bovine mastitis

Summary

Summary: INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.

Top Publications

  1. Fessler A, Scott C, Kadlec K, Ehricht R, Monecke S, Schwarz S. Characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from cases of bovine mastitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:619-25 pubmed publisher
  2. Poutrel B, Stegemann M, Roy O, Pothier F, Tilt N, Payne Johnson M. Evaluation of the efficacy of systemic danofloxacin in the treatment of induced acute Escherichia coli bovine mastitis. J Dairy Res. 2008;75:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..a single dose of danofloxacin (6 mg/kg bodyweight) given by the intravenous route for the treatment of acute bovine mastitis induced by intra-cisternal infusion of an Escherichia coli strain (26 cfu into one rear quarter of each cow)...
  3. Simojoki H, Orro T, Taponen S, Pyörälä S. Host response in bovine mastitis experimentally induced with Staphylococcus chromogenes. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:95-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this experimental model could be used to study host response in CNS mastitis caused by the main CNS species and also for comparison of the host response in a mild intramammary infection and in more severe mastitis models...
  4. Ikawaty R, Brouwer E, Jansen M, van Duijkeren E, Mevius D, Verhoef J, et al. Characterization of Dutch Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis using a Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) scheme with 6 loci which lacks most drawbacks on 85 bovine mastitis isolates from The Netherlands. For each locus the number of repeat units (RU) was calculated...
  5. Taponen S, Pyörälä S. Coagulase-negative staphylococci as cause of bovine mastitis- not so different from Staphylococcus aureus?. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Staphylococci are the bacteria most commonly isolated from bovine mastitis, and CNS are now predominant over S. aureus in most countries...
  6. Pyörälä S. Mastitis in post-partum dairy cows. Reprod Domest Anim. 2008;43 Suppl 2:252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In some countries, implementation of Escherichia coli core antigen vaccine has reduced the incidence of severe coliform mastitis after calving...
  7. Denis M, Wedlock D, Lacy Hulbert S, Hillerton J, Buddle B. Vaccines against bovine mastitis in the New Zealand context: what is the best way forward?. N Z Vet J. 2009;57:132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, effective vaccines against mastitis due to Strep. uberis may be more likely to emerge from strategies that target the cell-mediated arm of the immune response rather than strategies that target specific antibody responses...
  8. Klostermann K, Crispie F, Flynn J, Ross R, Hill C, Meaney W. Intramammary infusion of a live culture of Lactococcus lactis for treatment of bovine mastitis: comparison with antibiotic treatment in field trials. J Dairy Res. 2008;75:365-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these trials suggest that live culture treatment with Lc. lactis DPC3147 may be as efficacious as common antibiotic treatments in some instances...
  9. Klostermann K, Crispie F, Flynn J, Meaney W, Paul Ross R, Hill C. Efficacy of a teat dip containing the bacteriocin lacticin 3147 to eliminate Gram-positive pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. J Dairy Res. 2010;77:231-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Streptococcal challenges were reduced by 97% for Str. dysgalactiae and by 90% for Str. uberis. These trials showed that the teat dip is able to reduce mastitis pathogens on the teats of lactating cows...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Brody T, Yavatkar A, Lin Y, Ross J, Kuzin A, Kundu M, et al. Horizontal gene transfers link a human MRSA pathogen to contagious bovine mastitis bacteria. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3074 pubmed publisher
    ..We have adapted the multi-genome alignment tool EvoPrinter to facilitate discovery of HGT DNA sequences within bacterial genomes and within their mobile genetic elements...
  2. Saei H, Ahmadi M, Mardani K, Batavani R. Molecular typing of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis based on polymorphism of the coagulase gene in the north west of Iran. Vet Microbiol. 2009;137:202-6 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus strains. This study also indicated that genetic heterogeneity among S. aureus isolates recovered from bovine mastitis may be exists within and among herds in different regions.
  3. Passey S, Bradley A, Mellor H. Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitis invade mammary cells by a modified endocytic pathway. Vet Microbiol. 2008;130:151-64 pubmed publisher
    Escherichia coli is a major pathogen in the aetiology of bovine mastitis. Although classically considered to be an environmental pathogen causing mainly transient infection, the incidence of persistent E...
  4. Lund M, Sahana G, Andersson Eklund L, Hastings N, Fernandez A, Schulman N, et al. Joint analysis of quantitative trait loci for clinical mastitis and somatic cell score on five chromosomes in three Nordic dairy cattle breeds. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:5282-90 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that there may be at least 2 linked QTL on BTA9, one that primarily affects CM and a second that primarily affects SCS. On chromosomes BTA11, 14, and 18, the joint analyses were only significant for SCS...
  5. Chaneton L, Tirante L, Maito J, Chaves J, Bussmann L. Relationship between milk lactoferrin and etiological agent in the mastitic bovine mammary gland. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1865-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Bovine mastitis is one of the most deleterious diseases for dairy herds and is mainly caused by contagious and environmental bacterial pathogens...
  6. Chebel R, Susca F, Santos J. Leptin genotype is associated with lactation performance and health of Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2893-900 pubmed publisher
    ..6%). Mating decisions to increase the frequency of cows heterozygous in the R4C locus may improve productivity and health...
  7. Boehmer J, Bannerman D, Shefcheck K, Ward J. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in bovine milk during experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:4206-18 pubmed publisher
    ..coli could provide a rapid survey of milk protein modulation during coliform mastitis and aid in the identification of biomarkers of this disease...
  8. Reksen O, Sølverød L, Østerås O. Relationships between milk culture results and composite milk somatic cell counts in Norwegian dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:3102-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of the tests were regarded as low when sampling for milk culture was conducted, irrespective of cow level characteristics...
  9. Blum S, Heller E, Krifucks O, Sela S, Hammer Muntz O, Leitner G. Identification of a bovine mastitis Escherichia coli subset. Vet Microbiol. 2008;132:135-48 pubmed publisher
    Eleven Escherichia coli isolates from clinical bovine mastitis cases (mastitic strains) and 11 from the cowshed environment (environmental strains) were compared, to determine if the former were a subset of the latter...
  10. Sørensen L, Guldbrandtsen B, Thomasen J, Lund M. Pathogen-specific effects of quantitative trait loci affecting clinical mastitis and somatic cell count in Danish Holstein cattle. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the magnitude of these effects in this study is unclear...
  11. Ward P, Holden M, Leigh J, Lennard N, Bignell A, Barron A, et al. Evidence for niche adaptation in the genome of the bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:54 pubmed publisher
    Streptococcus uberis, a Gram positive bacterial pathogen responsible for a significant proportion of bovine mastitis in commercial dairy herds, colonises multiple body sites of the cow including the gut, genital tract and mammary gland...
  12. Nam H, Lim S, Kang H, Moon J, Jang K, Kim J, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis between 2003 and 2008 in Korea. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:2020-6 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to assess trends in the prevalence and distribution of gram-negative bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis and their antimicrobial susceptibilities during a 6-yr period between 2003 and 2008 in Korea...
  13. Leigh J, Egan S, Ward P, Field T, Coffey T. Sortase anchored proteins of Streptococcus uberis play major roles in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis in dairy cattle. Vet Res. 2010;41:63 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that a number of sortase anchored proteins each play a distinct, non-redundant and important role in pathogenesis of S. uberis infection within the lactating bovine mammary gland...
  14. Kim S, Shin S, Koo H, Youn J, Paik H, Park Y. In vitro antimicrobial effect and in vivo preventive and therapeutic effects of partially purified lantibiotic lacticin NK34 against infection by Staphylococcus species isolated from bovine mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93:3610-5 pubmed publisher
    ..and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS, n=20) strains isolated from the raw milk of cows with subclinical bovine mastitis in the present study...
  15. Rato M, Bexiga R, Nunes S, Cavaco L, Vilela C, Santos Sanches I. Molecular epidemiology and population structure of bovine Streptococcus uberis. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:4542-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report that documents molecular typing studies of bovine isolates of Strep. uberis from Portugal, which were shown to represent novel genomic backgrounds of this pathogen...
  16. Said K, Ramotar K, Zhu G, Zhao X. Repeat-based subtyping and grouping of Staphylococcus aureus from human infections and bovine mastitis using the R-domain of the clumping factor A gene. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;63:24-37 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA from isolates and strains of human infections and bovine mastitis were amplified and sequenced. Sequences of clfA from published strains were also analyzed...
  17. Bannerman D, Kauf A, Paape M, Springer H, Goff J. Comparison of Holstein and Jersey innate immune responses to Escherichia coli intramammary infection. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite these differences, intramammary clearance of E. coli was comparable between the breeds. Together, these data demonstrate a highly conserved innate immune response of Holstein and Jersey cows to E. coli intramammary infection...
  18. Bar D, Tauer L, Bennett G, Gonzalez R, Hertl J, Schukken Y, et al. The cost of generic clinical mastitis in dairy cows as estimated by using dynamic programming. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2205-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The detailed results obtained from this insemination and replacement optimization model can assist farmers in making CM treatment decisions...
  19. Koskinen M, Holopainen J, Pyörälä S, Bredbacka P, Pitkälä A, Barkema H, et al. Analytical specificity and sensitivity of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of bovine mastitis pathogens. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:952-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, 643 culture isolates originating from clinical bovine mastitis, human, and companion animal samples were analyzed using the assay...
  20. Heringstad B, Sehested E, Steine T. Short communication: correlated selection responses in somatic cell count from selection against clinical mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:4437-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3 units LSCS, equivalent to a difference in somatic cell count of approximately 15,000, assuming deviations from a population mean LSCS of 4.1...
  21. Shi D, Hao Y, Zhang A, Wulan B, Fan X. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in China. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010;57:221-4 pubmed publisher
    ..30% (206 of 236) isolates were resistant to penicillin G. This result compares with the reports from other countries; the overall level of resistance was generally high for all antimicrobial agents tested...
  22. Ruegg P. Management of mastitis on organic and conventional dairy farms. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:43-55 pubmed publisher
  23. Capurro A, Artursson K, Waller K, Bengtsson B, Ericsson Unnerstad H, Aspan A. Comparison of a commercialized phenotyping system, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and tuf gene sequence-based genotyping for species-level identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from cases of bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study indicates that the studied phenotypic methods are unreliable for identification of CNS from bovine intra-mammary infections...
  24. Tomasinsig L, De Conti G, Skerlavaj B, Piccinini R, Mazzilli M, D Este F, et al. Broad-spectrum activity against bacterial mastitis pathogens and activation of mammary epithelial cells support a protective role of neutrophil cathelicidins in bovine mastitis. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1781-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated cells, to determine their activities against bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis, and to examine their potentials to trigger defense responses in bovine mammary cells...
  25. Pant S, Schenkel F, Leyva Baca I, Sharma B, Karrow N. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in bovine CARD15 and their associations with health and production traits in Canadian Holsteins. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:421 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine TLR2 and CARD15 and evaluate the association of these SNPs with health and production traits in a population of Canadian Holstein bulls...
  26. Lutzow Y, Donaldson L, Gray C, Vuocolo T, Pearson R, Reverter A, et al. Identification of immune genes and proteins involved in the response of bovine mammary tissue to Staphylococcus aureus infection. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the effect of infection on the presence of bioactive innate immune proteins in milk is also unclear. The nature of these responses may determine the susceptibility of the tissue and its ability to resolve the infection...
  27. Guinane C, Sturdevant D, Herron Olson L, Otto M, Smyth D, Villaruz A, et al. Pathogenomic analysis of the common bovine Staphylococcus aureus clone (ET3): emergence of a virulent subtype with potential risk to public health. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:205-13 pubmed publisher
    A common clone (ET3) of Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a large proportion of cases of bovine mastitis and occasionally causes zoonotic infections of humans...
  28. Gonen E, Nedvetzki S, Naor D, Shpigel N. CD44 is highly expressed on milk neutrophils in bovine mastitis and plays a role in their adhesion to matrix and mammary epithelium. Vet Res. 2008;39:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show, for the first time, increased expression of CD44 on recruited milk PMN in bovine mastitis and the expression of a CD44 variant, CD44v10, on these PMN...
  29. Bannerman D. Pathogen-dependent induction of cytokines and other soluble inflammatory mediators during intramammary infection of dairy cows. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:10-25 pubmed publisher
  30. Atalla H, Gyles C, Jacob C, Moisan H, Malouin F, Mallard B. Characterization of a Staphylococcus aureus small colony variant (SCV) associated with persistent bovine mastitis. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2008;5:785-99 pubmed publisher
    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bovine mastitis and foodborne and other diseases in humans. This study tested the hypothesis that small colony variants (SCVs) of S. aureus are implicated in chronic bovine mastitis. Six S...
  31. Osumi T, Kishimoto Y, Kano R, Maruyama H, Onozaki M, Makimura K, et al. Prototheca zopfii genotypes isolated from cow barns and bovine mastitis in Japan. Vet Microbiol. 2008;131:419-23 pubmed publisher
    This study is the first investigation on Japanese isolates of Prototheca zopfii from bovine mastitis and the cow-barn surroundings by molecular characterization to clarify routes of infection for bovine protothecal mastitis...
  32. Swanson K, Stelwagen K, Dobson J, Henderson H, Davis S, Farr V, et al. Transcriptome profiling of Streptococcus uberis-induced mastitis reveals fundamental differences between immune gene expression in the mammary gland and in a primary cell culture model. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Results demonstrate the complexity of the bovine mammary gland immune response to an infecting pathogen and indicate that a coordinated response exists between the resident, recruited, and inducible immune factors...
  33. Petrovski K, Heuer C, Parkinson T, Williamson N. The incidence and aetiology of clinical bovine mastitis on 14 farms in Northland, New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2009;57:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the incidence of clinical mastitis and the frequency of isolation of mastitis-causing organisms from clinical cases in one lactation season (July 2005 to May 2006) on 14 dairy farms from the Northland region of New Zealand...
  34. Barboza Corona J, de la Fuente Salcido N, Alva Murillo N, Ochoa Zarzosa A, López Meza J. Activity of bacteriocins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis against Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated to bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:179-83 pubmed publisher
    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control bovine mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, as consequence an increase in staphylococci resistant cases has been registered...
  35. Jiang L, Sørensen P, Røntved C, Vels L, Ingvartsen K. Gene expression profiling of liver from dairy cows treated intra-mammary with lipopolysaccharide. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:443 pubmed publisher
    Liver plays a profound role in the acute phase response (APR) observed in the early phase of acute bovine mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli)...
  36. Cui J, Zhang B, Lin Y, Wang Q, Qian A, Nakane A, et al. Protective effect of glutathione S-transferase-fused mutant staphylococcal enterotoxin C against Staphylococcus aureus-induced bovine mastitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2010;135:64-70 pubmed publisher
    ..aureus-induced bovine mastitis. Cows were immunized with the GST-mSEC plus alum adjuvant and then challenged with viable S...
  37. Said K, Zhu G, Zhao X. Organ- and host-specific clonal groups of Staphylococcus aureus from human infections and bovine mastitis revealed by the clumping factor A gene. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010;7:111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..R-domain of the clumping factor A gene in 95 isolates from different organs in human patients and from bovine mastitis, using polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, multiple sequence alignment, and phylogenetic relationships...
  38. Ghanbarpour R, Oswald E. Phylogenetic distribution of virulence genes in Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitis in Iran. Res Vet Sci. 2010;88:6-10 pubmed publisher
    One hundred and twenty seven Escherichia coli isolates from bovine mastitis were examined to detect the phylogenetic group/subgroups and a selection of virulence associated genes. Forty nine (38...
  39. Huijps K, Lam T, Hogeveen H. Costs of mastitis: facts and perception. J Dairy Res. 2008;75:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve the adoption rate of advice and lower the incidence of mastitis, it is important to show the farmers the economic losses of mastitis on their farm. The tool described in this paper can play a role in that process...
  40. Hassan K, Samarasinghe S, Lopez Benavides M. Use of neural networks to detect minor and major pathogens that cause bovine mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2009;92:1493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These types of models can be used in in-line milking systems to detect the infection status of a quarter and provide the farmer with diagnosing options for managing mastitis...
  41. Compton C, Cursons R, Barnett C, McDougall S. Expression of innate resistance factors in mammary secretion from periparturient dairy heifers and their association with subsequent infection status. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2009;127:357-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support further investigation of function and gene polymorphisms of MAIL and Bdef as potential markers of mastitis resistance in dairy heifers...
  42. Petzl W, Zerbe H, Günther J, Yang W, Seyfert H, Nürnberg G, et al. Escherichia coli, but not Staphylococcus aureus triggers an early increased expression of factors contributing to the innate immune defense in the udder of the cow. Vet Res. 2008;39:18 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the established mastitis model, the data clearly demonstrate a pathogen-dependent difference in the time kinetics of induced pathogen receptors and defense molecules...
  43. Olde Riekerink R, Barkema H, Kelton D, Scholl D. Incidence rate of clinical mastitis on Canadian dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:1366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..and E. coli IRCM than those in tie-stall barns. The focus of mastitis prevention and control programs should differ between regions and should be tailored to farms based on housing type and BMSCC...
  44. de Haas Y, Ouweltjes W, ten Napel J, Windig J, de Jong G. Alternative somatic cell count traits as mastitis indicators for genetic selection. J Dairy Sci. 2008;91:2501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, use of information from a combination of different SCC traits may be more successful in improving overall udder health than the traditional single SCC measure...
  45. Ceotto H, Nascimento J, Brito M, Bastos M. Bacteriocin production by Staphylococcus aureus involved in bovine mastitis in Brazil. Res Microbiol. 2009;160:592-9 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, 257 Staphylococcus spp. strains were isolated from bovine mastitis cases in 56 different Brazilian dairy herds located in the southeast region of the country and tested for antimicrobial substance (AMS) production...
  46. Jaffrezic F, de Koning D, Boettcher P, Bonnet A, Buitenhuis B, Closset R, et al. Analysis of the real EADGENE data set: comparison of methods and guidelines for data normalisation and selection of differentially expressed genes (open access publication). Genet Sel Evol. 2007;39:633-50 pubmed
    ..These analyses also emphasised a biological problem of cross-talk between infected and uninfected quarters which will have to be dealt with for further microarray studies...
  47. Takeshima S, Matsumoto Y, Chen J, Yoshida T, Mukoyama H, Aida Y. Evidence for cattle major histocompatibility complex (BoLA) class II DQA1 gene heterozygote advantage against clinical mastitis caused by Streptococci and Escherichia species. Tissue Antigens. 2008;72:525-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report showing that heterozygosity of the BoLA-DQA1 gene is associated with resistance to mastitis progression...
  48. Suojala L, Orro T, Järvinen H, Saatsi J, Pyörälä S. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows. Acta Vet Scand. 2008;50:18 pubmed publisher
    ..A (SAA) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two ..
  49. Ochoa Zarzosa A, Loeza Angeles H, Sagrero Cisneros E, Villagómez Gómez E, Lara Zárate L, López Meza J. Antibacterial activity of thionin Thi2.1 from Arabidopsis thaliana expressed by bovine endothelial cells against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:425-30 pubmed
    b>Bovine mastitis is mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and antimicrobial therapy, commonly used for its control, has resulted in an increase in the frequency of resistant staphylococci in recent years...
  50. Fessler A, Billerbeck C, Kadlec K, Schwarz S. Identification and characterization of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine mastitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65:1576-82 pubmed publisher
  51. Sugimoto M, Fujikawa A, Womack J, Sugimoto Y. Evidence that bovine forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like gene influences immune response associated with mastitis resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6454-9 pubmed
    ..Our results provide an avenue to select for genetic improvement of resistance to mastitis and suggest that the FEZL-SEMA5A pathway might control both neuronal development and innate immunity...
  52. Olde Riekerink R, Barkema H, Veenstra W, Berg F, Stryhn H, Zadoks R. Somatic cell count during and between milkings. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90:3733-41 pubmed
    ..For accurate interpretations of SCC tests--whether by a laboratory, portable SCC device, or the California Mastitis Test--veterinarians, researchers, and udder health advisors should take milk samples immediately before milking...
  53. Burvenich C, Bannerman D, Lippolis J, Peelman L, Nonnecke B, Kehrli M, et al. Cumulative physiological events influence the inflammatory response of the bovine udder to Escherichia coli infections during the transition period. J Dairy Sci. 2007;90 Suppl 1:E39-54 pubmed
    ..The development of novel interventions that modulate the inflammatory response or contribute to the elimination of the pathogen or both may offer therapeutic promise in the treatment of mastitis in periparturient cows...