Sharif S. Marek's disease virus-induced expression of cytokine genes in feathers of genetically defined chickens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:618-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we investigated Marek's disease virus (MDV) replication as well as the expression of cytokine genes in feathers of MDV-infected chickens belonging to genetically defined lines (N2a or B(21)/B(21) haplotype-resistant and P2a ..
  86. Phillips R, Bearhop S, McGill R, Dawson D. Stable isotopes reveal individual variation in migration strategies and habitat preferences in a suite of seabirds during the nonbreeding period. Oecologia. 2009;160:795-806 pubmed publisher
    ..An increasingly popular approach is to use N and C stable isotope analysis of feathers sampled at colonies to provide information on distribution and trophic level for the preceding, and generally ..
  87. Maderson P, Hillenius W, Hiller U, Dove C. Towards a comprehensive model of feather regeneration. J Morphol. 2009;270:1166-208 pubmed publisher
    Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete...
  88. Ruiz Rodriguez M, Valdivia E, Soler J, Martin Vivaldi M, Martín Platero A, Martinez Bueno M. Symbiotic bacteria living in the hoopoe's uropygial gland prevent feather degradation. J Exp Biol. 2009;212:3621-6 pubmed publisher
    Among potential agents that might damage bird feathers are certain microorganisms which secrete enzymes that digest keratin, as is the case of the ubiquitous bacterium Bacillus licheniformis, present in both the feathers and skin of wild ..
  89. Sato S, Otake T, Suzuki C, Saburi J, Kobayashi E. Mapping of the recessive white locus and analysis of the tyrosinase gene in chickens. Poult Sci. 2007;86:2126-33 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, it was confirmed that an avian retroviral sequence insertion in the tyrosinase gene was the cause of recessive white phenotype in chickens...
  90. Houghton L, Lindon C, Freeman A, Morgan B. Abortive placode formation in the feather tract of the scaleless chicken embryo. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:3020-30 pubmed
    ..In the sporadic "escaper" feathers that form in scaleless, expression of many genes associated with the progression of feather development is ..
  91. Abdul Careem M, Hunter B, Sarson A, Parvizi P, Haghighi H, Read L, et al. Host responses are induced in feathers of chickens infected with Marek's disease virus. Virology. 2008;370:323-32 pubmed
    ..The finding that host responses are generated in the feather may be exploited for developing strategies to control MDV infection in the FFE, thus preventing horizontal virus transmission...
  92. Cristol D, Brasso R, Condon A, Fovargue R, Friedman S, Hallinger K, et al. The movement of aquatic mercury through terrestrial food webs. Science. 2008;320:335 pubmed publisher
    ..Rivers contaminated with mercury may pose a threat to the many bird species that feed on predatory invertebrates in adjacent riparian habitats...