Summary: Permanent roads having a line of rails fixed to ties and laid to gage, usually on a leveled or graded ballasted roadbed and providing a track for freight cars, passenger cars, and other rolling stock. Cars are designed to be drawn by locomotives or sometimes propelled by self-contained motors. (From Webster's 3d) The concept includes the organizational and administrative aspects of railroads as well.

Top Publications

  1. Brewin C, Rose S, Andrews B, Green J, Tata P, McEvedy C, et al. Brief screening instrument for post-traumatic stress disorder. Br J Psychiatry. 2002;181:158-62 pubmed
    ..The findings were replicated on data from a previous study of 157 crime victims. Performance of the new measure was equivalent to agreement achieved between two full clinical interviews. ..
  2. Aasvang G, Moum T, Engdahl B. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels. J Acoust Soc Am. 2008;124:257-68 pubmed publisher
  3. Hong J, Kim J, Lim C, Kim K, Lee S. The effects of long-term exposure to railway and road traffic noise on subjective sleep disturbance. J Acoust Soc Am. 2010;128:2829-35 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 1-20 (2007)] with the response curves from this survey showed more of a subjective sleep disturbance response in this survey to railway noise, whereas there was no significant difference in terms of a response to road traffic noise. ..
  4. De Leo D, Krysinska K. Suicidal behaviour by train collision in Queensland, 1990-2004. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:772-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In Queensland, train suicides presented a stable trend during 1990-2004. Subjects of very young age (15-24) seem to be particularly exposed to this method; in this age group one in two individuals had positive blood alcohol content. ..
  5. Krysinska K, De Leo D. Suicide on railway networks: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Suicide by train involves emotional and financial costs to individuals and society as a whole. A combination of different strategies might significantly reduce its effect. ..
  6. Andriessen K, Krysinska K. Railway suicide in Belgium 1998-2009: incidence and prevention. Crisis. 2012;33:39-45 pubmed publisher
    ..03/100,000). Such a major human and economic loss warrants implementation of prevention measures. Infrabel has initiated a comprehensive suicide prevention program which focuses mainly on safeguarding the suicide hotspots. ..
  7. Tassi P, Saremi M, Schimchowitsch S, Eschenlauer A, Rohmer O, Muzet A. Cardiovascular responses to railway noise during sleep in young and middle-aged adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108:671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In the limit of the samples studied, Freight trains are the most harmful, probably more because of their special length (duration) than because of their speed (rise time). ..
  8. Roth C, Kang S, Batty M, Barthelemy M. A long-time limit for world subway networks. J R Soc Interface. 2012;9:2540-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent convergence towards a unique network shape in the temporal limit suggests the existence of dominant, universal mechanisms governing the evolution of these structures. ..
  9. Grass D, Ross J, Family F, Barbour J, James Simpson H, Coulibaly D, et al. Airborne particulate metals in the New York City subway: a pilot study to assess the potential for health impacts. Environ Res. 2010;110:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..At the individual level, steel dust exposure was not correlated with any of the biomarkers measured. ..

More Information


  1. van Houwelingen C, Kerkhof A, Beersma D. Train suicides in The Netherlands. J Affect Disord. 2010;127:281-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Increased train transportation does not lead to more train suicides. 3. The prevention of train suicide at high-risk locations (HRLs) in built-up areas and near psychiatric hospitals deserves first priority. ..
  2. Tassi P, Rohmer O, Schimchowitsch S, Eschenlauer A, Bonnefond A, Margiocchi F, et al. Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age. Environ Int. 2010;36:683-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Dinkel A, Baumert J, Erazo N, Ladwig K. Jumping, lying, wandering: analysis of suicidal behaviour patterns in 1,004 suicidal acts on the German railway net. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The frequency of jumping decreased during the study period by 12.6% (p < .05). These findings may help to elucidate differential risk features of this highly lethal suicide method. ..
  4. Elmenhorst E, Pennig S, Rolny V, Quehl J, Mueller U, Maaß H, et al. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance. Sci Total Environ. 2012;424:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. ..
  5. Law C, Yip P, Chan W, Fu K, Wong P, Law Y. Evaluating the effectiveness of barrier installation for preventing railway suicides in Hong Kong. J Affect Disord. 2009;114:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Railway operators should extend the coverage of PSD to all railway stations in Hong Kong without any delay. ..
  6. Basner M, Muller U, Elmenhorst E. Single and combined effects of air, road, and rail traffic noise on sleep and recuperation. Sleep. 2011;34:11-23 pubmed
    ..Field studies are needed to validate our findings in a setting with higher ecologic validity. ..
  7. Barregard L, Bonde E, Ohrström E. Risk of hypertension from exposure to road traffic noise in a population-based sample. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:410-5 pubmed publisher
    ..While prevalence ratios were increased, findings were more pronounced when incidence was assessed. ..
  8. Karlsson H, Holgersson A, Möller L. Mechanisms related to the genotoxicity of particles in the subway and from other sources. Chem Res Toxicol. 2008;21:726-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The genotoxicity is most likely caused by highly reactive surfaces giving rise to oxidative stress. ..
  9. Bigert C, Alderling M, Svartengren M, Plato N, de Faire U, Gustavsson P. Blood markers of inflammation and coagulation and exposure to airborne particles in employees in the Stockholm underground. Occup Environ Med. 2008;65:655-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the differences observed cannot definitely be linked to particle exposure as such. ..
  10. Kim K, Kim Y, Roh Y, Lee C, Kim C. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations. J Hazard Mater. 2008;154:440-3 pubmed
    ..However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05). ..
  11. Silla A, Luoma J. Main characteristics of train-pedestrian fatalities on Finnish railroads. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;45:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents calls for a systems approach involving effective measures introduced by authorities responsible for urban planning, railways, education and public health. ..
  12. Bachoual R, Boczkowski J, Goven D, Amara N, Tabet L, On D, et al. Biological effects of particles from the paris subway system. Chem Res Toxicol. 2007;20:1426-33 pubmed
    ..PM from the Paris subway system has transient biological effects. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathophysiological implications of these findings. ..
  13. Pennig S, Quehl J, Mueller U, Rolny V, Maass H, Basner M, et al. Annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance due to night-time railway noise examined in the field. J Acoust Soc Am. 2012;132:3109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The responses of this subject sample referring to railway noise in the previous night point to rather low impairments of exposed residents. ..
  14. Lim C, Kim J, Hong J, Lee S. The relationship between railway noise and community annoyance in Korea. J Acoust Soc Am. 2006;120:2037-42 pubmed
    ..This study showed that one of the most important factors contributing to the difference in the annoyance responses between Korea and Europe is the distance between railways and houses. ..
  15. Klepczynska Nyström A, Svartengren M, Grunewald J, Pousette C, Rodin I, Lundin A, et al. Health effects of a subway environment in healthy volunteers. Eur Respir J. 2010;36:240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies show that using gravimetric estimates of ambient particulate air pollution alone may have clear limitations in health-risk assessment. ..
  16. Lercher P, Brink M, Rudisser J, Van Renterghem T, Botteldooren D, Baulac M, et al. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study. Noise Health. 2010;12:110-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting. ..
  17. Erazo N, Baumert J, Ladwig K. Sex-specific time patterns of suicidal acts on the German railway system. An analysis of 4003 cases. J Affect Disord. 2004;83:1-9 pubmed
    ..The findings may increase alertness of railway and security personal for particular vulnerable time windows of excess risk for railway suicides. ..
  18. Chillrud S, Grass D, Ross J, Coulibaly D, Slavkovich V, Epstein D, et al. Steel dust in the New York City subway system as a source of manganese, chromium, and iron exposures for transit workers. J Urban Health. 2005;82:33-42 pubmed
  19. Garshick E, Laden F, Hart J, Rosner B, Smith T, Dockery D, et al. Lung cancer in railroad workers exposed to diesel exhaust. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:1539-43 pubmed
    ..Key words: diesel exhaust, lung cancer, occupational exposure. ..
  20. Crump K. Lung cancer mortality and diesel exhaust: reanalysis of a retrospective cohort study of U.S. railroad workers. Inhal Toxicol. 1999;11:1-17 pubmed
    ..At the very least, problems with the follow-up should be rectified before any conclusions are drawn about the carcinogenicity of DE in this cohort. ..
  21. Jekova I, Krasteva V. Subtraction of 16.67 Hz railroad net interference from the electrocardiogram: application for automatic external defibrillators. Physiol Meas. 2005;26:987-1003 pubmed
    ..The procedure is suitable to be embedded in AEDs as a preprocessing branch, which proves reliable for analysis of ECG signals, thus guaranteeing the specified accuracy of the AED automatic rhythm analysis algorithms. ..
  22. Rådbo H, Svedung I, Andersson R. Suicides and other fatalities from train-person collisions on Swedish railroads: a descriptive epidemiologic analysis as a basis for systems-oriented prevention. J Safety Res. 2005;36:423-8 pubmed
    Suicide is a dominating, although hidden, safety problem on Swedish railroads. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of fatal train-person collisions as a basis for systems-oriented prevention...
  23. Erazo N, Baumert J, Ladwig K. Factors associated with failed and completed railway suicides. J Affect Disord. 2005;88:137-43 pubmed
    ..Higher odds to die on open track area, fast track lines and during night-time suggest a reduced opportunity to survive due to circumstances. ..
  24. Baumert J, Erazo N, Ladwig K. Ten-year incidence and time trends of railway suicides in Germany from 1991 to 2000. Eur J Public Health. 2006;16:173-8 pubmed
    ..It underlines the urgent need for amplified research efforts in the particular field of railway suicides. Further examinations are recommended, in particular concerning possible reasons for this suicidal method. ..
  25. Verma D, Finkelstein M, Kurtz L, Smolynec K, Eyre S. Diesel exhaust exposure in the Canadian railroad work environment. Appl Occup Environ Hyg. 2003;18:25-34 pubmed
  26. Seaton A, Cherrie J, Dennekamp M, Donaldson K, Hurley J, Tran C. The London Underground: dust and hazards to health. Occup Environ Med. 2005;62:355-62 pubmed
    ..The concentrations underground are well below allowable workplace concentrations for iron oxide and unlikely to represent a significant cumulative risk to the health of workers or commuters. ..
  27. van Houwelingen C, Beersma D. Seasonal changes in 24-h patterns of suicide rates: a study on train suicides in The Netherlands. J Affect Disord. 2001;66:215-23 pubmed
    ..The consistency of the patterns suggests a strong environmental influence on train suicidal behaviour. Research on 24-h patterns of suicide rates should control for time of year. ..
  28. Schlimp C, Lederer W, Breiteneder M. Influence of electromagnetic interference on the human electrocardiogram in automated external defibrillators. Resuscitation. 2005;66:105-6; author reply 106-7 pubmed
  29. Christov I, Iliev G. Public access defibrillation: suppression of 16.7 Hz interference generated by the power supply of the railway systems. Biomed Eng Online. 2005;4:16 pubmed
    ..The proposed adaptive filter for noise suppression generated by the power supply of the railway systems has a simple structure requiring a low level of computational resources, but a good reference signal as well. ..
  30. Karlsson H, Nilsson L, Möller L. Subway particles are more genotoxic than street particles and induce oxidative stress in cultured human lung cells. Chem Res Toxicol. 2005;18:19-23 pubmed
    ..To what extent the subway particles cause health effects in humans needs to be further evaluated. ..
  31. Kanz K, Kay M, Biberthaler P, Russ W, Wessel S, Lackner C, et al. Susceptibility of automated external defibrillators to train overhead lines and metro third rails. Resuscitation. 2004;62:189-98 pubmed
    ..The choice of AED model for train or metro stations depends on its lack of susceptibility to typical electromagnetic interference. ..
  32. Chung I. Social amplification of risk in the Internet environment. Risk Anal. 2011;31:1883-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Public attention is also influenced by the symbolic connotations of risk information. Interpretations of risk in religious, political, or legal terms intensify public concern for the environmental risk. ..
  33. Ryan B, Wilsona J, Schock A. Understanding human factors in rail engineering: re-analysis of detailed, qualitative data on functions and risks. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:4237-45 pubmed publisher
  34. Silla A, Kallberg V. Effect of railway safety education on the safety knowledge and behaviour intention of schoolchildren. Eval Program Plann. 2016;55:9-16 pubmed publisher
    ..e. fewer unsafe crossings in the future). We can further assume that reduction in the frequency of trespassing would reduce the frequency of trespassing accidents. ..
  35. Wang J, Gronalt M, Sun Y. A two-stage approach to the depot shunting driver assignment problem with workload balance considerations. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181165 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the computational results, the regression analysis yield a driver size predictor and the sensitivity analysis give some interesting insights that are useful for decision makers. ..
  36. Bena A, Debernardi M, Pasqualini O, Dalmasso M, Quarta D. [Injury rates and severity during the construction of High Speed Train Track Torino-Novara: which are the expected risks?]. Med Lav. 2008;99:177-86 pubmed
    ..The burden of on-site work-related accidents in the construction sector appears to be higher and more costly than what has been desumed from national data. ..
  37. Wade C, Redfern M. Ground reaction forces during human locomotion on railroad ballast. J Appl Biomech. 2007;23:322-9 pubmed
    ..The data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of using a force plate system to expand the scope of biomechanical analyses of locomotion on ballast surfaces. ..
  38. Chau N, Benamghar L, Siegfried C, Dehaene D, Dangelzer J, Français M, et al. Determinants of occupational fracture proneness: a case-control study in construction and railway workers. J Occup Health. 2006;48:267-70 pubmed
  39. De Giorgio F, Polacco M, Pascali V, Oliva A. Death due to railway-related suicidal decapitation: a case report. Med Sci Law. 2006;46:347-8 pubmed
    ..Our medico-legal institutes are increasingly engaged with expert opinions on questions of accident, suicide or homicide because they lead to complications in the fields of insurance, criminal and civil law...
  40. Chau N, Gauchard G, Dehaene D, Benamghar L, Touron C, Perrin P, et al. Contributions of occupational hazards and human factors in occupational injuries and their associations with job, age and type of injuries in railway workers. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2007;80:517-25 pubmed
    ..These findings are useful for prevention. Training is necessary for young workers. The occupational physician could help the workers to be more aware of the risks. ..
  41. Carson H, Cook B. Massive internal injury in the absence of significant external injury after collisions of passenger vehicles with much larger vehicles. J Forensic Leg Med. 2008;15:219-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that collisions between passenger vehicles and very large vehicles generate massive internal injuries by transmission of force through the victims. ..
  42. Howells N, Dunne N, Reddy S. The casualty profile from the Reading train crash, November 2004: proposals for improved major incident reporting and the application of trauma scoring systems. Emerg Med J. 2006;23:530-3 pubmed
    ..We further propose the widespread use of trauma scoring systems to facilitate comparative analysis between major incidents, perhaps extrapolating this to develop a major incident score. ..
  43. Wei W, Guo M, Ye L, Liao G, Yang Z. Work-family conflict and safety participation of high-speed railway drivers: Job satisfaction as a mediator. Accid Anal Prev. 2016;95:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the importance of reducing employees' work-to-family conflict in safety-critical organizations. ..
  44. Louf R, Jensen P, Barthelemy M. Emergence of hierarchy in cost-driven growth of spatial networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8824-9 pubmed publisher
  45. Fuller D, Gauvin L, Kestens Y. Individual- and area-level disparities in access to the road network, subway system and a public bicycle share program on the Island of Montreal, Canada. Ann Behav Med. 2013;45 Suppl 1:S95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..More deprived areas of the Island of Montreal have better access to transportation infrastructure than less-deprived areas. ..
  46. Zhang H, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Ding M. Heavy metal enrichment in the soil along the Delhi-Ulan section of the Qinghai-Tibet railway in China. Environ Monit Assess. 2013;185:5435-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean concentrations of heavy metals in soils along the Delhi-Ulan section of the Qinghai-Tibet railway were considered lower compared with those along other railways. ..
  47. Evans D, Mallet L, Flahault A, Cothereau C, Velazquez S, Capron L, et al. The importance of both workplace and private life factors in psychological distress: a large cross-sectional survey of French railway company employees. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013;48:1211-24 pubmed publisher
    ..All three stressor domains were associated with psychological distress and adjustment reduced the association size, suggesting possible over-estimation if one or more domains are omitted from the survey. ..
  48. Lam Y, Man D, Tam S, Weiss P. Virtual reality training for stroke rehabilitation. NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21:245-53 pubmed
    ..Additional studies are recommended to identify the most effective training procedures for maintaining these skills and the best transfer ratio in the training of VR-based community living skills of people with stroke. ..
  49. Jung H, Kim B, Malek M, Koo Y, Jung J, Son Y, et al. Chemical speciation of size-segregated floor dusts and airborne magnetic particles collected at underground subway stations in Seoul, Korea. J Hazard Mater. 2012;213-214:331-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The difference in composition of the Fe-containing particles between the two subway stations was attributed to the different ballast tracks used. ..
  50. Röösli M, Lörtscher M, Egger M, Pfluger D, Schreier N, Lörtscher E, et al. Leukaemia, brain tumours and exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields: cohort study of Swiss railway employees. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:553-9 pubmed
    ..Some evidence of an exposure-response association was found for myeloid leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease, but not for other haematopoietic and lymphatic malignancies and brain tumours. ..
  51. Mollon J, Cavonius L. The Lagerlunda collision and the introduction of color vision testing. Surv Ophthalmol. 2012;57:178-94 pubmed publisher
    ..undoubtedly had a central role in the introduction of color vision testing by European and North American railroads. To persuade the railroad management to introduce universal screening of employees for color blindness, Holmgren ..
  52. van Houwelingen C, Kerkhof A. Mental healthcare status and psychiatric diagnoses of train suicides. J Affect Disord. 2008;107:281-4 pubmed
    ..The study indicates that patients with affective and psychotic disorders in particular should be targeted in order to prevent train suicide. ..
  53. Eriksson C, Nilsson M, Willers S, Gidhagen L, Bellander T, Pershagen G. Traffic noise and cardiovascular health in Sweden: the roadside study. Noise Health. 2012;14:140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there was a borderline-significant association between railway noise and CVD. The lack of association for road traffic may be due to methodological limitations. ..