Summary: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.

Top Publications

  1. Ruiz G, Fofonoff P, Ashton G, Minton M, Miller A. Geographic variation in marine invasions among large estuaries: effects of ships and time. Ecol Appl. 2013;23:311-20 pubmed
    ..large bays in the United States, we estimated (1) geographic variation in nonnative species richness attributed to ships, controlling for effects of salinity and other vectors, (2) changes through time in geographic variation of these ..
  2. Redfern J, McKenna M, Moore T, Calambokidis J, Deangelis M, Becker E, et al. Assessing the risk of ships striking large whales in marine spatial planning. Conserv Biol. 2013;27:292-302 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed the risk of ships striking humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (Balaenoptera physalus) whales ..
  3. Altug G, Gurun S, Cardak M, Ciftci P, Kalkan S. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in some ships' ballast water incoming from various marine regions to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Mar Environ Res. 2012;81:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HPC) and possible in-situ use of chromogenic agar were investigated in the ships' ballast water coming from different regions of the world to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey for the first time...
  4. Mur L, Martinez Lopez B, Sanchez Vizcaino J. Risk of African swine fever introduction into the European Union through transport-associated routes: returning trucks and waste from international ships and planes. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:149 pubmed publisher
    ..ASFV introduction into the EU through three types of transport routes: returning trucks, waste from international ships and waste from international planes, which will be referred here as transport-associated routes (TAR)...
  5. Borch D, Hansen H, Burr H, Jepsen J. Surveillance of maritime deaths on board Danish merchant ships, 1986-2009. Int Marit Health. 2012;63:7-16 pubmed
    A previous study demonstrated a high death rate among seafarers signed on Danish ships during the years 1986-1993. This study aimed to examine and analyse the subsequent development until 2009...
  6. Preisser A, Budnik L, Baur X. Health effects due to fumigated freight containers and goods: how to detect, how to act. Int Marit Health. 2012;63:133-9 pubmed
    ..In this article we explain how to identify the guiding symptoms and describe the appropriate diagnostic steps and the prevention of such events on cargo vessels as well as in the logistics and the handling of imported goods. ..
  7. Allen J, Peterson M, Sharrard G, Wright D, Todd S. Radiated noise from commercial ships in the Gulf of Maine: implications for whale/vessel collisions. J Acoust Soc Am. 2012;132:EL229-35 pubmed publisher
    To understand mysticete acoustic-based detection of ships, radiated noise from high-speed craft, cruise ships, catamarans and fishing vessels was recorded June-September 2009...
  8. Smoljanovic T, Bojanic I. Ewing sarcoma of the rib in a rower: a case report. Clin J Sport Med. 2007;17:510-2 pubmed
  9. Cramer E, Blanton C, Otto C. Shipshape: sanitation inspections on cruise ships, 1990-2005, Vessel Sanitation Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. J Environ Health. 2008;70:15-21 pubmed

More Information


  1. Mouchtouri V, Anagnostopoulou R, Samanidou Voyadjoglou A, Theodoridou K, Hatzoglou C, Kremastinou J, et al. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, risk factors related to infestations. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:100 pubmed publisher
    Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations...
  2. Adkin A, England T, Hall S, Coburn H, Marooney C, Seaman M, et al. Estimating the risk of exposure of British livestock to foot-and-mouth disease associated with the importation of ship and aircraft waste. Vet Rec. 2008;163:235-40 pubmed
    A quantitative risk assessment model was developed to estimate the frequency with which meat waste from ships or aircraft might expose British livestock to infection with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), and investigate the factors that ..
  3. Takkinen J. Recent norovirus outbreaks on river and seagoing cruise ships in Europe. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:E060615.2 pubmed
  4. Kura F, Amemura Maekawa J, Yagita K, Endo T, Ikeno M, Tsuji H, et al. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to spa-bath filter stones contaminated with Legionella pneumophila serogroup 5. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:385-91 pubmed
    ..pneumophila, a phenomenon which has not been reported except in Japan. This is the first documented evidence of L. pneumophila sg 5 infection on a ship and of porous stones as a source of Legionella infection. ..
  5. Kraus S, Brown M, Caswell H, Clark C, Fujiwara M, Hamilton P, et al. Ecology. North Atlantic right whales in crisis. Science. 2005;309:561-2 pubmed
  6. Foote A, Osborne R, Hoelzel A. Environment: whale-call response to masking boat noise. Nature. 2004;428:910 pubmed
    ..This result indicates that these whales adjust their behaviour to compensate for anthropogenic noise once it reaches a threshold level. ..
  7. Ward K, Armstrong P, McAnulty J, Iwasenko J, Dwyer D. Outbreaks of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1731-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among this population of generally healthy passengers, children seemed more susceptible to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 than to influenza (H3N2) viruses. Intensive disease control measures successfully contained these outbreaks. ..
  8. Deniz C, Durmuşoğlu Y. Estimating shipping emissions in the region of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Sci Total Environ. 2008;390:255-61 pubmed
    ..Since the region of the Marmara is highly urbanized, emissions from ships affect human health and the overall environment...
  9. Gallimore C, Richards A, Gray J. Molecular diversity of noroviruses associated with outbreaks on cruise ships: comparison with strains circulating within the UK. Commun Dis Public Health. 2003;6:285-93 pubmed
    ..The outbreaks occurred on 14 cruise ships from seven cruise lines, during the period from 1998 to 2002...
  10. Hofmijster M, Landman E, Smith R, van Soest A. Effect of stroke rate on the distribution of net mechanical power in rowing. J Sports Sci. 2007;25:403-11 pubmed
    ..The increase in e(net) results because the increase in e(propelling) is higher than the decrease in e(velocity). Our results show that the power equation is an adequate conceptual model with which to analyse rowing performance. ..
  11. Kobayashi A, Yamamoto Y, Chou S, Hashimoto S. Severe Legionella pneumophila pneumonia associated with the public bath on a cruise ship in Japan. J Anesth. 2004;18:129-31 pubmed
  12. Codarin A, Wysocki L, Ladich F, Picciulin M. Effects of ambient and boat noise on hearing and communication in three fish species living in a marine protected area (Miramare, Italy). Mar Pollut Bull. 2009;58:1880-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This masking effect was most pronounced in the frequency range where acoustic communication takes place. Boat noise potentially affects acoustic communication in fishes inhabiting the reserve. ..
  13. Enserink M. Infectious diseases. Gastrointestinal virus strikes European cruise ships. Science. 2006;313:747 pubmed
  14. Aridgides L, Doblin M, Berke T, Dobbs F, Matson D, Drake L. Multiplex PCR allows simultaneous detection of pathogens in ships' ballast water. Mar Pollut Bull. 2004;48:1096-101 pubmed
    There is enormous potential for global transfer of microorganisms, including pathogens, in ships' ballast water...
  15. Schlaich C, Oldenburg M, Lamshöft M. Estimating the risk of communicable diseases aboard cargo ships. J Travel Med. 2009;16:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..No international surveillance system for infectious diseases on ships exists. Outbreak reports and systematic studies mainly focus on disease activity on cruise ships...
  16. Rooney R, Cramer E, Mantha S, Nichols G, Bartram J, Farber J, et al. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management. Public Health Rep. 2004;119:427-34 pubmed
    Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry...
  17. Andrew R, Howe B, Mercer J. Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast. J Acoust Soc Am. 2011;129:642-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s. ..
  18. Leka S. Psychosocial hazards and seafarer health: priorities for research and practice. Int Marit Health. 2004;55:137-53 pubmed
    ..Finally, specific recommendations are made for future directions for research and practice in relation to these issues. ..
  19. Dahl E. Dealing with gastrointestinal illness on a cruise ship--Part 1: Description of sanitation measures. Part 2: An isolation study. Int Marit Health. 2004;55:19-29 pubmed
    Recent outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness (GI) on passenger ships have caused cruise companies to expand their sanitation programs...
  20. Ferson M, Ressler K. Bound for Sydney town: health surveillance on international cruise vessels visiting the Port of Sydney. Med J Aust. 2005;182:391-4 pubmed
    A program for routine health surveillance on international cruise ships visiting the Port of Sydney has been developed since 1998...
  21. Filipkowska A, Kowalewska G, Pavoni B, Łęczyński L. Organotin compounds in surface sediments from seaports on the Gulf of Gda?sk (southern Baltic coast). Environ Monit Assess. 2011;182:455-66 pubmed publisher
    ..this was done in 2008, just after the total ban on using harmful organotins in antifouling paints on ships came into force...
  22. Baur X, Poschadel B, Budnik L. High frequency of fumigants and other toxic gases in imported freight containers--an underestimated occupational and community health risk. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67:207-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate a health risk for dockworkers, container unloaders and even end-consumers, especially as many of the cancerogenic or toxic gases elude subjective detection. ..
  23. Alexopoulos E, Konstantinou E, Bakoyannis G, Tanagra D, Burdorf A. Risk factors for sickness absence due to low back pain and prognostic factors for return to work in a cohort of shipyard workers. Eur Spine J. 2008;17:1185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..An increased awareness of those frequently on sick leave and additional management after return to work may have a beneficial effect on the sickness absence pattern. ..
  24. Hunter D, Oultram S. The challenge of "sperm ships": the need for the global regulation of medical technology. J Med Ethics. 2008;34:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is because in international waters ships are governed by the laws of their home nation not those they are nearby...
  25. Neri A, Cramer E, Vaughan G, Vinje J, Mainzer H. Passenger behaviors during norovirus outbreaks on cruise ships. J Travel Med. 2008;15:172-6 pubmed publisher
    Norovirus causes a majority of outbreaks of gastrointestinal (GI) illness on cruise ships calling on the United States. Control measures include patient isolation, hand washing, and facility closure...
  26. Deniz C, Kilic A, Civkaroglu G. Estimation of shipping emissions in Candarli Gulf, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess. 2010;171:219-28 pubmed publisher
    b>Ships are significant air pollution sources as their high powered main engines often use heavy fuels...
  27. Grenfell P, Little C, Surman Lee S, Greenwood M, Averns J, Westacott S, et al. The microbiological quality of potable water on board ships docking in the UK and the Channel Islands: an association of Port Health Authorities and Health Protection Agency Study. J Water Health. 2008;6:215-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Between May and October 2005, 950 potable water samples were collected from 342 ships docking at ports...
  28. Ona E, Godø O, Handegard N, Hjellvik V, Patel R, Pedersen G. Silent research vessels are not quiet. J Acoust Soc Am. 2007;121:EL145-50 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the candidate stimuli for vessel avoidance remain obscure. Noise reduction might be necessary but is insufficient to obtain stealth vessel assets during surveys. ..
  29. Thornton S, Davies D, Chapman F, Farkas T, Wilton N, Doggett D, et al. Detection of Norwalk-like virus infection aboard two U.S. Navy ships. Mil Med. 2002;167:826-30 pubmed
    Two U.S. Navy ships experienced outbreaks of gastroenteritis following port visits to Southeast Asia during August to September 1999...
  30. Song M, Wang B, Liu J, Gratz N. Insect vectors and rodents arriving in China aboard international transport. J Travel Med. 2003;10:241-4 pubmed
  31. Flemmer M, Oldfield E. The agony and the ecstasy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003;98:2098-9 pubmed
    ..CDC), summarize the recent outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis (AGE), which occurred on five different cruise ships. Attack rates among passengers ranged from 4% to 13% and among crew members from 0.2% to 3.3%...
  32. Nowacek D, Johnson M, Tyack P. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) ignore ships but respond to alerting stimuli. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271:227-31 pubmed ship strikes, we used a multi-sensor acoustic recording tag to measure the responses of whales to passing ships and experimentally tested their responses to controlled sound exposures, which included recordings of ship noise, ..
  33. Drake L, Doblin M, Dobbs F. Potential microbial bioinvasions via ships' ballast water, sediment, and biofilm. Mar Pollut Bull. 2007;55:333-41 pubmed
    ..vector of aquatic invasive species to coastal regions is the discharge of water, sediments, and biofilm from ships' ballast-water tanks...
  34. Mills M, Ridame C, Davey M, La Roche J, Geider R. Iron and phosphorus co-limit nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic. Nature. 2004;429:292-4 pubmed
    ..Our results support the hypothesis that aeolian mineral dust deposition promotes nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic. ..
  35. Rooney R, Bartram J, Cramer E, Mantha S, Nichols G, Suraj R, et al. A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management. Public Health Rep. 2004;119:435-42 pubmed
    The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship...
  36. Azara A, Piana A, Sotgiu G, Dettori M, Deriu M, Masia M, et al. Prevalence study of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:100 pubmed
    ..contamination in ferries and cruise ships; to compare the levels of contamination with those indicated by the Italian ministerial guidelines for control and ..
  37. Tatem A, Hay S, Rogers D. Global traffic and disease vector dispersal. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6242-7 pubmed
    ..In contrast, An. gambiae has rarely spread from Africa, which we suggest is partly due to the low volume of sea traffic from the continent and, until very recently, a European destination for most flights. ..
  38. Whittaker D, Campbell J, McCarten M. Viral gastroenteritis: the USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT experience. Mil Med. 2004;169:747-50 pubmed
    Although the spread of disease on board Navy ships is not a novel concept, the medical department of the USS THEODORE ROOSEVELT recently experienced a significant outbreak of viral gastroenteritis while at sea...
  39. Isakbaeva E, Widdowson M, Beard R, Bulens S, Mullins J, Monroe S, et al. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:154-8 pubmed
    ..We documented transmission by food and person-to-person contact; persistence of virus despite sanitization onboard, including introductions of new strains; and seeding of an outbreak on land. ..
  40. Hansen H, Nielsen D, Frydenberg M. Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:85-91 pubmed
    To investigate the frequency, circumstances, and causes of occupational accidents aboard merchant ships in international trade, and to identify risk factors for the occurrence of occupational accidents as well as dangerous working ..
  41. Oldenburg M, Jensen H, Latza U, Baur X. Coronary risks among seafarers aboard German-flagged ships. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2008;81:735-41 pubmed
    ..In spite of the seafarers' regular medical surveillance examination, their CHD risk was comparable to a reference population working ashore. Our results support the hypothesis that working on vessels may augment the risk of CHD. ..
  42. Widdowson M, Cramer E, Hadley L, Bresee J, Beard R, Bulens S, et al. Outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis on cruise ships and on land: identification of a predominant circulating strain of norovirus--United States, 2002. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:27-36 pubmed
    In 2002, a sharp increase in outbreaks of norovirus-associated illness, both on cruise ships and on land, encouraged us to examine the molecular epidemiology of detected noroviruses, to identify a common strain or source...
  43. Navarro P, Iborra A, Fernandez C, Sanchez P, Suardíaz J. A sensor system for detection of hull surface defects. Sensors (Basel). 2010;10:7067-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The sensor system was tested under real conditions at a Spanish shipyard, with excellent results. ..
  44. Hansen H, Tuchsen F, Hannerz H. Hospitalisations among seafarers on merchant ships. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:145-50 pubmed
    ..SHRs for injury and poisoning were high, especially for ratings and officers aboard small ships. Despite pre-employment selection, a large proportion of the seafarers constitute a group of workers with evidence ..
  45. McDonald M, Hildebrand J, Wiggins S. Increases in deep ocean ambient noise in the Northeast Pacific west of San Nicolas Island, California. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;120:711-8 pubmed
    ..Increases in commercial shipping are believed to account for the observed low-frequency ambient noise increase...
  46. Boxman I, Dijkman R, Te Loeke N, Hägele G, Tilburg J, Vennema H, et al. Environmental swabs as a tool in norovirus outbreak investigation, including outbreaks on cruise ships. J Food Prot. 2009;72:111-9 pubmed
    ..Subsequently, environmental swabs were taken at 23 Dutch restaurants and four cruise ships involved in outbreaks of gastroenteritis...
  47. Koopmans M, Harris J, Verhoef L, Depoortere E, Takkinen J, Coulombier D. European investigation into recent norovirus outbreaks on cruise ships: update. Euro Surveill. 2006;11:E060706.5 pubmed
  48. Bejder L, Samuels A, Whitehead H, Gales N, Mann J, Connor R, et al. Decline in relative abundance of bottlenose dolphins exposed to long-term disturbance. Conserv Biol. 2006;20:1791-8 pubmed
    ..The substantial effect of tour vessels on dolphin abundance in a region of low-level tourism calls into question the presumption that dolphin-watching tourism is benign. ..
  49. Hill H, Fahrig S. The impact of fluctuations in boat velocity during the rowing cycle on race time. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19:585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibilities to reduce velocity fluctuations and therefore race time are limited. For elite rowers, race time may be slightly reduced by a moderate reduction in SR that is compensated by an increased force output for each stroke. ..
  50. Diez S, Abalos M, Bayona J. Organotin contamination in sediments from the Western Mediterranean enclosures following 10 years of TBT regulation. Water Res. 2002;36:905-18 pubmed
  51. Herborg L, Jerde C, Lodge D, Ruiz G, MacIsaac H. Predicting invasion risk using measures of introduction effort and environmental niche models. Ecol Appl. 2007;17:663-74 pubmed
    ..This study illustrates that the combination of environmental niche- and vector-based models can provide managers with more precise estimates of invasion risk than can either of these approaches alone. ..
  52. Wang C, Corbett J, Firestone J. Modeling energy use and emissions from North American shipping: application of the ship traffic, energy, and environment model. Environ Sci Technol. 2007;41:3226-32 pubmed
    ..of nearly complete data describing historical ship movements, attributes, and operating profiles of individual ships, (ii) solving distances on an empirical waterway network for each pair of ports considering ship draft and width ..
  53. Verhoef L, Depoortere E, Boxman I, Duizer E, van Duynhoven Y, Harris J, et al. Emergence of new norovirus variants on spring cruise ships and prediction of winter epidemics. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:238-43 pubmed publisher
    In June 2006, reported outbreaks of norovirus on cruise ships suddenly increased; 43 outbreaks occurred on 13 vessels. All outbreaks investigated manifested person-to-person transmission...