avian crop


Summary: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.

Top Publications

  1. Donalson L, McReynolds J, Kim W, Chalova V, Woodward C, Kubena L, et al. The influence of a fructooligosaccharide prebiotic combined with alfalfa molt diets on the gastrointestinal tract fermentation, Salmonella enteritidis infection, and intestinal shedding in laying hens. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, given the similarities between hens fed 0.750% FOS (H) and 0.375% FOS (L), molt diets combined with the lower level of FOS should be sufficient...
  2. Heres L, Wagenaar J, Van Knapen F, Urlings B. Passage of Salmonella through the crop and gizzard of broiler chickens fed with fermented liquid feed. Avian Pathol. 2003;32:173-81 pubmed
    ..The performed in vivo method appeared to be an appropriate way to study intervention strategies that aim to control Salmonella by improving the barrier function of the upper gastro-intestinal tract. ..
  3. Byrd J, Hargis B, Caldwell D, Bailey R, Herron K, McReynolds J, et al. Effect of lactic acid administration in the drinking water during preslaughter feed withdrawal on Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of broilers. Poult Sci. 2001;80:278-83 pubmed
    ..7% compared with the controls. These studies suggest that incorporation of lactic acid in the drinking water during pretransport FW may reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination of crops and broiler carcasses at processing. ..
  4. Gutierrez O, Zhang C, Caldwell D, Carey J, Cartwright A, Bailey C. Guar meal diets as an alternative approach to inducing molt and improving Salmonella enteritidis resistance in late-phase laying hens. Poult Sci. 2008;87:536-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that feeding diets containing 20% GM are as effective as complete feed withdrawal with respect to inducing molt with the added benefit of improved resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis colonization and translocation...
  5. Hennig G, Goebel H, Fabis J, Khan M. Diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction of Erysipelas septicemia in a flock of ring-necked pheasants. Avian Dis. 2002;46:509-14 pubmed
    ..Erysipelas septicemia was diagnosed by an Erysipelothrix species-specific polymerase chain reaction method with the substrate DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver...
  6. Crouch A, Grimes J, Christensen V, Krueger K. Effect of physical feed restriction during rearing on Large White turkey breeder hens: 3. Body and carcass composition. Poult Sci. 2002;81:1792-7 pubmed
  7. Johnson T, Logue C, Wannemuehler Y, Kariyawasam S, Doetkott C, Debroy C, et al. Examination of the source and extended virulence genotypes of Escherichia coli contaminating retail poultry meat. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2009;6:657-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the presence of ExPEC-like clones on retail poultry meat means that we cannot yet rule out poultry as a source of ExPEC human disease. ..
  8. Jiraphocakul S, Sullivan T, Shahani K. Influence of a dried Bacillus subtilis culture and antibiotics on performance and intestinal microflora in turkeys. Poult Sci. 1990;69:1966-73 pubmed
    ..05) at 12 and 16 wk of age than birds receiving Zn bacitracin or the control diet. Livability was not affected by the B. subtilis culture or the antibiotic treatments in either experiment. ..
  9. Vaughn L, Holt P, Moore R, Gast R, Anderson K. Crop immune response post-Salmonella enteritidis challenge in eight commercial egg-layer strains and specific-pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens. Avian Dis. 2008;52:79-87 pubmed
    ..Comparison of crop sections determined a 1.2-4.0 times increase in ratio of lymphoid tissue in day 34 PI SE-challenged hens vs. uninfected control hens. ..

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Samour J, Bailey T, Cooper J. Trichomoniasis in birds of prey (order Falconiformes) in Bahrain. Vet Rec. 1995;136:358-62 pubmed
    ..Several therapeutic methods and the results obtained are described. ..
  2. Kano R, Sakamoto Y, Hanahachi A, Kamata H, Fukuda Y, Fujiwara K, et al. Molecular identification of Candida parapsilosis from crop mucosa in a cockatiel. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:437-9 pubmed
    ..The Candida species in the lesion of the crop mucosa was therefore identified by DNA sequence analysis as C. parapsilosis. ..
  3. Moore R, Holt P. The effect of feed deprivation on tissue invasion by Salmonella enteritidis. Poult Sci. 2006;85:1333-7 pubmed
    ..8 log increase). No significant differences in Salmonella invasion were detected for crops and ileum. These data suggest that molting may affect invasion of tissues by Salmonella enteritidis. ..
  4. Hinton A, Buhr R, Ingram K. Carbohydrate-based cocktails that decrease the population of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the crop of broiler chickens subjected to feed withdrawal. Poult Sci. 2002;81:780-4 pubmed
  5. Bailey T, Mensah Brown E, Samour J, Naldo J, Lawrence P, Garner A. Comparative morphology of the alimentary tract and its glandular derivatives of captive bustards. J Anat. 1997;191 ( Pt 3):387-98 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the mean lengths of the alimentary tract components and weight of the liver and pancreas showed sexual dimorphism in cases where male and female data were available for direct comparison...
  6. Willis W, Murray C, Talbott C. Effect of delayed placement on the incidence of Campylobacter jejuni in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2000;79:1392-5 pubmed
    ..jejuni. ..
  7. Moore R, Byrd J, Knape K, Anderson R, Callaway T, Edrington T, et al. The effect of an experimental chlorate product on Salmonella recovery of turkeys when administered prior to feed and water withdrawal. Poult Sci. 2006;85:2101-5 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest that the ECP significantly reduces Salmonella colonization in commercial turkeys when administered prior to feed and water withdrawal. ..
  8. Hammons S, Oh P, Martínez I, Clark K, Schlegel V, Sitorius E, et al. A small variation in diet influences the Lactobacillus strain composition in the crop of broiler chickens. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2010;33:275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has relevance in the application of probiotics and other direct-fed microbials in poultry husbandry. ..
  9. Bartels T, Meyer W, Neurand K. [Skin and plumage changes in domestic birds. I. Skin changes]. Tierarztl Prax. 1991;19:649-58 pubmed
    ..Additionally, genetic defects and pathogenic predispositions can be found. ..
  10. Hagen K, Guan L, Tannock G, Korver D, Allison G. Detection, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo expression of genes encoding S-proteins in Lactobacillus gallinarum strains isolated from chicken crops. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6633-43 pubmed
    ..The results of this study provide a basis for the investigation of gene duplication and sequence variation as mechanisms by which bacterial strains of the same species can share the same habitat. ..
  11. Ziprin R, Harvey R, Hume M, Kubena L. Campylobacter colonization of the crops of newly hatched leghorn chicks. Avian Dis. 2002;46:985-8 pubmed
    ..The present results, therefore, indicate that bacterial factors necessary for colonization of the crop are not the same as those needed for colonization of the cecum. ..
  12. Byrd J, Hargis B, Corrier D, Brewer R, Caldwell D, Bailey R, et al. Fluorescent marker for the detection of crop and upper gastrointestinal leakage in poultry processing plants. Poult Sci. 2002;81:70-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that this fluorescent marker technique may serve as a useful tool for rapid identification of potential changes, which could reduce the incidence of crop rupture and contamination of carcasses at processing. ..
  13. Minh D, Lindberg J, Ogle B. Effect of season and location on the crop contents of local and improved scavenging hens in northern Vietnam. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2006;38:121-9 pubmed
    ..05), but were not different between locations (p > 0.05). Nutrient intakes from scavenging were estimated at between 20% and 30% of requirements. ..
  14. Guan L, Hagen K, Tannock G, Korver D, Fasenko G, Allison G. Detection and identification of Lactobacillus species in crops of broilers of different ages by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:6750-7 pubmed
    ..The results of our study provide comprehensive knowledge of the Lactobacillus microflora in the crops of birds of different ages using nucleic acid-based methods of detection and identification based on current taxonomic criteria. ..
  15. Wynne J, Stringfield C. Treatment of lead toxicity and crop stasis in a California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2007;38:588-90 pubmed
    ..The condor was managed with continuous infusion feeding. After the feeding tube was removed, the condor was managed with small amounts of soft food orally. After 10 wk of treatment, the crop returned to normal function. ..
  16. Buhr R, Dickens J, Wilson J. Filling and emptying of the alimentary tract of meal-fed broiler breeder hens. Poult Sci. 2003;82:2000-4 pubmed
    ..Clearance of ingesta from the crop, proventriculus and gizzard, and intestines readily occurred while hens were held overnight without access to water. ..
  17. Holt P, Vaughn L, Moore R, Gast R. Comparison of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis levels in crops of fed or fasted infected hens. Avian Dis. 2006;50:425-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that feed withdrawal can have a dramatic effect on the integrity of the crop and its ultimate response to infection. ..
  18. Janczyk P, Halle B, Souffrant W. Microbial community composition of the crop and ceca contents of laying hens fed diets supplemented with Chlorella vulgaris. Poult Sci. 2009;88:2324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the sequences retrieved from the DGGE bands formed ceca that were closely related to Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and lactobacilli, giving further insight into still poorly discovered intestinal microbiota of laying hens...
  19. Brightsmith D, McDonald D, Matsafuji D, Bailey C. Nutritional content of the diets of free-living scarlet macaw chicks in southeastern Peru. J Avian Med Surg. 2010;24:9-23 pubmed
    ..Future analyses should investigate the bioavailability of Fe, Ca, and Zn in these diets and the effects of varying concentrations of fat, Na, Ca, Mg, and Na:K ratio on psittacine growth and development. ..
  20. Park S, Birkhold S, Kubena L, Nisbet D, Ricke S. Effects of high zinc diets using zinc propionate on molt induction, organs, and postmolt egg production and quality in laying hens. Poult Sci. 2004;83:24-33 pubmed
    ..05) heavier than those from hens on feed withdrawal. The data of the current study demonstrated that feeding a Zn propionate (1% zinc)-supplemented diet can induce molt. ..
  21. Evans B. Psittacine bird crop gavage feeding. Lab Anim (NY). 2007;36:17-8 pubmed
  22. Dahouda M, Toléba S, Youssao A, Ali A, Hambuckers A, Hornick J. Seasonal variations in the crop contents of scavenging Helmeted Guinea Fowls (Numida meleagris, L.) in Parakou (Benin). Br Poult Sci. 2008;49:751-9 pubmed publisher
    ..4. Scavenging provided insufficient nutrients and energy to allow guinea fowls to be productive. Therefore, more nutritionally balanced supplementary feed would be required during both seasons. ..
  23. Wright A, Northwood K, Obispo N. Rumen-like methanogens identified from the crop of the folivorous South American bird, the hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin). ISME J. 2009;3:1120-6 pubmed publisher
    ..80 x 10(9), 7.93 x 10(12) and 3.31 x 10(5), respectively. The crop microbial data presented here provide an excellent example of convergent evolution of foregut fermentation in the hoatzin, similar to that of ruminants. ..
  24. Hinton A, Buhr R, Ingram K. Reduction of Salmonella in the crop of broiler chickens subjected to feed withdrawal. Poult Sci. 2000;79:1566-70 pubmed
    ..Providing the cocktail to broilers before shipping to processing plants may reduce the number of food-borne pathogens that poultry carry into processing plants. ..
  25. Skov M, Feld N, Carstensen B, Madsen M. The serologic response to Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in experimentally infected chickens, followed by an indirect lipopolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and bacteriologic examinations through a one-year period. Avian Dis. 2002;46:265-73 pubmed
  26. Beasley S, Takala T, Reunanen J, Apajalahti J, Saris P. Characterization and electrotransformation of Lactobacillus crispatus isolated from chicken crop and intestine. Poult Sci. 2004;83:45-8 pubmed
    ..crispatus. In spite of its low frequency, transformation enables bioengineering of these strains to improve the probiotic function in feed adsorption, chicken health, and food safety. ..
  27. McReynolds J, Kubena L, Byrd J, Anderson R, Ricke S, Nisbet D. Evaluation of Salmonella enteritidis in molting hens after administration of an experimental chlorate product (for nine days) in the drinking water and feeding an alfalfa molt diet. Poult Sci. 2005;84:1186-90 pubmed
    ..For several parameters, these results suggest that ECP or the combination of ECP and alfalfa may be a useful tool to reduce the risk of SE during an induced molt. ..
  28. Wesley I, Rostagno M, Hurd H, Trampel D. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in market-weight turkeys on-farm and at slaughter. J Food Prot. 2009;72:43-8 pubmed
    ..recovered from the crops of birds at the abattoir (24%) was significant (P < 0.05), which may be associated with a detectable decline in lactic acid in the emptied crop. ..
  29. Kurzak P, Ehrmann M, Vogel R. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with ducks. Syst Appl Microbiol. 1998;21:588-92 pubmed
    ..Homofermentative and heterofermentative lactobacilli were identified, belonging to the phylogenetically defined Lb. acidophilus, Lb. salivarius and Lb. reuteri groups. ..
  30. Berrang M, Buhr R, Cason J. Campylobacter recovery from external and internal organs of commercial broiler carcass prior to scalding. Poult Sci. 2000;79:286-90 pubmed
    ..However, even with no contamination from an internal organ, a substantial population of Campylobacter is already resident on broiler skin as the carcass enters the early stages of processing. ..
  31. Pousga S, Boly H, Lindberg J, Ogle B. Scavenging pullets in Burkina Faso: effect of season, location and breed on feed and nutrient intake. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2005;37:623-34 pubmed
    ..05). The nutrient composition of the crop contents indicates the need for supplementation, particularly of protein, for higher levels of production. ..
  32. Fischer I, Curd S, Hatt J. Chronic regurgitation in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) with a trichobezoar. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2006;148:309-11 pubmed
    ..In the literature only very few cases have been reported. This case report describes the clinical examination, the diagnostic workup and the ingluviotomy in a cockatiel with a bezoar in the crop. ..
  33. Furuse M. Release and endogenous actions of the gastrin/cholecystokinin (CCK) family in the chicken. J Exp Zool. 1999;283:448-54 pubmed
    ..Luminal acids controlled food passage from the crop. In conclusion, gastrointestinal physiology may be directly regulated by luminal acid rather than by the gastrin/CCK family in the chicken. ..
  34. Holmes P, Duff P. Ingluvitis and oesophagitis in wild finches. Vet Rec. 2005;157:455 pubmed
  35. Hume M, Hollister A, Nisbet D, Corrier D, DeLoach J. Effect of a characterized continuous-flow culture of cecal bacteria on Salmonella typhimurium crop colonization in broiler chicks. Avian Dis. 1996;40:391-7 pubmed
    ..05) in chicks inoculated with CF3 as compared with controls. The results indicated that CF3 can effectively reduce Salmonella crop colonization. ..
  36. Craven S. Colonization of the intestinal tract by Clostridium perfringens and fecal shedding in diet-stressed and unstressed broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2000;79:843-9 pubmed
    ..perfringens in the ceca of broiler chickens and extends these findings to demonstrate increases in the numbers and frequency of recovery of C. perfringens in other parts of the intestinal tract. ..
  37. Zhang W, Li D, Lu W, Yi G. Effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides on broiler performance and intestinal microflora. Poult Sci. 2003;82:657-63 pubmed
    ..05). The facultative microflora of the crop and cecum were not affected by IMO supplementation. However, the thymus index was increased significantly in chicks consuming diets containing 0.3% IMO. ..
  38. Nisbet D, Edrington T, McReynolds J, Callaway T, Byrd J. Influence of exogenous melatonin administration on Salmonella enteritidis colonization in molted layers. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1083-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from the current research suggest that dosage with high levels of melatonin may exacerbate Salmonella Enteritidis infection in layers subjected to forced molt. ..
  39. Al Tarazi Y, Alshawabkeh K. Effect of dietary formic and propionic acids on salmonella pullorum shedding and mortality in layer chicks after experimental infection. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2003;50:112-7 pubmed
    ..pullorum and significantly decreases S. pullorum faecal excretion and reduced the chick mortality rate. ..
  40. Chambers J, Bisaillon J, Labbé Y, Poppe C, Langford C. Salmonella prevalence in crops of Ontario and Quebec broiler chickens at slaughter. Poult Sci. 1998;77:1497-501 pubmed
    ..Such information would assist efforts to reduce Salmonella contamination in broiler chickens...
  41. Svihus B, Hetland H, Choct M, Sundby F. Passage rate through the anterior digestive tract of broiler chickens fed on diets with ground and whole wheat. Br Poult Sci. 2002;43:662-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, a hypothesis that the use of whole grain would slow down passage rate through the upper digestive tract was not supported by the current results...
  42. Seo K, Holt P, Vaughn L, Gast R, Stone H. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis-specific immunoglobulin A antibodies in crop samples from chickens infected with Salmonella enteritidis. Poult Sci. 2003;82:67-70 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the crop may serve a role in immune protection in addition to its capacity as a food storage organ...
  43. Baele M, Vancanneyt M, Devriese L, Lefebvre K, Swings J, Haesebrouck F. Lactobacillus ingluviei sp. nov., isolated from the intestinal tract of pigeons. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2003;53:133-6 pubmed
    ..nov. is proposed. The type strain is strain KR3T (=LMG 20380T =CCUG 45722T)...
  44. Smith M. Anterior pituitary hormones: development of a bioassay leading to the discovery of prolactin. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E813-4 pubmed
  45. Mainali C, Gensler G, McFall M, King R, Irwin R, Senthilselvan A. Evaluation of associations between feed withdrawal and other management factors with Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens at slaughter in Alberta. J Food Prot. 2009;72:2202-7 pubmed
    ..Salmonella contamination of broiler chickens could potentially be minimized by reducing waiting time in-plant for flocks with longer transport time...
  46. Rotiroti D, Ciriaco E, Ammendola D, Germana G, Naccari F, Germana G. Ultrastructural changes of crop-sac and lactotrophs after systemic or intraventricular administration of drugs enhancing cholinergic transmission in pigeons. Anat Anz. 1991;173:199-208 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that muscarinic receptors at the hypothalamic and/or anterior pituitary level are involved in avian species in the control of prolactin secretion...
  47. Baele M, Devriese L, Haesebrouck F. Lactobacillus agilis is an important component of the pigeon crop flora. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;91:488-91 pubmed
    ..To examine the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB: enterococci, streptococci and lactobacilli) in the pigeon crop...
  48. Trampel D, Pepper T, Witter R. Reticuloendotheliosis in Hungarian partridge. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:438-42 pubmed
    ..This disease has not previously been reported in Hungarian partridges. Hungarian partridge may represent a potential reservoir of infection for other gamebirds, including prairie chickens...
  49. Calvete C, Estrada R, Lucientes J, Estrada A, Telletxea I. Correlates of helminth community in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.) in Spain. J Parasitol. 2003;89:445-51 pubmed
    ..We discuss the implications of this variation for the hypothesis that supplementary releases of captive-bred partridges for sport hunting can affect the helminth fauna of wild red-legged partridges...
  50. Johannsen S, Griffith R, Wesley I, Scanes C. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium colonization of the crop in the domestic turkey: influence of probiotic and prebiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and lactose). Avian Dis. 2004;48:279-86 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated ST in close association with the crop epithelium. Treatment with lactose and L. acidophilus supplementation did not reduce ST colonization...
  51. Cousquer G. Ingluvitis and oesophagitis in wild finches. Vet Rec. 2005;157:455 pubmed
  52. Byrd J, Burnham M, McReynolds J, Anderson R, Genovese K, Callaway T, et al. Evaluation of an experimental chlorate product as a preslaughter feed supplement to reduce salmonella in meat-producing birds. Poult Sci. 2008;87:1883-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5% ECP compared with the controls. These results indicate broilers supplemented with feed </= 5% ECP or water ECP 7 d before slaughter reduced ST without affecting growth parameters...
  53. Volkova V, Byrd J, Hubbard S, Magee D, Bailey R, Wills R. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks. Acta Vet Scand. 2010;52:46 pubmed publisher
    ..The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks...
  54. Frei A, Goldenberger D, Teuber M. Antimicrobial susceptibility of intestinal bacteria from Swiss poultry flocks before the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. Syst Appl Microbiol. 2001;24:116-21 pubmed
    ..These data can be used as a baseline to determine antibiotic resistance rates after implementation of the growth promotor ban in 1999 in Switzerland...
  55. Tachibana T, Matsumoto M, Furuse M, Hasegawa S, Yoshizawa F, Sugahara K. Central, but not peripheral, glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits crop emptying in chicks. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2003;134:777-81 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of several doses of GLP-1 (120, 300 and 3000 pmol) did not alter crop emptying. The present study revealed that central, but not peripheral, GLP-1 inhibits crop emptying in chicks...
  56. Chaveerach P, Keuzenkamp D, Lipman L, van Knapen F. Effect of organic acids in drinking water for young broilers on Campylobacter infection, volatile fatty acid production, gut microflora and histological cell changes. Poult Sci. 2004;83:330-4 pubmed
    ..Acidified drinking water could therefore play a crucial role in a biosecurity strategy of preventing Campylobacter spread via drinking water in broiler flocks...
  57. Moore R, Park S, Kubena L, Byrd J, McReynolds J, Burnham M, et al. Comparison of zinc acetate and propionate addition on gastrointestinal tract fermentation and susceptibility of laying hens to Salmonella enteritidis during forced molt. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1276-86 pubmed
    ..At the zinc concentration used in these studies, the zinc dietary regimens may be effective for reducing the risk of SE during induced molt...
  58. Thaxton J, Cutler S, Griffith R, Scanes C. Changes in tissue nitrite concentration in the crop of the turkey poult in response to Salmonella typhimurium challenge. Poult Sci. 2006;85:1015-9 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of the response was reduced at 8 h and absent at 48 h after challenge. As would be expected, S. typhimurium concentrations in the crop were markedly increased following challenge, and were nondetectable in control poults...
  59. Youl J, Gartrell B. Multidrug-resistant bacterial ingluvitis associated with squamous cell carcinoma in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2006;9:557-62 pubmed
    ..To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of SCC in a budgerigar associated with a multidrug-resistant bacterial ingluvitis...
  60. Horsted K, Hermansen J, Ranvig H. Crop content in nutrient-restricted versus non-restricted organic laying hens with access to different forage vegetations. Br Poult Sci. 2007;48:177-84 pubmed
  61. Petr J, Rada V. Bifidobacteria are obligate inhabitants of the crop of adult laying hens. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health. 2001;48:227-33 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that bifidobacteria are common and may even be one of the predominant parts of the hen crop flora...
  62. Jeffrey J, Tonooka K, Lozanot J. Prevalence of campylobacter spp. from skin, crop, and intestine of commercial broiler chicken carcasses at processing. Poult Sci. 2001;80:1390-2 pubmed
    ..Further, if only one organ can be sampled, intestinal samples are most likely to reflect the prevalence of Campylobacter in a flock...
  63. Willis W, Murray C, Talbott C. Campylobacter isolation trends of cage versus floor broiler chickens: a one-year study. Poult Sci. 2002;81:629-31 pubmed
    ..jejuni. The results from this study suggest that housing environment and time spent in that environment play a major role in the continuing shedding and isolation of C. jejuni in broiler chickens...
  64. Brown C. A depressed, ataxic, and regurgitating Pacific Parrotlet. Diagnosis: acute lead poisoning. Lab Anim (NY). 2002;31:23-5 pubmed
  65. Seo K, Holt P, Brackett R, Gast R, Stone H. Mucosal humoral immunity to experimental Salmonella enteritidis infection in the chicken crop. Avian Dis. 2002;46:1015-20 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the crop may function as another site for mucosal immunity, and the SE flagella-based ELISA of crop samples can provide a useful screening test of SE exposure in chickens...
  66. Byrd J, Anderson R, Callaway T, Moore R, Knape K, Kubena L, et al. Effect of experimental chlorate product administration in the drinking water on Salmonella typhimurium contamination of broilers. Poult Sci. 2003;82:1403-6 pubmed
    ..52 log10 ST). This study suggested that incorporation of ECP in the drinking water 24 to 48 h prior to slaughter could reduce Salmonella contamination in broilers...
  67. Murphy T, Bedford M, McCracken K. The effect of a range of xylanases added to a wheat-based diet on broiler performance and microflora populations. Br Poult Sci. 2004;45 Suppl 1:S61-2 pubmed
  68. Pennycott T, Lawson B, Cunningham A, Simpson V, Chantrey J. Necrotic ingluvitis in wild finches. Vet Rec. 2005;157:360 pubmed
  69. Cutler S, Rasmussen M, Hensley M, Wilhelms K, Griffith R, Scanes C. Effects of Lactobacilli and lactose on Salmonella typhimurium colonisation and microbial fermentation in the crop of the young turkey. Br Poult Sci. 2005;46:708-16 pubmed
    ..5. Young turkeys confine eating to the hours of illumination (photophase) with a peak in consumption prior to the subjective dusk...
  70. Lin W, Yu B, Jang S, Tsen H. Different probiotic properties for Lactobacillus fermentum strains isolated from swine and poultry. Anaerobe. 2007;13:107-13 pubmed
    ..This study suggested that poultry digestive tract may serve as potential source for the isolation of probiotic lactic acid bacteria...
  71. Godoy Vitorino F, Ley R, Gao Z, Pei Z, Ortiz Zuazaga H, Pericchi L, et al. Bacterial community in the crop of the hoatzin, a neotropical folivorous flying bird. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:5905-12 pubmed publisher
    ..1%). The novelty in this ecosystem is great; 94% of the phylotypes were unclassified at the "species" level and thus likely include novel cellulolytic lineages...
  72. Rubio L, Brenes A, Setién I, de la Asunción G, Duran N, Cutuli M. Lactobacilli counts in crop, ileum and caecum of growing broiler chickens fed on practical diets containing whole or dehulled sweet lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) seed meal. Br Poult Sci. 1998;39:354-9 pubmed
    ..acidophilus, L. salivarius and L. brevis. 5. The results suggest that the use of whole or dehulled sweet lupin seed meal in diets for growing broilers might enhance the growth of lactic acid--fermenting bacteria in the gut...
  73. Hinton A, Buhr R, Ingram K. Physical, chemical, and microbiological changes in the crop of broiler chickens subjected to incremental feed withdrawal. Poult Sci. 2000;79:212-8 pubmed
    ..Findings indicate that a decrease in the number of lactic acid producing bacteria in the crop and an increase in crop pH may be related to the reduction of anti-Enterobacteriaceae activity in the crop during extended feed withdrawal...
  74. Farhat A, Maddox C, Edwards M, Costell M, Hadley J, Vasilatos Younken R. Oral lavage with polyethylene glycol reduces microbial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of broilers. Poult Sci. 2002;81:585-9 pubmed
    ..Polyethylene glycol resulted in complete evacuation of the upper GIT, as well as the intestine, within 3 h of use, and significantly reduced GNB concentrations...
  75. Krautwald Junghanns M, Stahl A, Pees M, Enders F, Bartels T. Sonographic investigations of the gastrointestinal tract of granivorous birds. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2002;43:576-82 pubmed
    ..Motility of individual parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), however, could be well demonstrated...
  76. Cherif S, Miled N, Kammoun M, Mejdoub H, Gargouri Y. Purification and biochemical characterization of a turkey preduodenal esterase. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;145:358-64 pubmed
    ..The TPrE N-terminal amino acid sequence showed similarities to the N-terminal sequence of a thioesterase from mallard duck, but no similarity with known preduodenal lipases was found...
  77. Tomaszewski E, Wigle W, Phalen D. Tissue distribution of psittacid herpesviruses in latently infected parrots, repeated sampling of latently infected parrots and prevalence of latency in parrots submitted for necropsy. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:536-44 pubmed
    ..Psittacid herpesvirus 2 (PsHV-2) was identified in 4 African grey parrots and a blue and gold macaw. Prior to this study PsHV-2 had only been found in African grey parrots...
  78. Ramachandran A, Kurien A, Patil P, Symons S, Ganpule A, Muthu V, et al. A novel training model for laparoscopic pyeloplasty using chicken crop. J Endourol. 2008;22:725-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To create a model for laparoscopic pyeloplasty training using the crop and esophagus of a chicken. The model can be used to simulate the steps taken during laparoscopic pyeloplasty and to help trainees practice laparoscopic suturing skills...
  79. Godoy Vitorino F, Goldfarb K, Brodie E, Garcia Amado M, Michelangeli F, Dominguez Bello M. Developmental microbial ecology of the crop of the folivorous hoatzin. ISME J. 2010;4:611-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall community structure of the crop of the hoatzin changes with age in a complex manner, probably responding to new niches made available through dietary changes related to the transition from dependent to independent feeding...
  80. Byrd J, Corrier D, Hume M, Bailey R, Stanker L, Hargis B. Incidence of Campylobacter in crops of preharvest market-age broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 1998;77:1303-5 pubmed
  81. Musgrove M, Berrang M, Byrd J, Stern N, Cox N. Detection of Campylobacter spp. in ceca and crops with and without enrichment. Poult Sci. 2001;80:825-8 pubmed
    ..The large numbers of non-Campylobacter species that inhabit the intestinal tract may out-compete Campylobacter during enrichment, confounding detection...
  82. Edelman S, Westerlund Wikström B, Leskela S, Kettunen H, Rautonen N, Apajalahti J, et al. In vitro adhesion specificity of indigenous Lactobacilli within the avian intestinal tract. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2002;68:5155-9 pubmed
    ..No adherence to the apical surfaces of undifferentiated enterocytes, the mucus-producing goblet cells, or the ileal mucus was detected...
  83. Rybolt M, Wills R, Byrd J, Doler T, Bailey R. Comparison of four Salmonella isolation techniques in four different inoculated matrices. Poult Sci. 2004;83:1112-6 pubmed
    ..However, in the carcass rinse and crop samples, there were no differences among the isolation of Salmonella using RV, TR, or TT, but all 3 were (P < or = 0.05) more successful at recovering Salmonella than the IMS method...
  84. Bucher E, Bocco P. Reassessing the importance of granivorous pigeons as massive, long-distance seed dispersers. Ecology. 2009;90:2321-7 pubmed
    ..A preliminary assessment of dispersal kernel generated by crop spillage in colonial Eared Doves is included...
  85. Sentepe I, Eraslan G. Pharmacokinetic of sulfaclozine in broiler chickens. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:448-51 pubmed publisher
  86. Holt P, Vaughn L, Gast R, Stone H. Development of a lavage procedure to collect crop secretions from live chickens for studying crop immunity. Avian Pathol. 2002;31:589-92 pubmed
    ..Such a sampling procedure may provide researchers with a simple method to follow mucosal immunity in chickens following infection or vaccination regimens...
  87. Khan M, Ali Z, Muhammad G, Khan A, Mahmood F. Pathological effects of formalin (37% formaldehyde) mixed in feed or administered into the crops of White Leghorn cockerels. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003;50:354-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, birds ingested less amount of formalin than that originally mixed in the feed...
  88. Tiwary A, Puschner B, Charlton B, Filigenzi M. Diagnosis of zinc phosphide poisoning in chickens using a new analytical approach. Avian Dis. 2005;49:288-91 pubmed
    ..It was also found that the determination of zinc concentrations in liver or kidney tissue or stomach contents is not a reliable indicator of zinc phosphide poisoning...
  89. Lima E, Andreatti Filho R, Okamoto A, Noujaim J, Barros M, Crocci A. Evaluation in vitro of the antagonistic substances produced by Lactobacillus spp. isolated from chickens. Can J Vet Res. 2007;71:103-7 pubmed
    ..The antagonistic substances produced by some of the Lactobacillus isolates were inactivated after treatment by proteolytic enzymes, which suggested that the substances could be antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins...
  90. Cummings J, Handley L, Macbryde B, Tupper S, Werner S, Byram Z. Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops. Environ Biosafety Res. 2008;7:241-52 pubmed publisher
  91. Vaughn L, Holt P, Gast R. Cellular assessment of crop lymphoid tissue from specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens after Salmonella enteritidis challenge. Avian Dis. 2008;52:657-64 pubmed
    ..The chicken crop seems to be an organ in which lymphoid tissue may arise in response to enteric SE infection, and a site in which a humoral response may be generated against the SE pathogen...
  92. Mason C, Collins M, Thompson K. Modified electroporation protocol for Lactobacilli isolated from the chicken crop facilitates transformation and the use of a genetic tool. J Microbiol Methods. 2005;60:353-63 pubmed
    ..The genetic tool harbouring an IS element allowed the delivery of the plasmid to multiple independent sites in the host chromosome. Harnessing such genetic tools will facilitate the future genetic analysis of the host bacterium...