egg shell


Summary: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.

Top Publications

  1. Ha Y, Son M, Yun K, Kim Y. Relationship between eggshell strength and keratan sulfate of eggshell membranes. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2007;147:1109-15 pubmed
    ..985, p<0.0005). These results suggest that eggshell strength is proportional to the KS content of eggshell membranes with an increase of eggshell weight...
  2. Ishikawa S, Suzuki K, Fukuda E, Arihara K, Yamamoto Y, Mukai T, et al. Photodynamic antimicrobial activity of avian eggshell pigments. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:770-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate the possibility that the natural pigments used therapeutically have evolved in nature as a defence system...
  3. Gole V, Chousalkar K, Roberts J. Prevalence of antibodies to Mycoplasma synoviae in laying hens and possible effects on egg shell quality. Prev Vet Med. 2012;106:75-8 pubmed publisher
    ..randomly collected, out of these 30 eggs were used for ELISA and remaining 30 eggs were used to estimate various egg shell quality parameters. Subsequently, association between the serological status of eggs for M...
  4. Wang Z, Qu L, Yao J, Yang X, Li G, Zhang Y, et al. An EAV-HP insertion in 5' Flanking region of SLCO1B3 causes blue eggshell in the chicken. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003183 pubmed publisher
  5. Yang J, Zhao Z, Hou J, Zhou Z, Deng Y, Dai J. Expression of TRPV6 and CaBP-D28k in the egg shell gland (uterus) during the oviposition cycle of the laying hen. Br Poult Sci. 2013;54:398-406 pubmed publisher
    ..was to investigate the localisation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel type 6 (TRPV6) in egg shell gland (ESG) and examine the dynamic expression of TRPV6 and Calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k), as well as the changes ..
  6. Fakhouri M, Elalayli M, Sherling D, Hall J, Miller E, Sun X, et al. Minor proteins and enzymes of the Drosophila eggshell matrix. Dev Biol. 2006;293:127-41 pubmed
    ..This work provides a framework for future molecular studies of eggshell assembly...
  7. Zhao R, Xu G, Liu Z, Li J, Yang N. A study on eggshell pigmentation: biliverdin in blue-shelled chickens. Poult Sci. 2006;85:546-9 pubmed
    ..01). Our results demonstrated that blood is not the biosynthesis site of the shell biliverdin. Biliverdin is most likely synthesized in the shell gland and then deposited onto the eggshell of chickens...
  8. Mann K, Macek B, Olsen J. Proteomic analysis of the acid-soluble organic matrix of the chicken calcified eggshell layer. Proteomics. 2006;6:3801-10 pubmed
  9. Hulet R, Gladys G, Hill D, Meijerhof R, El Shiekh T. Influence of egg shell embryonic incubation temperature and broiler breeder flock age on posthatch growth performance and carcass characteristics. Poult Sci. 2007;86:408-12 pubmed
    ..No significant differences in mortality were observed. Posthatch performance appears to be affected by hatcher environment as determined by embryo shell temperature...

More Information

Publications111 found, 100 shown here

  1. Cassey P, Ewen J, Blackburn T, Hauber M, Vorobyev M, Marshall N. Eggshell colour does not predict measures of maternal investment in eggs of Turdus thrushes. Naturwissenschaften. 2008;95:713-21 pubmed publisher
  2. Park J, Jang J, Bae S, An C, Suh J. Bone formation with various bone graft substitutes in critical-sized rat calvarial defect. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2009;20:372-8 pubmed
    ..We compared N-HA alone or in combination with calcium sulfate (CS), with a commercial bone substitute, anorganic bovine bone (Bio-Oss, BO)...
  3. Liu W, Li D, Liu J, Chen S, Qu L, Zheng J, et al. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28600 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs...
  4. Guard Bouldin J, Buhr R. Evaluation of eggshell quality of hens infected with Salmonella enteritidis by application of compression. Poult Sci. 2006;85:129-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there may be supportive approaches to achieve reduction of S. enteritidis in table eggs that do not rely on culturing...
  5. Mann K, Olsen J, Macek B, Gnad F, Mann M. Phosphoproteins of the chicken eggshell calcified layer. Proteomics. 2007;7:106-15 pubmed
    ..Among the major phosphorylated proteins of the chicken eggshell matrix were osteopontin and the eggshell-specific proteins ovocleidin-17, ovocleidin-116, and ovocalyxin-32...
  6. Siva Rama Krishna D, Siddharthan A, Seshadri S, Sampath Kumar T. A novel route for synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite from eggshell waste. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2007;18:1735-43 pubmed
    ..The in vitro dissolution study shows longer stability in phosphate buffer and cell culture test using osteoblast cells establishes biocompatibility of OHA...
  7. Balanoff A, Norell M, Grellet Tinner G, Lewin M. Digital preparation of a probable neoceratopsian preserved within an egg, with comments on microstructural anatomy of ornithischian eggshells. Naturwissenschaften. 2008;95:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of an embryo also adds another important data point to the already impressive postnatal ontogenetic series that are available for this clade...
  8. Dunn I, Joseph N, Bain M, Edmond A, Wilson P, Milona P, et al. Polymorphisms in eggshell organic matrix genes are associated with eggshell quality measurements in pedigree Rhode Island Red hens. Anim Genet. 2009;40:110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The marker effects are as large as 17% of trait standard deviations and could be used to improve eggshell quality. ..
  9. Jonchère V, Rehault Godbert S, Hennequet Antier C, Cabau C, Sibut V, Cogburn L, et al. Gene expression profiling to identify eggshell proteins involved in physical defense of the chicken egg. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:57 pubmed publisher
    ..An extensive bioinformatic analysis on genes over-expressed in the uterus allowed us to identify novel eggshell proteins that contribute to the egg's natural defenses...
  10. Yao J, Chen Z, Xu G, Wang X, Ning Z, Zheng J, et al. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 8 gene association with egg traits in dwarf chickens. Poult Sci. 2010;89:883-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicated that LRP8, as a new member of eggshell matrix protein, may be a candidate gene associated with eggshell traits...
  11. Wang Z, Liu R, Wang A, Li J, Deng X. Expression and activity analysis reveal that heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 is associated with blue egg formation. Poult Sci. 2011;90:836-41 pubmed publisher
  12. Ino T, Hattori M, Yoshida T, Hattori S, Yoshimura K, Takahashi K. Improved physical and biochemical features of a collagen membrane by conjugating with soluble egg shell membrane protein. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:865-73 pubmed
    Soluble egg shell membrane protein (SEP) prepared from the egg shell membrane by performic acid oxidation and pepsin digestion was applied to prepare a membrane conjugated with pepsin-solubilized collagen (PSC) by cross-linking with ..
  13. Rose M, Hincke M. Protein constituents of the eggshell: eggshell-specific matrix proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:2707-19 pubmed publisher
    ..An emerging concept is the dual role (mineralization/antimicrobial protection) that certain eggshell matrix proteins can play...
  14. Torres F, Troncoso O, Piaggio F, Hijar A. Structure-property relationships of a biopolymer network: the eggshell membrane. Acta Biomater. 2010;6:3687-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study helps elucidate the properties of the biopolymer networks found in nature and describes important mechanical properties for the use of the ESM as a biomaterial...
  15. Cassey P, Portugal S, Maurer G, Ewen J, Boulton R, Hauber M, et al. Variability in avian eggshell colour: a comparative study of museum eggshells. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12054 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use an extensive museum collection to address these problems directly, and to test how diversity in eggshell coloration is distributed among different phylogenetic levels of the class Aves...
  16. De Coster G, de Neve L, Lens L. Intraclutch variation in avian eggshell pigmentation: the anaemia hypothesis. Oecologia. 2012;170:297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the overall increase in pigment darkness along the laying sequence suggests that pigments also accumulate by enhanced red blood cell production caused by anaemia due to egg production itself...
  17. Samiullah -, Chousalkar K, Roberts J, Sexton M, May D, Kiermeier A. Effects of egg shell quality and washing on Salmonella Infantis penetration. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013;165:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..are washed prior to packing to remove dirt and fecal material and to reduce the microbial contamination of the egg shell. The egg contents can be an ideal growth medium for microorganisms which can result in human illness if eggs are ..
  18. Sazanov A, Stekol nikova V, Korczak M, Sazanova A, Jaszczak K, Zieba G, et al. Expression of positional candidates for shell thickness in the chicken. Poult Sci. 2007;86:202-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggested that CR523443 was a candidate gene for QTL ST53 in the chicken...
  19. Jones M, McManus D, Sivadorai P, Glanfield A, Moertel L, Belli S, et al. Tracking the fate of iron in early development of human blood flukes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1646-58 pubmed
    ..These observations emphasise the importance of Fe in schistosome metabolism and egg formation and suggest new avenues for disruption of egg formation in these pathogenic parasites...
  20. Wellman Labadie O, Picman J, Hincke M. Antimicrobial activity of the Anseriform outer eggshell and cuticle. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;149:640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein extracts from the cavity nesting hooded merganser were especially potent. The unique environmental pressures exerted on cavity-nesting species may have led to the evolution of potent antimicrobial defenses...
  21. Mann K. Proteomic analysis of the chicken egg vitelline membrane. Proteomics. 2008;8:2322-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The list of VM proteins presented in this report is by far the most comprehensive dataset available at present and complements proteomic analyses of chicken egg compartments published previously...
  22. Dunn I, Wilson P, Lu Z, Bain M, Crossan C, Talbot R, et al. New hypotheses on the function of the avian shell gland derived from microarray analysis comparing tissue from juvenile and sexually mature hens. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;163:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These new hypotheses, if borne out experimentally, will lead to a greater understanding of shell gland function including the processes involved in eggshell formation and anti-microbial activity. ..
  23. Takahashi H, Yang D, Sasaki O, Furukawa T, Nirasawa K. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting eggshell quality on chromosome 9 in an F(2) intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for eggshell strength. Anim Genet. 2009;40:779-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Marker-assisted selection based on these QTL could be used to develop strategies for reducing the breakage and cracking of eggs in commercial layer houses...
  24. Narang J, Minakshi -, Bhambi M, Pundir C. Determination of serum triglyceride by enzyme electrode using covalently immobilized enzyme on egg shell membrane. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:691-5 pubmed publisher
    A mixture of commercial lipase, glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase was co-immobilized onto egg shell membrane through covalent coupling...
  25. Dupoirieux L, Pourquier D, Neves M, Teot L. Resorption kinetics of eggshell: an in vivo study. J Craniofac Surg. 2001;12:53-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, eggshell is a resorbable implant, but the degradation kinetic is size dependent. Large ostrich grafts are also suitable as onlay graft, but a complementary osteosynthesis is recommended to enhance osteointegration...
  26. Hincke M, Tsang C, Courtney M, Hill V, Narbaitz R. Purification and immunochemistry of a soluble matrix protein of the chicken eggshell (ovocleidin 17). Calcif Tissue Int. 1995;56:578-83 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that this protein is secreted during shell formation and becomes incorporated into this structure. It may therefore play a role in the crystallization process and influence the properties of the resulting eggshell...
  27. Hincke M, Gautron J, Panheleux M, Garcia Ruiz J, McKee M, Nys Y. Identification and localization of lysozyme as a component of eggshell membranes and eggshell matrix. Matrix Biol. 2000;19:443-53 pubmed
  28. Lavelin I, Meiri N, Genina O, Alexiev R, Pines M. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase gene expression in the avian eggshell gland: distinct regulation in different cell types. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R1169-76 pubmed
  29. Gautron J, Hincke M, Panheleux M, Garcia Ruiz J, Boldicke T, Nys Y. Ovotransferrin is a matrix protein of the hen eggshell membranes and basal calcified layer. Connect Tissue Res. 2001;42:255-67 pubmed
  30. Tuiskula Haavisto M, Honkatukia M, Vilkki J, De Koning D, Schulman N, Mäki Tanila A. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting quality and production traits in egg layers. Poult Sci. 2002;81:919-27 pubmed
    ..The most significant QTL explains 25.8% of the phenotypic variance in F2 of body weight. An area affecting the age at first egg, egg weight, and the number of eggs was located on chromosome Z...
  31. Mann K, Gautron J, Nys Y, McKee M, Bajari T, Schneider W, et al. Disulfide-linked heterodimeric clusterin is a component of the chicken eggshell matrix and egg white. Matrix Biol. 2003;22:397-407 pubmed
  32. Masuda Y. [Hen's eggshell calcium]. Clin Calcium. 2005;15:95-100 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that eggshell Ca could be beneficial for bone and we propose Ca fortified foods which contain eggshell Ca as a nutraceutical...
  33. Vetter A, O Grady S. Sodium and anion transport across the avian uterine (shell gland) epithelium. J Exp Biol. 2005;208:479-86 pubmed
    ..Electrogenic Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) transport were coupled under basal and cAMP stimulated conditions and basal anion transport decreased with age and during molting...
  34. Soledad Fernandez M, Moya A, Lopez L, Arias J. Secretion pattern, ultrastructural localization and function of extracellular matrix molecules involved in eggshell formation. Matrix Biol. 2001;19:793-803 pubmed
  35. Riihimaa P, Nissi R, Page A, Winter A, Keskiaho K, Kivirikko K, et al. Egg shell collagen formation in Caenorhabditis elegans involves a novel prolyl 4-hydroxylase expressed in spermatheca and embryos and possessing many unique properties. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18238-43 pubmed
    ..PHY-3 is thus likely to be involved in the synthesis of collagens in early embryos, probably of those in the egg shell.
  36. Ahlborn G, Sheldon B. Enzymatic and microbiological inhibitory activity in eggshell membranes as influenced by layer strains and age and storage variables. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1935-41 pubmed
    ..Based on these and other findings, ESM may have potential commercial value as a processing adjuvant in food and pharmaceutical product applications...
  37. Gao J, Liang G, Cheung J, Pan Y, Kuang Y, Zhao F, et al. Multifunctional yolk-shell nanoparticles: a potential MRI contrast and anticancer agent. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:11828-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This work indicates that these unique yolk-shell nanoparticles may ultimately lead to new designs of multifunctional nanostructures for nanomedicine. ..
  38. Ok Y, Lee S, Jeon W, Oh S, Usman A, Moon D. Application of eggshell waste for the immobilization of cadmium and lead in a contaminated soil. Environ Geochem Health. 2011;33 Suppl 1:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the findings obtained, eggshell waste can be used as an alternative to CaCO? for the immobilization of heavy metals in soils. ..
  39. Nicolai A, Vernon P, Lenz R, Le Lannic J, Briand V, Charrier M. Well wrapped eggs: effects of egg shell structure on heat resistance and hatchling mass in the invasive land snail Cornu aspersum. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2013;319:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..on the terrestrial invasive gastropod Cornu aspersum was to investigate the effect of dietary calcium source on egg shell structure and heat resistance of eggs in two populations from different climatic regions of France (Western ..
  40. Mertens K, Vaesen I, Loffel J, Kemps B, Kamers B, Perianu C, et al. The transmission color value: a novel egg quality measure for recording shell color used for monitoring the stress and health status of a brown layer flock. Poult Sci. 2010;89:609-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This could be used as an early detection of stress situations or emerging diseases, even before important quality and health damage can occur. ..
  41. Bomfim L, Vieira P, Fonseca A, Ramos I. Eggshell ultrastructure and delivery of pharmacological inhibitors to the early embryo of R. prolixus by ethanol permeabilization of the extraembryonic layers. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185770 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the potential importance of this methodology to the study of this vector developmental biology and population control. ..
  42. Musgrove M, Jones D, Northcutt J, Harrison M, Cox N, Ingram K, et al. Recovery of Salmonella from commercial shell eggs by shell rinse and shell crush methodologies. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1955-8 pubmed
    ..3%). For some eggs, Salmonella was only recovered by one of the methods. Use of both approaches in the same experiment increased sampling sensitivity, although in most cases, crushing provided more sensitive Salmonella recovery. ..
  43. Gómara B, Gomez G, Díaz Paniagua C, Marco A, Gonzalez M. PCB, DDT, arsenic, and heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in chameleon (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) eggs from Southwest Spain. Chemosphere. 2007;68:25-31 pubmed
    ..However, it should be borne in mind that most of the data found in the literature refer to highly polluted areas. ..
  44. Chemaly M, Huneau Salaün A, Labbe A, Houdayer C, Petetin I, Fravalo P. Isolation of Salmonella enterica in laying-hen flocks and assessment of eggshell contamination in France. J Food Prot. 2009;72:2071-7 pubmed
    ..This study provided valuable information that could be used for risk management and risk assessment studies. ..
  45. Fontoura P, Rubal M, Veiga P. Two new species of Tardigrada (Eutardigrada: Ramazzottiidae, Macrobiotidae) from the supralittoral zone of the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula rocky shores. Zootaxa. 2017;4263:450-466 pubmed publisher
    ..from all the other known Ramazzottius species with the same type of cuticular sculpture by the dotted egg shell and the peculiar reticulation visible at the bulbous base of egg processes. Macrobiotus halophilus sp. nov...
  46. Quilès F, Balandier J, Capizzi Banas S. In situ characterisation of a microorganism surface by Raman microspectroscopy: the shell of Ascaris eggs. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2006;386:249-55 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the biochemical structural properties of egg surfaces would be useful to understand the egg adhesion phenomena on vegetables contaminated by reused wastewater. ..
  47. Jones D, Lawrence K, Yoon S, Heitschmidt G. Salmonella contamination in shell eggs exposed to modified-pressure imaging for microcrack detection. Poult Sci. 2011;90:1616-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The imaging system can be used to assess eggs for cracks without negative food safety implications. ..
  48. Sinaei M, Bolouki M. Metals in Blood and Eggs of Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Nesting Colonies of the Northern Coast of the Sea of Oman. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2017;73:552-561 pubmed publisher
    ..Heavy metals concentrations in blood, yolk, albumen, and egg shell ranged between 0.16-36.78, 0.006-33.88, 0.003-4.02, and 0.002-6.85 ?g/g (ww), respectively...
  49. Vieira D, Costa F, Lima M, Júnior J, Bonaparte T, Cavalcante D. 2-Hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid and DL-methionine for Japanese quails in production. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2017;: pubmed publisher
  50. Lorenzini S, Baroni C, Fallick A, Baneschi I, Salvatore M, Zanchetta G, et al. Stable isotopes reveal Holocene changes in the diet of Adélie penguins in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica). Oecologia. 2010;164:911-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Pérez Huerta A, Dauphin Y. Comparison of the structure, crystallography and composition of eggshells of the guinea fowl and graylag goose. Zoology (Jena). 2016;119:52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall results indicate that to estimate the quality of eggshells, such as resistance to breakage, is not a straightforward process because of the high complexity of avian eggshell biomineralization. ..
  52. Lin R, Chen H, Rouvier R, Marie Etancelin C. Genetic parameters of body weight, egg production, and shell quality traits in the Shan Ma laying duck (Anas platyrhynchos). Poult Sci. 2016;95:2514-2519 pubmed
    ..Among them, 264 ducks were used to study the egg shell quality traits of eggs laid at 300 days of age...
  53. Little C, Walsh S, Hucklesby L, Surman Lee S, Pathak K, Hall Y, et al. Salmonella contamination in non-UK produced shell eggs on retail sale in some regions of England. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:E061123.4 pubmed
  54. Pulikanti R, Peebles E, Gerard P. Use of implantable temperature transponders for the determination of air cell temperature, eggshell water vapor conductance, and their functional relationships in embryonated broiler hatching eggs. Poult Sci. 2011;90:1191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, increased embryo survivability by further improving the implantation procedure may increase the practicality of temperature transponder use in commercial settings. ..
  55. Hadrich I, Drira I, Neji S, Mahfoud N, Ranque S, Makni F, et al. Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates. ..
  56. Wallace B, Sotherland P, Tomillo P, Bouchard S, Reina R, Spotila J, et al. Egg components, egg size, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006;145:524-32 pubmed
    ..However, hatchling mass correlates more with yolk mass than with albumen mass, unlike patterns observed in bird eggs of similar composition. ..
  57. Keithmaleesatti S, Thirakhupt K, Pradatsudarasar A, Varanusupakul P, Kitana N, Robson M. Concentration of organochlorine in egg yolk and reproductive success of Egretta garzetta (Linnaeus, 1758) at Wat Tan-en non-hunting area, Phra Nakhorn Si Ayuthaya Province, Thailand. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2007;68:79-83 pubmed
    ..05). Rather, major factors potentially influencing the decline of reproductive success observed during the field study may include strong wind, predators, intraspecific and interspecific competitions. ..
  58. Igic B, Cassey P, Grim T, Greenwood D, Moskát C, Rutila J, et al. A shared chemical basis of avian host-parasite egg colour mimicry. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:1068-76 pubmed publisher
  59. Araujo R, Castanhinha R, Martins R, Mateus O, Hendrickx C, Beckmann F, et al. Filling the gaps of dinosaur eggshell phylogeny: Late Jurassic Theropod clutch with embryos from Portugal. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1924 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these fossils allow unambiguous association of basal theropod osteology with a specific and unique new eggshell morphology. ..
  60. Safaee M, Winkler E, Chou D. Mini-open spinal column shortening for the treatment of adult tethered cord syndrome. J Clin Neurosci. 2017;44:315-319 pubmed publisher
    ..Using intraoperative navigation pedicle screws were placed at T10, T11, L1, and L2. A mini-open 3-column "egg shell" decancellation osteotomy of T12 was performed through a transpedicular approach with preservation of the ..
  61. De Reu K, Grijspeerdt K, Heyndrickx M, Uyttendaele M, Debevere J, Herman L. Bacterial shell contamination in the egg collection chains of different housing systems for laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 2006;47:163-72 pubmed
    ..Storing shell eggs, whether temporarily refrigerated or not, for 9 d or more, resulted in a decrease in bacterial eggshell contamination for both bacterial variables. ..
  62. Holm L, Blomqvist A, Brandt I, Brunström B, Ridderstråle Y, Berg C. Embryonic exposure to o,p'-DDT causes eggshell thinning and altered shell gland carbonic anhydrase expression in the domestic hen. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:2787-93 pubmed
    ..The results support our hypothesis that eggshell thinning in avian wildlife can result from a functional malformation in the shell gland, induced by embryonic exposure to estrogenic substances. ..
  63. Chousalkar K, Roberts J. Ultrastructural observations on effects of infectious bronchitis virus in eggshell-forming regions of the oviduct of the commercial laying hen. Poult Sci. 2007;86:1915-9 pubmed
  64. Rochester J, Millam J. Phytoestrogens and avian reproduction: Exploring the evolution and function of phytoestrogens and possible role of plant compounds in the breeding ecology of wild birds. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2009;154:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence from our laboratory and others appear to support this hypothesis. ..
  65. von Hurst P, Moorhouse R, Raubenheimer D. Preferred natural food of breeding Kakapo is a high value source of calcium and vitamin D. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;164:177-179 pubmed publisher
    ..4mg/g dry matter) which would be essential for both egg shell production and the growing skeleton of the chick...
  66. Björn L, Bengtson S, Li S, Hecker C, Ullah S, Roos A, et al. Thermal emissivity of avian eggshells. J Therm Biol. 2016;57:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The spectral differences between eggs that nevertheless exist should be taken into account when using infrared thermometers for estimating the surface temperature of avian eggs. ..
  67. Tao Y, Lu Y, Sun Y, Gu B, Lu W, Pan J. Development of mucoadhesive microspheres of acyclovir with enhanced bioavailability. Int J Pharm. 2009;378:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..6 ng h/mL and 3.7 h) (P<0.05), which indicated that the bioavailability of acyclovir was greatly improved due to the prolonged retention of ACV-ad-ms in gastrointestinal tract. ..
  68. Pradhan A, Sahoo P. Synthesis and study of thermal, mechanical and biodegradation properties of chitosan-g-PMMA with chicken egg shell (nano-CaO) as a novel bio-filler. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2017;80:149-155 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary investigations of the BNCs will open the door for their use in bioadhesive bone cement implants in future. ..
  69. Lee J, Jessen K, Beltran R, Starkl V, Schatzmayr G, Borutova R, et al. Effects of mycotoxin-contaminated diets and deactivating compound in laying hens: 2. effects on white shell egg quality and characteristics. Poult Sci. 2012;91:2096-104 pubmed publisher
  70. Nelyubina Y, Lyssenko K. From "loose" to "dense" crystalline phases of calcium carbonate through "repulsive" interactions: an experimental charge-density study. Chemistry. 2012;18:12633-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although believed to be exclusively repulsive, the interactions between anions cause them to bind more tightly in a crystal and thus make the aragonite phase denser than its calcite counterpart. ..
  71. Onderci M, Sahin N, Sahin K, Balci T, Gursu M, Juturu V, et al. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex during the late laying period of quail at different environmental temperatures. Br Poult Sci. 2006;47:209-15 pubmed
    ..ASI supplementation significantly improved egg quality and bone mineralisation in quail during the late laying period and did not affect feed consumption or egg production. ..
  72. Safaa H, Serrano M, Valencia D, Arbe X, Jimenez Moreno E, Lazaro R, et al. Effects of the levels of methionine, linoleic Acid, and added fat in the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown laying hens in the late phase of production. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1595-602 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a reduction in the MET level from 0.36 to 0.31% and in LIN from 1.60 to 1.12% did not affect any trait in hens late in the production cycle. Eggshell quality was not affected by any of the dietary treatments. ..
  73. Godefroit P, Golovneva L, Shchepetov S, Garcia G, Alekseev P. The last polar dinosaurs: high diversity of latest Cretaceous arctic dinosaurs in Russia. Naturwissenschaften. 2009;96:495-501 pubmed publisher
  74. Tang J, Han L, Yu Y, Kang J, Zhang Y. A label-free immunoassay using eggshell membrane as matrix and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) as light-scattering enhancer. Luminescence. 2011;26:634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..31 ng/mL [signal:noise ratio (S:N) = 3]. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of IgG in human serum, and the results were in agreement with those obtained by a general immunonephelometric method. ..
  75. Li N, Niu L, Qi Y, Yiu C, Ryou H, Arola D, et al. Subtleties of biomineralisation revealed by manipulation of the eggshell membrane. Biomaterials. 2011;32:8743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a model for infiltrating the two compartmental niches of a biopolymer membrane with different intrafibre minerals to obtain materials with potentially improved structure-property relationships. ..
  76. Lunge S, Thakre D, Kamble S, Labhsetwar N, Rayalu S. Alumina supported carbon composite material with exceptionally high defluoridation property from eggshell waste. J Hazard Mater. 2012;237-238:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluoride sorption studies were carried out in synthetic, groundwater and wastewater. EC proved to be a potential, indigenous and economic adsorbent for fluoride removal. ..
  77. Aygun A, Sert D. Effects of vacuum packing on eggshell microbial activity and egg quality in table eggs under different storage temperatures. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:1626-32 pubmed publisher
    ..However, VP eggs had a higher level of coliforms than control eggs after 42 days at 5 °C. The results indicated that vacuum packing extended the egg shelf life to at least 42 days compared with control eggs at 5 and 22 °C. ..
  78. Andrews R, Thompson M, Greene V. Does low gas permeability of rigid-shelled gekkotan eggs affect embryonic development?. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2013;319:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..lesueurii). Differences in the temporal patterns of yolk sac and chorioallantois development would thus serve to compensate for low rates of oxygen diffusion through rigid shells of gekkotans. ..
  79. Bootklad M, Kaewtatip K. Biodegradation of thermoplastic starch/eggshell powder composites. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;97:315-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The biodegradation was determined by the soil burial test. The TPS/EP composites were more rapidly degraded than the TPS/CC composites. In addition, the eggshell powder improved the water resistance and thermal stability of the TPS. ..
  80. Guesdon V, Ahmed A, Mallet S, Faure J, Nys Y. Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality. Br Poult Sci. 2006;47:1-12 pubmed
  81. Shafey T, Al Batshan H, Shalaby M, Ghannam M. Incubation temperature and hemoglobin dielectric of chicken embryos incubated under the influence of electric field. Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25:87-96 pubmed
  82. Kamata R, Shiraishi F, Takahashi S, Shimizu A, Shiraishi H. Reproductive and developmental effects of transovarian exposure to o,p'-DDT in Japanese quails. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:782-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicated that transovarian exposure to o,p'-DDT could bring about population declines in avian species through loss of fecundity caused by depression of hatchability and dysfunction of the reproductive tract. ..
  83. Oskam C, Haile J, McLay E, Rigby P, Allentoft M, Olsen M, et al. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:1991-2000 pubmed publisher
  84. Pulikanti R, Peebles E, Zhai W, Gerard P. Determination of embryonic temperature profiles and eggshell water vapor conductance constants in incubating Ross x Ross 708 broiler hatching eggs using temperature transponders. Poult Sci. 2012;91:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..20 ± 0.205, respectively. The results suggest that transponders may be implanted in the air cells of broiler hatching eggs to detect incubational variations in T(emb) and to subsequently calculate G(H2O), g(H2O), and K(H2O). ..
  85. Swiatkiewicz S, Arczewska Włosek A, Krawczyk J, Puchała M, Jozefiak D. Effects of selected feed additives on the performance of laying hens given a diet rich in maize dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). Br Poult Sci. 2013;54:478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, supplementation of xylanase and phytase, as well as inulin and chitosan, can positively affect the performance of layers given diets with a high concentration of DDGS. ..
  86. Gorchein A. Quantitative HPLC of pigments of irregularly coloured eggshells: application to aliquots of powdered shell from quail. Biomed Chromatogr. 2012;26:1605-7 pubmed publisher
  87. Cachaldora P, Garcia Rebollar P, Alvarez C, de Blas J, Mendez J. Effect of type and level of fish oil supplementation on yolk fat composition and n-3 fatty acids retention efficiency in laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 2006;47:43-9 pubmed
    ..8. Regression equations were calculated in order to predict efficiency of retention and n-3 FA concentration of yolk fat in the range of diets studied...
  88. Zhang Y, Wen G, Zhou Y, Shuang S, Dong C, Choi M. Development and analytical application of an uric acid biosensor using an uricase-immobilized eggshell membrane. Biosens Bioelectron. 2007;22:1791-7 pubmed
    ..The biosensor was successfully applied to determine the uric acid level in some human serum and urine samples, and the results agreed well with those obtained by a commercial colorimetric assay kit...
  89. Kamata R, Shiraishi F, Izumi T, Takahashi S, Shimizu A, Shiraishi H. Mechanisms of estrogen-induced effects in avian reproduction caused by transovarian application of a xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol. Arch Toxicol. 2009;83:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These indicate that transovarian exposure to xenoestrogens causes malformation and dysfunction of the oviducts, where calcium regulating molecules could play key roles in eggshell thinning...
  90. Maurer G, Portugal S, Boomer I, Cassey P. Avian embryonic development does not change the stable isotope composition of the calcite eggshell. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2011;23:339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, individual eggs differed significantly in isotope composition. These results establish that eggshells can be used to investigate a species' carbon and oxygen sources, regardless of the egg's developmental stage...
  91. Ebeid T, Suzuki T, Sugiyama T. High ambient temperature influences eggshell quality and calbindin-D28k localization of eggshell gland and all intestinal segments of laying hens. Poult Sci. 2012;91:2282-7 pubmed publisher
  92. Martin K, Carter A. Brave new propagules: terrestrial embryos in anamniotic eggs. Integr Comp Biol. 2013;53:233-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Eight different types of early life history among anamniotic embryos incubating in a terrestrial environment are identified, with examples of these alternate routes to the invasion of land by vertebrates. ..