biomedical enhancement


Summary: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.

Top Publications

  1. Safire W. Our new Promethean gift. Cerebrum. 2002;4:54-5 pubmed
  2. Synofzik M. [Cognition on demand?--The wish for cognition-enhancing drugs in medicine]. Ethik Med. 2006;18:37-50 pubmed
    ..By means of this model, a new concept of "medicine-on-demand" will be suggested: a subjective medicine with a physician's recommendation and veto right. ..
  3. Mehlman M, Berg J. Human subjects protections in biomedical enhancement research: assessing risk and benefit and obtaining informed consent. J Law Med Ethics. 2008;36:546-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This essay examines this question in order to ensure that subjects in biomedical enhancement research receive adequate protection.
  4. Parens E. Authenticity and ambivalence: toward understanding the enhancement debate. Hastings Cent Rep. 2005;35:34-41 pubmed
    ..Both sides of this debate share the moral ideal of being "authentic" to oneself. They differ in how they prefer to understand authenticity, but even this difference is not as stark as it sometimes seems. ..
  5. Maher B. Poll results: look who's doping. Nature. 2008;452:674-5 pubmed publisher
  6. McMullen G. Breaking the trance? Enabling dissenting views on immortalism. Health Law Rev. 2006;15:47-9 pubmed
  7. Marcos A. TACT glossary: technology. Clin Ter. 2010;161:565-7 pubmed
    ..We shall normally understand technology to have this second meaning, as tékhne accompanied by or derived from science. ..
  8. Bostrom N, Ord T. The reversal test: eliminating status quo bias in applied ethics. Ethics. 2006;116:656-79 pubmed
  9. Wang M, Gamo N, Yang Y, Jin L, Wang X, Laubach M, et al. Neuronal basis of age-related working memory decline. Nature. 2011;476:210-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the cellular basis of age-related cognitive decline in dorsolateral PFC, and demonstrate that physiological integrity can be rescued by addressing the molecular needs of PFC circuits. ..

More Information


  1. Brem A, Fried P, Horvath J, Robertson E, Pascual Leone A. Is neuroenhancement by noninvasive brain stimulation a net zero-sum proposition?. Neuroimage. 2014;85 Pt 3:1058-68 pubmed publisher
    ..We argue that to guide future neuroenhancement studies, the net-zero sum concept is helpful, but only if its limits are tightly defined. ..
  2. Hansson S. The ethics of enabling technology. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2007;16:257-67 pubmed
  3. Anton B. CQ Sources/Bibliography. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2007;16:322-4 pubmed
  4. Silver R, Boahen K, Grillner S, Kopell N, Olsen K. Neurotech for neuroscience: unifying concepts, organizing principles, and emerging tools. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11807-19 pubmed
    ..Funding agencies, including the National Science Foundation, explore the potential of these changing frontiers of research for developing research policies and long-term planning. ..
  5. Schaub D. Methuselah and us. New Atlantis. 2004;4:37-42 pubmed
  6. . Brain blast. Nature. 2013;498:271-2 pubmed
  7. Sparrow R. Enhancement and Obsolescence: Avoiding an "Enhanced Rat Race". Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2015;25:231-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The danger of an enhanced rat race therefore constitutes a novel argument in favor of abandoning the pursuit of certain sorts of enhancements. ..
  8. Clark V, Parasuraman R. Neuroenhancement: enhancing brain and mind in health and in disease. Neuroimage. 2014;85 Pt 3:889-94 pubmed publisher
  9. Wolfendale J. Performance-enhancing technologies and moral responsibility in the military. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:28-38 pubmed publisher
    ..A genuine commitment to maintaining the military's ethical standards and the well-being of combatants therefore requires a careful analysis of performance-enhancing technologies before they are implemented. ..
  10. Wilson J. Mediums and messages: an argument against biotechnical enhancement of soldiers in the armies of liberal democracies. Ethical Perspect. 2004;11:189-97 pubmed
  11. Berg J, Mehlman M, Rubin D, Kodish E. Making all the children above average: ethical and regulatory concerns for pediatricians in pediatric enhancement research. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009;48:472-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses whether the current guidelines for pediatric research provide appropriate protections for pediatric subjects in enhancement research and considers what additional protections might be necessary. ..
  12. Cohen E. Biotechnology and the spirit of capitalism. New Atlantis. 2006;12:9-23 pubmed
  13. Rotheram Borus M, Swendeman D, Chovnick G. The past, present, and future of HIV prevention: integrating behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies for the next generation of HIV prevention. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:143-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. ..
  14. McClay W. Science and self-government. New Atlantis. 2004;4:17-22 pubmed
  15. Feo L, Schaffzin D. Colonic stents: the modern treatment of colonic obstruction. Adv Ther. 2011;28:73-86 pubmed publisher
  16. Stang C, Sheremeta L. Nanotechnology--a lot of hype over almost nothing?. Health Law Rev. 2006;15:53-5 pubmed
  17. Bensamoun D, Gros A, Manera V, König A, Guerin O, Robert P, et al. [Neuropsychiatric disorders and technological solutions]. Soins Gerontol. 2016;21:18-20 pubmed publisher
    ..A personalised approach to patients can further enhance their adherence and involvement. ..
  18. Kettner M. ["Medicine of desire" between commercialization and patient-centeredness]. Ethik Med. 2006;18:81-91 pubmed
  19. Le Page M. Only drugs can stop the sports cheats. New Sci. 2006;191:18-9 pubmed
  20. Glannon W. Neuroethics. Bioethics. 2006;20:37-52 pubmed
    ..We need to carefully weigh the potential benefit against the potential harm of such techniques. This paper examines some of these techniques and explores the emerging ethical issues in clinical neuroscience. ..
  21. Schwanke T, Smith R. Assistive technology outcomes in work settings. Work. 2005;24:195-204 pubmed
  22. Cerullo M. Cosmetic psychopharmacology and the President's Council on Bioethics. Perspect Biol Med. 2006;49:515-23 pubmed
    ..Instead, the effects of each agent on the individual and on society must be weighed using sound ethical reasoning and the best evidence available. ..
  23. Partridge B, Bell S, Lucke J, Yeates S, Hall W. Smart drugs "as common as coffee": media hype about neuroenhancement. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28416 pubmed publisher
    ..We urge journalists and researchers to be cautious in their portrayal of the non-medical use of drugs for neuroenhancement. ..
  24. Tasinkevych Y, Trots I, Nowicki A, Lewin P. Modified synthetic transmit aperture algorithm for ultrasound imaging. Ultrasonics. 2012;52:333-42 pubmed publisher
  25. Daly B. Transhumanism: toward a brave new world?. America (NY). 2004;191:18-20 pubmed
  26. Persson I, Savulescu J. Moral transhumanism. J Med Philos. 2010;35:656-69 pubmed publisher
    ..It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens. ..
  27. Farah M. NEUROSCIENCE. The unknowns of cognitive enhancement. Science. 2015;350:379-80 pubmed publisher
  28. Phillips H. Who is messing with your head?. New Sci. 2006;189:11 pubmed
  29. Nelson J, McKinley R, Golob E, Warm J, Parasuraman R. Enhancing vigilance in operators with prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Neuroimage. 2014;85 Pt 3:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that tDCS may be well-suited to mitigate performance degradation in work settings requiring sustained attention or as a possible treatment for neurological or psychiatric disorders involving sustained attention. ..
  30. Chan S. Humanity 2.0? Enhancement, evolution and the possible futures of humanity. EMBO Rep. 2008;9 Suppl 1:S70-4 pubmed publisher
  31. Lawler P. Restless souls. New Atlantis. 2004;4:42-6 pubmed
  32. Jordan B. [The Washington summit: orange light for genome editing?]. Med Sci (Paris). 2016;32:217-20 pubmed publisher
  33. Trent B. The future of immortality. Humanist. 2004;64:11-5 pubmed
    ..He reiterates that even among new immortals, there will likely be people who, after a full life of two hundred or two million years, will decide that enough is simply enough, and that death may be as optional as the hair dye. ..
  34. Oess N, Wanek J, van Hedel H. Enhancement of bend sensor properties as applied in a glove for use in neurorehabilitation settings. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:5903-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The validity of the integrated sensors is evaluated and the accuracy values are given. ..
  35. Hetherington V, Kawalec J, Bhattacharyya B. Enhancement of the fixation of pyrolytic carbon implants by using atomic oxygen texturing. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004;43:16-9 pubmed
    ..The findings of this study suggest that biologic fixation of pyrolytic carbon implants can be enhanced by surface texturing by using direct exposure to atomic oxygen, without compromising its biocompatibility. ..
  36. Shapiro M. Does technological enhancement of human traits threaten human equality and democracy?. San Diego Law Rev. 2002;39:769-842 pubmed
  37. Fox D. Neuroscience: Brain buzz. Nature. 2011;472:156-8 pubmed publisher
  38. Bramstedt K. Caffeine use by children: the quest for enhancement. Subst Use Misuse. 2007;42:1237-51 pubmed
    ..This article examines safety and ethical issues associated with the use of caffeine by children and explores the question: Can cognitive performance enhancement be ethically permissible if sports performance enhancement is not? ..
  39. Callari T, Ciairano S, Re A. Elderly-technology interaction: accessibility and acceptability of technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings confirm the hypothesis, highlighting that elderly may accept technological artifacts when they perceive them as bringing benefits in terms of well-being and health. ..
  40. Douglas T. The harms of enhancement and the conclusive reasons view. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2015;24:23-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, I then argue that even these harm-based reasons are not obviously decisive. Thus, I ultimately agree with Buchanan about the falsity of the CRV, though I disagree with him about the reasons for its falsity. ..
  41. Buyx A. Be careful what you wish for? Theoretical and ethical aspects of wish-fulfilling medicine. Med Health Care Philos. 2008;11:133-43 pubmed
    ..The phenomenon of wish-fulfilling medicine serves as a prime example of the vagueness of the descriptive and the lack of decisive orientation of the normative categories employed in modern medicine. ..
  42. Asscher E, Bolt I, Schermer M. Wish-fulfilling medicine in practice: a qualitative study of physician arguments. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, certain arguments that play a significant role in the literature on wish-fulfilling medicine and enhancement were not mentioned, such as concepts of disease and the enhancement-treatment dichotomy and 'suspect norms'. ..
  43. Frippiat L. [Human technical enhancement: an introduction to the currents of the debate as well as their fracture lines]. J Int Bioethique. 2011;22:33-50, 192 pubmed
    ..A complex debate indeed that we could summarize by a simple question: what will human do about the human in the 21st century? ..
  44. Ashcroft R. Regulating biomedical enhancements in the military. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:47-9; discussion W4-6 pubmed publisher
  45. Bostrom N. Drugs can be used to treat more than disease. Nature. 2008;451:520 pubmed publisher
  46. Gordijn B. Converging NBIC technologies for improving human performance: a critical assessment of the novelty and the prospects of the project. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34:726-32 pubmed
    ..In addition it is analyzed whether the project warrants that we be optimistic about its future prospects. ..
  47. Shapiro M. The identity of identity: moral and legal aspects of technological self-transformation. Soc Philos Policy. 2005;22:308-73 pubmed
  48. Liao S. Are 'ex ante' enhancements always permissible?. Am J Bioeth. 2005;5:23-5; discussion W4-9 pubmed
  49. Robert J. Human dispossession and human enhancement. Am J Bioeth. 2005;5:27-9; discussion W4-9 pubmed
  50. McHugh P. Where's the wisdom?. Cerebrum. 2004;6:27-8 pubmed
  51. Rubin C. Man or machine?. New Atlantis. 2004;4:31-7 pubmed
  52. Chatterjee A. Cosmetic neurology: the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation, and mood. Neurology. 2004;63:968-74 pubmed
    ..Neurologists and other clinicians are likely to encounter patient-consumers who view physicians as gatekeepers in their own pursuit of happiness. ..
  53. Goffi J. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program]. J Int Bioethique. 2011;22:19-32, 191 pubmed
    ..This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement. ..