Summary: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.
- Brem A, Fried P, Horvath J, Robertson E, Pascual Leone A. Is neuroenhancement by noninvasive brain stimulation a net zero-sum proposition?. Neuroimage. 2014;85 Pt 3:1058-68 pubmed publisher..We argue that to guide future neuroenhancement studies, the net-zero sum concept is helpful, but only if its limits are tightly defined. ..
- Hansson S. The ethics of enabling technology. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2007;16:257-67 pubmed
- Anton B. CQ Sources/Bibliography. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2007;16:322-4 pubmed
- Silver R, Boahen K, Grillner S, Kopell N, Olsen K. Neurotech for neuroscience: unifying concepts, organizing principles, and emerging tools. J Neurosci. 2007;27:11807-19 pubmed..Funding agencies, including the National Science Foundation, explore the potential of these changing frontiers of research for developing research policies and long-term planning. ..
- Schaub D. Methuselah and us. New Atlantis. 2004;4:37-42 pubmed
- . Brain blast. Nature. 2013;498:271-2 pubmed
- Sparrow R. Enhancement and Obsolescence: Avoiding an "Enhanced Rat Race". Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2015;25:231-60 pubmed publisher..The danger of an enhanced rat race therefore constitutes a novel argument in favor of abandoning the pursuit of certain sorts of enhancements. ..
- Wolfendale J. Performance-enhancing technologies and moral responsibility in the military. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:28-38 pubmed publisher..A genuine commitment to maintaining the military's ethical standards and the well-being of combatants therefore requires a careful analysis of performance-enhancing technologies before they are implemented. ..
- Wilson J. Mediums and messages: an argument against biotechnical enhancement of soldiers in the armies of liberal democracies. Ethical Perspect. 2004;11:189-97 pubmed
- Berg J, Mehlman M, Rubin D, Kodish E. Making all the children above average: ethical and regulatory concerns for pediatricians in pediatric enhancement research. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2009;48:472-80 pubmed publisher..This article discusses whether the current guidelines for pediatric research provide appropriate protections for pediatric subjects in enhancement research and considers what additional protections might be necessary. ..
- Cohen E. Biotechnology and the spirit of capitalism. New Atlantis. 2006;12:9-23 pubmed
- Rotheram Borus M, Swendeman D, Chovnick G. The past, present, and future of HIV prevention: integrating behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies for the next generation of HIV prevention. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2009;5:143-67 pubmed publisher..The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. ..
- McClay W. Science and self-government. New Atlantis. 2004;4:17-22 pubmed
- Stang C, Sheremeta L. Nanotechnology--a lot of hype over almost nothing?. Health Law Rev. 2006;15:53-5 pubmed
- Bensamoun D, Gros A, Manera V, König A, Guerin O, Robert P, et al. [Neuropsychiatric disorders and technological solutions]. Soins Gerontol. 2016;21:18-20 pubmed publisher..A personalised approach to patients can further enhance their adherence and involvement. ..
- Kettner M. ["Medicine of desire" between commercialization and patient-centeredness]. Ethik Med. 2006;18:81-91 pubmed
- Le Page M. Only drugs can stop the sports cheats. New Sci. 2006;191:18-9 pubmed
- Glannon W. Neuroethics. Bioethics. 2006;20:37-52 pubmed..We need to carefully weigh the potential benefit against the potential harm of such techniques. This paper examines some of these techniques and explores the emerging ethical issues in clinical neuroscience. ..
- Schwanke T, Smith R. Assistive technology outcomes in work settings. Work. 2005;24:195-204 pubmed
- Cerullo M. Cosmetic psychopharmacology and the President's Council on Bioethics. Perspect Biol Med. 2006;49:515-23 pubmed..Instead, the effects of each agent on the individual and on society must be weighed using sound ethical reasoning and the best evidence available. ..
- Partridge B, Bell S, Lucke J, Yeates S, Hall W. Smart drugs "as common as coffee": media hype about neuroenhancement. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28416 pubmed publisher..We urge journalists and researchers to be cautious in their portrayal of the non-medical use of drugs for neuroenhancement. ..
- Daly B. Transhumanism: toward a brave new world?. America (NY). 2004;191:18-20 pubmed
- ..It is unimportant that humans remain biologically human, since they do not have moral value in virtue of belonging to H. sapiens. ..
- Phillips H. Who is messing with your head?. New Sci. 2006;189:11 pubmed
- Nelson J, McKinley R, Golob E, Warm J, Parasuraman R. Enhancing vigilance in operators with prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Neuroimage. 2014;85 Pt 3:909-17 pubmed publisher..These findings indicate that tDCS may be well-suited to mitigate performance degradation in work settings requiring sustained attention or as a possible treatment for neurological or psychiatric disorders involving sustained attention. ..
- Lawler P. Restless souls. New Atlantis. 2004;4:42-6 pubmed
- Trent B. The future of immortality. Humanist. 2004;64:11-5 pubmed..He reiterates that even among new immortals, there will likely be people who, after a full life of two hundred or two million years, will decide that enough is simply enough, and that death may be as optional as the hair dye. ..
- Oess N, Wanek J, van Hedel H. Enhancement of bend sensor properties as applied in a glove for use in neurorehabilitation settings. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:5903-6 pubmed publisher..The validity of the integrated sensors is evaluated and the accuracy values are given. ..
- Hetherington V, Kawalec J, Bhattacharyya B. Enhancement of the fixation of pyrolytic carbon implants by using atomic oxygen texturing. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2004;43:16-9 pubmed..The findings of this study suggest that biologic fixation of pyrolytic carbon implants can be enhanced by surface texturing by using direct exposure to atomic oxygen, without compromising its biocompatibility. ..
- Shapiro M. Does technological enhancement of human traits threaten human equality and democracy?. San Diego Law Rev. 2002;39:769-842 pubmed
- Bramstedt K. Caffeine use by children: the quest for enhancement. Subst Use Misuse. 2007;42:1237-51 pubmed..This article examines safety and ethical issues associated with the use of caffeine by children and explores the question: Can cognitive performance enhancement be ethically permissible if sports performance enhancement is not? ..
- Callari T, Ciairano S, Re A. Elderly-technology interaction: accessibility and acceptability of technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training. Work. 2012;41 Suppl 1:362-9 pubmed publisher..Findings confirm the hypothesis, highlighting that elderly may accept technological artifacts when they perceive them as bringing benefits in terms of well-being and health. ..
- Douglas T. The harms of enhancement and the conclusive reasons view. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2015;24:23-36 pubmed publisher..However, I then argue that even these harm-based reasons are not obviously decisive. Thus, I ultimately agree with Buchanan about the falsity of the CRV, though I disagree with him about the reasons for its falsity. ..
- Buyx A. Be careful what you wish for? Theoretical and ethical aspects of wish-fulfilling medicine. Med Health Care Philos. 2008;11:133-43 pubmed..The phenomenon of wish-fulfilling medicine serves as a prime example of the vagueness of the descriptive and the lack of decisive orientation of the normative categories employed in modern medicine. ..
- Asscher E, Bolt I, Schermer M. Wish-fulfilling medicine in practice: a qualitative study of physician arguments. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:327-31 pubmed publisher..Moreover, certain arguments that play a significant role in the literature on wish-fulfilling medicine and enhancement were not mentioned, such as concepts of disease and the enhancement-treatment dichotomy and 'suspect norms'. ..
- Frippiat L. [Human technical enhancement: an introduction to the currents of the debate as well as their fracture lines]. J Int Bioethique. 2011;22:33-50, 192 pubmed..A complex debate indeed that we could summarize by a simple question: what will human do about the human in the 21st century? ..
- Gordijn B. Converging NBIC technologies for improving human performance: a critical assessment of the novelty and the prospects of the project. J Law Med Ethics. 2006;34:726-32 pubmed..In addition it is analyzed whether the project warrants that we be optimistic about its future prospects. ..
- Shapiro M. The identity of identity: moral and legal aspects of technological self-transformation. Soc Philos Policy. 2005;22:308-73 pubmed
- Liao S. Are 'ex ante' enhancements always permissible?. Am J Bioeth. 2005;5:23-5; discussion W4-9 pubmed
- Robert J. Human dispossession and human enhancement. Am J Bioeth. 2005;5:27-9; discussion W4-9 pubmed
- McHugh P. Where's the wisdom?. Cerebrum. 2004;6:27-8 pubmed
- Rubin C. Man or machine?. New Atlantis. 2004;4:31-7 pubmed
- Chatterjee A. Cosmetic neurology: the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation, and mood. Neurology. 2004;63:968-74 pubmed..Neurologists and other clinicians are likely to encounter patient-consumers who view physicians as gatekeepers in their own pursuit of happiness. ..
- Goffi J. [Human nature and the enhancement of human beings in the light of the transhumanist program]. J Int Bioethique. 2011;22:19-32, 191 pubmed..This project is evaluated as a caricature of suitable human enhancement. ..