Summary: Two-wheeled, engine-driven vehicles.

Top Publications

  1. Li M, Doong J, Huang W, Lai C, Jeng M. Survival hazards of road environment factors between motor-vehicles and motorcycles. Accid Anal Prev. 2009;41:938-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Motorcycles are frequently used in middle- and low-income societies. They are often involved in crashes, and account for a noticeable percentage of fatalities secondary to crashes...
  2. Lu T, Lai C, Chiang T. Reducing regional inequality in mortality from road traffic injuries through enforcement of the mandatory motorcycle helmet law in Taiwan. Inj Prev. 2012;18:150-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was conducted to examine whether passage of the mandatory motorcycle helmet law in 1997 reduced the regional inequality in mortality from road traffic injuries (RTIs) across 22 cities/counties in Taiwan...
  3. Vlahogianni E, Yannis G, Golias J. Overview of critical risk factors in Power-Two-Wheeler safety. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;49:12-22 pubmed publisher
  4. Haworth N. Powered two wheelers in a changing world-challenges and opportunities. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;44:12-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The future of PTWs may differ greatly between countries and environmental and technological changes are leading to an evolution in the form of PTWs to encompass new modes of personal transportation. ..
  5. Boufous S, Ali M, Nguyen H, Stevenson M, Vu T, Nguyen D, et al. Child injury prevention in Vietnam: achievements and challenges. Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot. 2012;19:123-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The insight into the experience of Vietnam could benefit other low- and middle-income countries with a high burden of child injury. ..
  6. de Oliveira N, de Sousa R. Traffic accidents with motorcycles and their relationship to mortality. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2011;19:403-10 pubmed
    This study characterizes traffic accidents involving motorcycles according to local conditions, data concerning the type of accident, date and time, and identifies among these variables those associated with the death of victims...
  7. Stephan K, Kelly M, McClure R, Seubsman S, Yiengprugsawan V, Bain C, et al. Distribution of transport injury and related risk behaviours in a large national cohort of Thai adults. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43:1062-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Most transport injuries occurred while using motorcycles. A much higher proportion of males reported driving after three or more glasses of alcohol at least once in the ..
  8. Passmore J, Nguyen L, Nguyen N, Olive J. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam. Bull World Health Organ. 2010;88:783-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed. ..
  9. Vidotto G, Bastianelli A, Spoto A, Sergeys F. Enhancing hazard avoidance in teen-novice riders. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43:247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Results provide good evidence that training with the simulator increases the number of avoided accidents in the virtual environment. It would be reasonable to explain this improvement by a higher level of hazard perception skills. ..

More Information


  1. Golias A, Caetano R. [Accidents between motorcycles: analysis of cases that occurred in the state of Paraná between July 2010 and June 2011]. Cien Saude Colet. 2013;18:1235-46 pubmed
    Statistics for accidents between two motorcycles have been overlooked in the vast number of traffic accidents in Brazil, though they deserve closer analysis...
  2. Hosking S, Liu C, Bayly M. The visual search patterns and hazard responses of experienced and inexperienced motorcycle riders. Accid Anal Prev. 2010;42:196-202 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to the potential benefit of training hazard perception and visual scanning in motorcycle riders, as has been successfully demonstrated in previous studies with car drivers. ..
  3. Passmore J, Tu N, Luong M, Chinh N, Nam N. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis. Traffic Inj Prev. 2010;11:202-6 pubmed publisher
    ..riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.
  4. Ali M, Saeed M, Ali M, Haidar N. Determinants of helmet use behaviour among employed motorcycle riders in Yazd, Iran based on theory of planned behaviour. Injury. 2011;42:864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding motorcycle rider's thoughts, feelings and beliefs about helmet use behaviour can assist intervention specialists to develop and implement effective programs in order to promote helmet use among motorcycle riders. ..
  5. Chen C, Chen C. Speeding for fun? Exploring the speeding behavior of riders of heavy motorcycles using the theory of planned behavior and psychological flow theory. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43:983-90 pubmed publisher
    This paper focuses on a special segment of motorcyclists in Taiwan--riders of heavy motorcycles--and investigates their speeding behavior and its affecting factors...
  6. Sreedharan J, Muttappillymyalil J, Divakaran B, Haran J. Determinants of safety helmet use among motorcyclists in Kerala, India. J Inj Violence Res. 2010;2:49-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Motorcycles account for a large proportion of road traffic accidents in India and the riders of these vehicles run a high risk of injuries or death...
  7. Crundall D, Crundall E, Clarke D, Shahar A. Why do car drivers fail to give way to motorcycles at t-junctions?. Accid Anal Prev. 2012;44:88-96 pubmed publisher
    ..confirmed that dual drivers had the safest responses at junctions, especially in the presence of conflicting motorcycles. On a range of visual measures both novice and experienced drivers appeared inferior to dual drivers, though ..
  8. La Torre G, van Beeck E, Bertazzoni G, Ricciardi W. Head injury resulting from scooter accidents in Rome: differences before and after implementing a universal helmet law. Eur J Public Health. 2007;17:607-11 pubmed
    ..To estimate the incidence rates and related determinants of head injuries before and after the implementation of a new universal helmet law in Italy...
  9. Creaser J, Ward N, Rakauskas M, Shankwitz C, Boer E. Effects of alcohol impairment on motorcycle riding skills. Accid Anal Prev. 2009;41:906-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The modest effects may be due to the study design, in which experienced riders performed highly practiced, low-speed tasks; alcohol at these levels may produce larger effects with less experienced riders in more challenging situations. ..
  10. Jain A, Menezes R, Kanchan T, Gagan S, Jain R. Two wheeler accidents on Indian roads--a study from Mangalore, India. J Forensic Leg Med. 2009;16:130-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, every road traffic injury case has medicolegal elements involved. In India, as per law, every road traffic injury case is registered as a medicolegal case and investigated for prosecution concerns and compensation needs. ..
  11. Mayrose J. The effects of a mandatory motorcycle helmet law on helmet use and injury patterns among motorcyclist fatalities. J Safety Res. 2008;39:429-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Helmet manufacturers can use this data to design more comfortable helmets while also improving upon the protective qualities of these safety devices. ..
  12. Bogerd C, Brühwiler P. Heat loss variations of full-face motorcycle helmets. Appl Ergon. 2009;40:161-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, helmet construction features which could be identified as important for heat loss of motorcycle helmets were identified. ..
  13. Bougard C, Moussay S, Davenne D. An assessment of the relevance of laboratory and motorcycling tests for investigating time of day and sleep deprivation influences on motorcycling performance. Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40:635-43 pubmed publisher
  14. Coben J, Steiner C, Miller T. Characteristics of motorcycle-related hospitalizations: comparing states with different helmet laws. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:190-6 pubmed
    ..This study further illustrates and substantiates the increased burden of hospitalization and long-term care seen in states that lack universal motorcycle helmet use laws. ..
  15. Quddus M, Noland R, Chin H. An analysis of motorcycle injury and vehicle damage severity using ordered probit models. J Safety Res. 2002;33:445-62 pubmed
    b>Motorcycles constitute about 19% of all motorized vehicles in Singapore and are generally overrepresented in traffic accidents, accounting for 40% of total fatalities...
  16. Nakahara S, Chadbunchachai W, Ichikawa M, Tipsuntornsak N, Wakai S. Temporal distribution of motorcyclist injuries and risk of fatalities in relation to age, helmet use, and riding while intoxicated in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:833-42 pubmed
    ..This study shows that riding unhelmeted or while intoxicated can explain the increased fatality risk at night, suggesting that safety education or enforcements should be targeted at specific age groups and appropriate times. ..
  17. Lateef F. Riding motorcycles: is it a lower limb hazard?. Singapore Med J. 2002;43:566-9 pubmed
    ..Improved training via motorcycle rider education, better design of future motorcycles and protective footwear may help to reduce this problem.
  18. Nantulya V, Sleet D, Reich M, Rosenberg M, Peden M, Waxweiler R. Introduction: the global challenge of road traffic injuries: can we achieve equity in safety?. Inj Control Saf Promot. 2003;10:3-7 pubmed
  19. Servadei F, Begliomini C, Gardini E, Giustini M, Taggi F, Kraus J. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries. Inj Prev. 2003;9:257-60 pubmed
    ..The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages. ..
  20. Barros A, Amaral R, Oliveira M, Lima S, Gonçalves E. [Traffic accidents resulting in injuries: underreporting, characteristics, and case fatality rate]. Cad Saude Publica. 2003;19:979-86 pubmed
    ..We conclude that pedestrians and motorcyclists are priority groups for interventions aimed at reducing injury and death from traffic accidents. ..
  21. Hung D, Stevenson M, Ivers R. Barriers to, and factors associated, with observed motorcycle helmet use in Vietnam. Accid Anal Prev. 2008;40:1627-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors conclude that efforts to increase helmet use need to focus on the necessity for universal helmet legislation in association with identifying solutions to reduce the negative attitudes towards helmet use. ..
  22. Yang H, Lee S, Hsieh D, Chao M, Tung C. PM2.5 and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and mutagenicity emissions from motorcycles. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008;81:412-5 pubmed publisher
    In this study, PM(2.5) in diluted exhausts of motorcycles are collected and emission characteristics of PM(2.5)-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mutagenicities are investigated...
  23. Sabeti Aschraf M, Serek M, Pachtner T, Auner K, Machinek M, Geisler M, et al. The Enduro motorcyclist's wrist and other overuse injuries in competitive Enduro motorcyclists: a prospective study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18:582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..After the second run 32.28% of all riders had CTS in the left hand and 43.31% in the right hand. More than one-half of the athletes complained of overuse injuries. Transient CTS is an overuse injury closely related to sports...
  24. Hyder A, Waters H, Phillips T, Rehwinkel J. Exploring the economics of motorcycle helmet laws--implications for low and middle-income countries. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2007;19:16-22 pubmed
    ..For low and middle-income countries with high rates of motorcycle injuries, enforced, mandatory motorcycle helmet laws are potentially one of the most cost-effective interventions available. ..
  25. Soares Oliveira M, Egipto P, Costa I, Cunha Ribeiro L. Emergency motorcycle: has it a place in a medical emergency system?. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:620-2 pubmed
    ..We propose that it should be dispatched mainly in the following situations: true life-threatening cases and uncertain need for an ambulance. ..
  26. Mirbod S, Yoshida H, Jamali M, Masamura K, Inaba R, Iwata H. Assessment of hand-arm vibration exposure among traffic police motorcyclists. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1997;70:22-8 pubmed
    ..Vibration was measured on the handlebars of the representative motorcycles and on the hands of the riders...
  27. Dandona R, Kumar G, Raj T, Dandona L. Patterns of road traffic injuries in a vulnerable population in Hyderabad, India. Inj Prev. 2006;12:183-8 pubmed
  28. Simoncic M. Road accidents in Slovenia involving a pedestrian, cyclist or motorcyclist and a car. Accid Anal Prev. 2001;33:147-56 pubmed
    ..Based on the obtained results, some guidelines for transport policy action--aimed at decreasing the number of accidents with severe injury or fatality--are identified. ..
  29. Ichikawa M, Chadbunchachai W, Marui E. Effect of the helmet act for motorcyclists in Thailand. Accid Anal Prev. 2003;35:183-9 pubmed
    ..Motorcyclists should be instructed to properly and consistently wear a helmet for their safety. ..
  30. Lin M, Chang S, Huang W, Hwang H, Pai L. Factors associated with severity of motorcycle injuries among young adult riders. Ann Emerg Med. 2003;41:783-91 pubmed
    ..Riders using Sanyang (adjusted OR=1.63) and Yamaha (adjusted OR=1.39) motorcycles had greater odds of being involved in a crash with a greater level of injury compared with those riding Kymco ..
  31. de Lapparent M. Empirical Bayesian analysis of accident severity for motorcyclists in large French urban areas. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:260-8 pubmed
    ..It is found that women motorcyclists between 30 and 50 years old driving powerful motorcycles are the most exposed to risk of injury.
  32. Dandona R, Kumar G, Dandona L. Risky behavior of drivers of motorized two wheeled vehicles in India. J Safety Res. 2006;37:149-58 pubmed
  33. Zambon F, Hasselberg M. Socioeconomic differences and motorcycle injuries: age at risk and injury severity among young drivers. A Swedish nationwide cohort study. Accid Anal Prev. 2006;38:1183-9 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates how crucial the first years of driving are in relation to injury, and how wide the gap is in terms of socioeconomic differences at these ages, suggesting that this is the most appropriate time for intervention. ..
  34. Kraus J, Peek Asa C, Cryer H. Incidence, severity, and patterns of intrathoracic and intra-abdominal injuries in motorcycle crashes. J Trauma. 2002;52:548-53 pubmed
    ..These patients are best treated in trauma centers, where rapid diagnosis and treatment are possible. ..
  35. Wong E, Leong M, Anantharaman V, Raman L, Wee K, Chao T. Road traffic accident mortality in Singapore. J Emerg Med. 2002;22:139-46 pubmed
    ..Suggestions for future prevention and intervention include stricter enforcement of speed limits, more severe penalties for drunk driving, helmet use among pedal cyclists, and the introduction of pre-hospital advanced airway management. ..
  36. Soori H, Royanian M, Zali A, Movahedinejad A. Road traffic injuries in Iran: the role of interventions implemented by traffic police. Traffic Inj Prev. 2009;10:375-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Though these reductions may not be solely attributable to the interventions implemented, they do highlight the importance of the contribution made by law enforcement and mass education campaigns. ..
  37. Valent F, Schiava F, Savonitto C, Gallo T, Brusaferro S, Barbone F. Risk factors for fatal road traffic accidents in Udine, Italy. Accid Anal Prev. 2002;34:71-84 pubmed
  38. Branas C, Knudson M. Helmet laws and motorcycle rider death rates. Accid Anal Prev. 2001;33:641-8 pubmed
    ..From 1994 to 1996, states with helmet laws experienced a median death rate of 6.20 riders per 10000 registered motorcycles and states without helmet laws experienced a median death rate of 5...
  39. Kasantikul V, Ouellet J, Smith T, Sirathranont J, Panichabhongse V. The role of alcohol in Thailand motorcycle crashes. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:357-66 pubmed
    ..Problems with balance and coordination were about equally rare among drinking and non-drinking riders. Inattention was a far greater contributing factor. ..
  40. Pitaktong U, Manopaiboon C, Kilmarx P, Jeeyapant S, Jenkins R, Tappero J, et al. Motorcycle helmet use and related risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults in Northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:232-41 pubmed
    ..Public education in combination with enforcement of compulsory helmet use while riding a motorcycle is recommended. ..
  41. Keng S. Helmet use and motorcycle fatalities in Taiwan. Accid Anal Prev. 2005;37:349-55 pubmed
    ..Also, helmets significantly reduce the likelihood of head and neck injuries in a crash by 53%, and lead to a 71% reduction in the probability of death caused by head and neck injuries. ..
  42. Hung D, Stevenson M, Ivers R. Prevalence of helmet use among motorcycle riders in Vietnam. Inj Prev. 2006;12:409-13 pubmed
    ..Elsewhere, rate of helmet use is very low, indicating that in the absence of legislation and enforcement, motorcyclists in Vietnam will not wear a helmet. ..
  43. Njå O, Nesvåg S. Traffic behaviour among adolescents using mopeds and light motorcycles. J Safety Res. 2007;38:481-92 pubmed
    ..Powered two wheelers (PTW) are classified as mopeds, light, and heavy motorcycles, the first two categories being denoted light PTWs...
  44. Sauter C, Zhu S, Allen S, Hargarten S, Layde P. Increased risk of death or disability in unhelmeted Wisconsin motorcyclists. WMJ. 2005;104:39-44 pubmed
    ..Alcohol use is associated with unhelmeted riding and increased risk of poor outcomes. These findings support policy and educational efforts promoting helmet use, which seek to decrease these tragedies. ..
  45. Peek Asa C, McArthur D, Kraus J. The prevalence of non-standard helmet use and head injuries among motorcycle riders. Accid Anal Prev. 1999;31:229-33 pubmed
    ..Non-standard helmets appear to offer little head protection during a crash. Future study is needed to understand the dynamics leading to head injury when different types of helmets are worn. ..
  46. Liberatti C, de Andrade S, Soares D, Matsuo T. [Helmet use by motorcyclists injured in traffic accidents in Londrina, southern Brazil]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2003;13:33-8 pubmed
    ..Interventions should take into account that driving behaviors depend not just on individuals but also on the overall social and historical context. ..
  47. Forjuoh S. Traffic-related injury prevention interventions for low-income countries. Inj Control Saf Promot. 2003;10:109-18 pubmed
    ..It behooves LIC governments, however, to ensure that only standard, approved safety devices like helmets are imported into their countries. Additionally, LICs may need to improvise and innovate in the traffic safety technology transfer. ..
  48. Wilson F, Stimpson J, Hilsenrath P. Gasoline prices and their relationship to rising motorcycle fatalities, 1990-2007. Am J Public Health. 2009;99:1753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices...
  49. Turner C, McClure R. Quantifying the role of risk-taking behaviour in causation of serious road crash-related injury. Accid Anal Prev. 2004;36:383-9 pubmed
    ..There would appear to be a reasonable argument for persisting with injury prevention programmes, which concentrate on host as well as environment risk factor reduction. ..
  50. Roudsari B, Sharzei K, Zargar M. Sex and age distribution in transport-related injuries in Tehran. Accid Anal Prev. 2004;36:391-8 pubmed
    ..Crude mortality rate in men was nearly two times that of women (6.2% versus 3.8%). After adjustment for age, injury severity score (ISS) and category of the road users, men and women had similar mortality rate. ..
  51. Tham K, Seow E, Lau G. Pattern of injuries in helmeted motorcyclists in Singapore. Emerg Med J. 2004;21:478-82 pubmed
    ..When head injury occurs in helmeted motorcyclists, it tends to be more severe. Motorcyclists remain vulnerable to extremity injury and to severe chest injury. ..
  52. Clarke D, Ward P, Bartle C, Truman W. The role of motorcyclist and other driver behaviour in two types of serious accident in the UK. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:974-81 pubmed
    ..There seems to be a particular problem surrounding other road users' perception of motorcycles, particularly at junctions...
  53. Elliott M, Baughan C, Sexton B. Errors and violations in relation to motorcyclists' crash risk. Accid Anal Prev. 2007;39:491-9 pubmed
    ..Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to deciding which countermeasures may be most effective at reducing motorcycle casualty rates. ..