cloaca

Summary

Summary: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.

Top Publications

  1. Roelandt S, Outtrim L, Browning C, Alexander D, Brown I, Irvine R. Evaluation of two different swab transport systems in the detection of avian influenza virus excretion from infected Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). J Virol Methods. 2012;184:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Although differences in detection between dry and wet swabs were observed, the qualitative bird-level results were unaffected, meaning that the infection status of individual birds was correctly determined...
  2. Das A, Spackman E, Pantin Jackwood M, Suarez D. Removal of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) inhibitors associated with cloacal swab samples and tissues for improved diagnosis of Avian influenza virus by RT-PCR. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:771-8 pubmed
    ..The MagMAX-M protocol reported in the present study can be useful in extracting high-quality RNA for accurate detection of AIV from cloacal swabs and tissues by real-time RT-PCR...
  3. Keawcharoen J, van Riel D, van Amerongen G, Bestebroer T, Beyer W, van Lavieren R, et al. Wild ducks as long-distance vectors of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:600-7 pubmed publisher
  4. Li F, Zhang T, Bai Y, Yuan Z, Wang W. Spatiotemporal expression of Wnt5a during the development of the hindgut and anorectum in human embryos. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2011;26:983-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study was to determine the spatiotemporal expression of Wnt5a during hindgut and anorectum development in human embryos and to explore the possible role of Wnt5a during the morphogenesis of the human hindgut and anorectum...
  5. Levitt M, Mak G, Falcone R, Pena A. Cloacal exstrophy--pull-through or permanent stoma? A review of 53 patients. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:164-8; discussion 168-70 pubmed publisher
  6. White J, Mirleau P, Danchin E, Mulard H, Hatch S, Heeb P, et al. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird. Ecol Lett. 2010;13:1515-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates...
  7. Pereda A, Uhart M, Perez A, Zaccagnini M, La Sala L, Decarre J, et al. Avian influenza virus isolated in wild waterfowl in Argentina: evidence of a potentially unique phylogenetic lineage in South America. Virology. 2008;378:363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The data produced from our investigations are valuable contributions to the study of AI viruses in South America...
  8. Meyer S, Smith K, Ravish I, Saltzman D, Shukla A. Complex cloacal anomaly in discordant monozygotic twins. Urology. 2009;73:532-4 pubmed publisher
    Urorectal septum malformation sequences are rare congenital malformations. We report a case of persistent cloaca prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks of gestation in 1 of a set of discordant monozygotic twins...
  9. Wu X, Ferrara C, Shapiro E, Grishina I. Bmp7 expression and null phenotype in the urogenital system suggest a role in re-organization of the urethral epithelium. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The urethral compartment originates in mid-embryogenesis from the ventral part of the cloaca, a transient cavity at the caudal end of the hindgut...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Lindh E, Huovilainen A, Rätti O, Ek Kommonen C, Sironen T, Huhtamo E, et al. Orthomyxo-, paramyxo- and flavivirus infections in wild waterfowl in Finland. Virol J. 2008;5:35 pubmed publisher
  2. Lira J, Moresco K, Stallknecht D, Swayne D, Fisher D. Single and combination diagnostic test efficiency and cost analysis for detection and isolation of avian influenza virus from wild bird cloacal swabs. Avian Dis. 2010;54:606-12 pubmed
    ..In contrast, isolation in ECE via CAS and YS inoculation routes without prescreening by RRT-PCR was most efficient and cost-effective if the samples had an expected high frequency of AIV...
  3. Bischoff A, Levitt M, Lim F, Guimarães C, Pena A. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal malformations. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:1071-5 pubmed publisher
    ..9% of screened cases. In cloacas, these numbers are unknown. We speculate that some images from prenatal ultrasound studies may suggest the diagnosis of cloaca, but are not recognized because of a lack of suspicion for this diagnosis.
  4. Sasaki Y, Iwai N, Kimura O, Ono S, Tsuda T, Deguchi E. Establishment of a rescue program for anorectal malformations induced by retinoic acid in mice. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:1396-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated whether the retinoid antagonist, LE135, could prevent the induction of anorectal malformations (ARMs) in mice...
  5. Yamano T, Ando K, Ishikura R, Hirota S. Serial fetal magnetic resonance imaging of cloacal exstrophy. Jpn J Radiol. 2011;29:656-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The bladder was not visualized on either examination. CE can be diagnosed by prenatal MRI, thereby permitting prenatal counseling and appropriate postnatal management...
  6. Soliman A, Saad M, Elassal E, Amir E, Plathonoff C, Bahgat V, et al. Surveillance of avian influenza viruses in migratory birds in Egypt, 2003-09. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:669-75 pubmed
    ..The HPAI H5N1 isolated or detected indicates that migratory birds may play a role in the dispersal of HPAI virus, but a detailed mechanism of this role needs to be elucidated...
  7. Liu G, Moro A, Zhang J, Cheng W, Qiu W, Kim P. The role of Shh transcription activator Gli2 in chick cloacal development. Dev Biol. 2007;303:448-60 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Gli2 alone is insufficient to induce partitioning along the D-V axis in the chick embryo. However, Gli2 regulates both epithelial and mesenchymal cell proliferation and apoptosis during cloacal development...
  8. Ellström P, Latorre Margalef N, Griekspoor P, Waldenstrom J, Olofsson J, Wahlgren J, et al. Sampling for low-pathogenic avian influenza A virus in wild Mallard ducks: oropharyngeal versus cloacal swabbing. Vaccine. 2008;26:4414-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Wang R, Soll L, Dugan V, Runstadler J, Happ G, Slemons R, et al. Examining the hemagglutinin subtype diversity among wild duck-origin influenza A viruses using ethanol-fixed cloacal swabs and a novel RT-PCR method. Virology. 2008;375:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study further demonstrates the complex ecobiology of avian influenza A viruses in wild birds...
  10. Kulkarni S, Heeb P. Social and sexual behaviours aid transmission of bacteria in birds. Behav Processes. 2007;74:88-92 pubmed
    ..By experimentally infecting the feathers and cloaca of captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), with the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PWD1 (BL), we examined ..
  11. Matsui F, Shimada K, Matsumoto F, Obara T, Kubota A. Bladder function after total urogenital mobilization for persistent cloaca. J Urol. 2009;182:2455-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We used urodynamic studies to assess bladder function and urological outcomes after definitive repair by total urogenital mobilization...
  12. Seifert A, Bouldin C, Choi K, Harfe B, Cohn M. Multiphasic and tissue-specific roles of sonic hedgehog in cloacal septation and external genitalia development. Development. 2009;136:3949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The urogenital and anorectal sinuses develop from the embryonic cloaca, and the penis and clitoris develop from the genital tubercle...
  13. Sawaya D, Goldstein S, Seetharamaiah R, Suson K, Nabaweesi R, Colombani P, et al. Gastrointestinal ramifications of the cloacal exstrophy complex: a 44-year experience. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:171-5; discussion 175-6 pubmed publisher
    ..There is currently no consensus regarding the fate and function of the hindgut, which plays an integral role in patients' long-term gastrointestinal health and genitourinary reconstruction...
  14. Kik M, van Asten A, Lenstra J, Kirpensteijn J. Cloaca prolapse and cystitis in green iguana (Iguana iguana) caused by a novel Cryptosporidium species. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:165-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene the cryptosporidia were characterized as belonging to the intestinal cryptosporidial lineage, but not to Cryptosporidium saurophilum or Cryptosporidium serpentis species...
  15. Pena A, Bischoff A, Levitt M. The transpubic approach for the correction of complex anorectal and urogenital malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:2316-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The transpubic approach has been used mainly to treat urethral injuries and prostate cancer. There are no reports describing this approach in anorectal malformations...
  16. Rinaldi L, Mihalca A, Cirillo R, Maurelli M, Montesano M, Capasso M, et al. FLOTAC can detect parasitic and pseudoparasitic elements in reptiles. Exp Parasitol. 2012;130:282-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of FLOTAC for diagnosis of parasitic infections in reptiles has demonstrated to be a rapid and sensitive test to improve diagnosis and acquire new information on the parasitological fauna of reptiles...
  17. Seifert A, Yamaguchi T, Cohn M. Functional and phylogenetic analysis shows that Fgf8 is a marker of genital induction in mammals but is not required for external genital development. Development. 2009;136:2643-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that induction of external genitalia involves an epithelial-epithelial interaction at the cloacal membrane, and suggest that the cloacal ectoderm may be the source of the genital initiation signal...
  18. White J, Richard M, Massot M, Meylan S. Cloacal bacterial diversity increases with multiple mates: evidence of sexual transmission in female common lizards. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22339 pubmed publisher
    ..influences the diversity and composition of cloacal assemblages by comparing bacterial communities in the cloaca of monandrous and polyandrous female common lizards Zootoca vivipara sampled after the mating period...
  19. Calvo Garcia M, Kline Fath B, Levitt M, Lim F, Linam L, Patel M, et al. Fetal MRI clues to diagnose cloacal malformations. Pediatr Radiol. 2011;41:1117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal US detection of cloacal malformations is challenging and rarely confirms this diagnosis...
  20. Braga L, Whelan K, DeMaria J, Pippi Salle J. Newborn with persistent cloaca presenting with accessory phallic urethra and ambiguous genitalia. Urology. 2011;78:680-3 pubmed publisher
    Persistent cloaca is a rare urogenital anomaly that can pose significant challenges for adequate diagnosis and management...
  21. Wang C, Gargollo P, Guo C, Tang T, Mingin G, Sun Y, et al. Six1 and Eya1 are critical regulators of peri-cloacal mesenchymal progenitors during genitourinary tract development. Dev Biol. 2011;360:186-94 pubmed publisher
    ..we report that both Six1 and Eya1 are strongly expressed in the peri-cloacal mesenchyme (PCM) surrounding the cloaca, the terminal end of hindgut dilation...
  22. Pena A, Bischoff A, Breech L, Louden E, Levitt M. Posterior cloaca--further experience and guidelines for the treatment of an unusual anorectal malformation. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1234-40 pubmed publisher
    The term posterior cloaca refers to a malformation in which the urethra and vagina are fused, forming a urogenital sinus that deviates posteriorly to open in the anterior rectal wall or immediately anterior to the anus.
  23. Fereidouni S, Werner O, Starick E, Beer M, Harder T, Aghakhan M, et al. Avian influenza virus monitoring in wintering waterbirds in Iran, 2003-2007. Virol J. 2010;7:43 pubmed publisher
    ..Samples originated from 6 different provinces representative for the 15 most important wintering sites of migratory waterbirds in Iran...
  24. Patel M, Racadio J, Levitt M, Bischoff A, Racadio J, Pena A. Complex cloacal malformations: use of rotational fluoroscopy and 3-D reconstruction in diagnosis and surgical planning. Pediatr Radiol. 2012;42:355-63 pubmed publisher
  25. Gobbi D, Fascetti Leon F, Tregnaghi A, Gamba P, Midrio P. Early prenatal diagnosis of cloacal exstrophy with fetal magnetic resonance imaging. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2008;24:437-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Available ultrasonographic criteria may be inadequate, especially in early gestational ages. A case of early prenatal detection of cloacal exstrophy with fetal magnetic resonance imaging is reported herein for the first time...
  26. Seifert A, Harfe B, Cohn M. Cell lineage analysis demonstrates an endodermal origin of the distal urethra and perineum. Dev Biol. 2008;318:143-52 pubmed publisher
  27. Van Coillie E, Goris J, Cleenwerck I, Grijspeerdt K, Botteldoorn N, Van Immerseel F, et al. Identification of lactobacilli isolated from the cloaca and vagina of laying hens and characterization for potential use as probiotics to control Salmonella Enteritidis. J Appl Microbiol. 2007;102:1095-106 pubmed
    ..To select Lactobacillus strains from laying hens for potential use as probiotic to control Salmonella Enteritidis infection...
  28. Shono T, Taguchi T, Suita S, Nakanami N, Nakano H. Prenatal ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging findings of congenital cloacal anomalies associated with meconium peritonitis. J Pediatr Surg. 2007;42:681-4 pubmed
    ..We herein describe the characteristic prenatal US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the cloacal malformations associated with meconium peritonitis...
  29. Keppler Noreuil K, Gorton S, Foo F, Yankowitz J, Keegan C. Prenatal ascertainment of OEIS complex/cloacal exstrophy - 15 new cases and literature review. Am J Med Genet A. 2007;143A:2122-8 pubmed
    ..Our three sets of discordant twins also suggest a non-genetic etiology for OEIS complex of uteroplacental insufficiency. This study also indicates that OEIS complex may be more common than previously thought...
  30. Caton A, Bloom A, Druschel C, Kirby R. Epidemiology of bladder and cloacal exstrophies in New York State, 1983-1999. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:781-7 pubmed
    ..Disagreement exists as to whether they comprise two distinct disorders or are part of a spectrum. We examined epidemiologic trends and risk factors for BE and CE in a large population-based dataset...
  31. Slanchev K, Pütz M, Schmitt A, Kramer Zucker A, Walz G. Nephrocystin-4 is required for pronephric duct-dependent cloaca formation in zebrafish. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:3119-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that nephrocystin-4 is required for normal cloaca formation during zebrafish embryogenesis...
  32. Bos M, Nielen M, Koch G, Stegeman A, de Jong M. Effect of H7N1 vaccination on highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N7 virus transmission in turkeys. Vaccine. 2008;26:6322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..26 per infectious bird per day. However, no virus shedding was found in inoculated vaccinated turkeys and thus we concluded that vaccination with H7N1 protected against challenge with HPAI H7N7 virus...
  33. Xenoulis P, Gray P, Brightsmith D, Palculict B, Hoppes S, Steiner J, et al. Molecular characterization of the cloacal microbiota of wild and captive parrots. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:320-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, wild and captive parrots appear to have differences in the composition of their cloacal bacterial microbiota. The clinical significance of these differences remains to be determined...
  34. Bischoff A, Levitt M, Breech L, Louden E, Pena A. Hydrocolpos in cloacal malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2010;45:1241-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this report is to increase the index of suspicion for hydrocolpos in patients with cloaca and to describe our approach for its treatment with the hope that errors in the management of hydrocolpos can be ..
  35. Warne S, Wilcox D, Ledermann S, Ransley P. Renal outcome in patients with cloaca. J Urol. 2002;167:2548-51; discussion 2551 pubmed
    b>Cloaca is a complex malformation in which the rectum, vagina and urinary tract open into a single common channel. Functional results after reconstructive surgery have been documented but the renal outcome is less clearly understood...
  36. Thauvin Robinet C, Faivre L, Cusin V, Khau Van Kien P, Callier P, Parker K, et al. Cloacal exstrophy in an infant with 9q34.1-qter deletion resulting from a de novo unbalanced translocation between chromosome 9q and Yq. Am J Med Genet A. 2004;126A:303-7 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that another gene, expressed early in embryogenesis and responsible for cloacal exstrophy, is present in the 9q34.1-qter region...
  37. Morikawa M, Yamada T, Cho K, Yamada H, Minakami H. Prenatal diagnosis and therapy of persistent cloaca: a case report. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006;21:343-7 pubmed
    Persistent cloaca is a rare abnormality that occurs only in females and is characterized by a direct communication between the gastrointestinal, urinary, and genital structures resulting in a single perineal opening...
  38. O Donnell A, Mortell A, Giles J, Bannigan J, Puri P. The timing of enteric neural crest cell colonisation of the chick embryo cloaca. Pediatr Surg Int. 2004;20:229-32 pubmed
    ..Abnormalities of the ENS lead to a number of neurochristopathies. In avian embryos, the cloaca acts as a common chamber into which gastrointestinal, urinary and genital tracts emerge...
  39. McHoney M, Ransley P, Duffy P, Wilcox D, Spitz L. Cloacal exstrophy: morbidity associated with abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract and spine. J Pediatr Surg. 2004;39:1209-13 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to review the management of the gastrointestinal tract in cloacal exstrophy and to assess the effect of spinal dysraphism on nutritional outcome...
  40. Mo R, Kim J, Zhang J, Chiang C, Hui C, Kim P. Anorectal malformations caused by defects in sonic hedgehog signaling. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:765-74 pubmed
    ..to imperforate anus with a fistula between the urinary and intestinal tracts to the most severe form, persistent cloaca. The etiology, embryology, and pathogenesis of anorectal malformations are poorly understood and controversial...
  41. Siebert J, Rutledge J, Kapur R. Association of cloacal anomalies, caudal duplication, and twinning. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:339-54 pubmed
    ..The association of malformations of the cloaca with partial, complete, or conjoined twinning has been appreciated for some time, but, with the advent of prenatal ..
  42. Rosario I, Hermoso de Mendoza M, Deniz S, Soro G, Alamo I, Acosta B. Isolation of Cryptococcus species including C. neoformans from cloaca of pigeons. Mycoses. 2005;48:421-4 pubmed
    ..91%). The results show the importance of pigeon in the cryptococcosis epidemiology as reservoir and carrier for C. neoformans var. neoformans, but also for other Cryptococcus species of increasing clinical interest...
  43. Hynes P, Fraher J. The development of the male genitourinary system. I. The origin of the urorectal septum and the formation of the perineum. Br J Plast Surg. 2004;57:27-36 pubmed
    ..A review of the literature identifies its three principal developmental stages: (1) division of the cloaca into the urogenital sinus and hindgut by the urorectal septum and the formation of the perineum; (2) the extension ..
  44. Penington E, Hutson J. The absence of lateral fusion in cloacal partition. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:1287-95 pubmed
    The mechanism by which the cloaca becomes partitioned into a dorsal rectal part and a ventral genitourinary sinus has been the subject of speculation for more than a century...
  45. Warne S, Wilcox D, Creighton S, Ransley P. Long-term gynecological outcome of patients with persistent cloaca. J Urol. 2003;170:1493-6 pubmed
    Persistent cloaca is a complex malformation that remains a difficult reconstructive challenge, and data on long-term outcome are scarce...
  46. Komar N, Lanciotti R, Bowen R, Langevin S, Bunning M. Detection of West Nile virus in oral and cloacal swabs collected from bird carcasses. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:741-2 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that testing cloacal or oral swabs might be a low-resource approach to detect WNV in dead birds...
  47. Sturm Ramirez K, Hulse Post D, Govorkova E, Humberd J, Seiler P, Puthavathana P, et al. Are ducks contributing to the endemicity of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus in Asia?. J Virol. 2005;79:11269-79 pubmed
    ..Viruses replicated to higher levels in the trachea than in the cloaca of both inoculated and contact birds, suggesting that the digestive tract is not the main site of H5N1 influenza ..
  48. Schober J, Carmichael P, Hines M, Ransley P. The ultimate challenge of cloacal exstrophy. J Urol. 2002;167:300-4 pubmed
    ..Gender assignment decisions and psychological aspects of gender issues have become the "ultimate challenge." Exploration of gender identity, gender role behavior and sexual orientation has just begun...
  49. Sasaki C, Yamaguchi K, Akita K. Spatiotemporal distribution of apoptosis during normal cloacal development in mice. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004;279:761-7 pubmed
    ..fusion of the urorectal septum with the cloacal membrane was not observed, and the ventral and dorsal parts of the cloaca were continuously connected by the canal until disappearance of the cloacal membrane to open the vestibule formed ..
  50. Glávits R, Ferenczi E, Ivanics E, Bakonyi T, Mato T, Zarka P, et al. Co-occurrence of West Nile Fever and circovirus infection in a goose flock in Hungary. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:408-14 pubmed
    ..Using an indirect fluorescent antibody test, high antibody titres against the virus were detected in the serum samples submitted from the affected flock. In selected sera this was confirmed by neutralization antibody test as well...
  51. Macarthur M, Mahomed A. Rare association of female pseudohermaphroditism, phallic urethra, and posterior cloaca. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:576-9 pubmed
    ..a child with the rare clinical entity of female pseudohermaphroditism, accessory phallic urethra, and posterior cloaca who was successfully treated with posterior sagittal anorectovaginourethroplasty...
  52. Keppler Noreuil K. OEIS complex (omphalocele-exstrophy-imperforate anus-spinal defects): a review of 14 cases. Am J Med Genet. 2001;99:271-9 pubmed
    OEIS complex refers to a combination of defects consisting of omphalocele, exstrophy of the cloaca, imperforate anus, and spinal defects...
  53. Martínez Frías M, Bermejo E, Rodriguez Pinilla E, Frias J. Exstrophy of the cloaca and exstrophy of the bladder: two different expressions of a primary developmental field defect. Am J Med Genet. 2001;99:261-9 pubmed
    Exstrophy of the bladder (EB) and exstrophy of the cloaca (EC) are generally recognizable as distinct clinical entities. In patients with EB, the posterior bladder wall is exposed through a midline defect of the abdomen...
  54. Männer J, Kluth D. A chicken model to study the embryology of cloacal exstrophy. J Pediatr Surg. 2003;38:678-81 pubmed
    ..Here, the authors present cases of cloacal exstrophies found in chick embryos subsequent to the application of suramin and trypan blue. This animal model might facilitate insight into the embryology of cloacal exstrophy...
  55. De Marco M, Campitelli L, Foni E, Raffini E, Barigazzi G, Delogu M, et al. Influenza surveillance in birds in Italian wetlands (1992-1998): is there a host restricted circulation of influenza viruses in sympatric ducks and coots?. Vet Microbiol. 2004;98:197-208 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate some differences between influenza A virus circulation in sympatric ducks and coots and a significant antigenic diversity between some reference strains and viruses recently isolated in Italy...
  56. Peroulis I, O Riley K. Detection of avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses amongst wild bird populations in Victoria. Aust Vet J. 2004;82:79-82 pubmed
    ..To isolate and characterise avian paramyxoviruses and other haemagglutinating viruses amongst Victorian wild bird populations...
  57. Tsai H, Hsiang P. The prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Salmonella and Campylobacter in ducks in Taiwan. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:7-12 pubmed
  58. Nye J, Hayes E, Amendola M, Vaughn D, Charrow J, McLone D, et al. Myelocystocele-cloacal exstrophy in a pedigree with a mitochondrial 12S rRNA mutation, aminoglycoside-induced deafness, pigmentary disturbances, and spinal anomalies. Teratology. 2000;61:165-71 pubmed
    ..However, the mitochondrial A1555G mutation is only rarely associated with neural tube defects as it was not found in a screen of 218 additional individuals with spina bifida, four of whom had congenital hearing loss...
  59. Warne S, Chitty L, Wilcox D. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomalies. BJU Int. 2002;89:78-81 pubmed
    ..prenatal diagnosis in facilitating prenatal counselling and planning optimal perinatal care for persistent cloaca, a complex malformation with variable presentation and a difficult reconstructive challenge for the paediatric ..
  60. Pyati U, Cooper M, Davidson A, Nechiporuk A, Kimelman D. Sustained Bmp signaling is essential for cloaca development in zebrafish. Development. 2006;133:2275-84 pubmed
    ..from the extreme ventral mesoderm, and we show that this domain is normally required for development of the cloaca (the common gut and urogenital opening)...