observational studies as topic


Summary: Works about clinical studies in which participants may receive diagnostic, therapeutic, or other types of interventions, but the investigator does not assign participants to specific interventions (as in an interventional study).

Top Publications

  1. Singh S, Young P, Armstrong A. An update on psoriasis and metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181039 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Based on this comprehensive meta-analysis, psoriasis patients have higher odds of having metabolic syndrome when compared with the general population. ..
  2. Nguyen T, Collins G, Spence J, Fontaine C, Daures J, Devereaux P, et al. Magnitude and direction of missing confounders had different consequences on treatment effect estimation in propensity score analysis. J Clin Epidemiol. 2017;87:87-97 pubmed publisher
    ..However, omitting these variables also decreases the analysis power, which may prevent the reporting of significant but misleading effects. ..
  3. Morales D, Slattery J, Evans S, Kurz X. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and risk of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: systematic review of observational studies and methodological considerations. BMC Med. 2018;16:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternative comparisons and sibling designs may aid the interpretation of causality and their utility requires further evaluation, including understanding potential limitations of undertaking meta-analyses with such data. ..
  4. Ross M, Kreider A, Huang Y, Matone M, Rubin D, Localio A. Propensity Score Methods for Analyzing Observational Data Like Randomized Experiments: Challenges and Solutions for Rare Outcomes and Exposures. Am J Epidemiol. 2015;181:989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Challenges in this data set include a rare outcome, a rare exposure, substantial and important differences between exposure groups, and a very large sample size. ..
  5. Andrade C. Offspring Outcomes in Studies of Antidepressant-Treated Pregnancies Depend on the Choice of Control Group. J Clin Psychiatry. 2017;78:e294-e297 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a discordant sibling control group is associated with its own limitations, and these are also discussed. ..
  6. Auvin S, Walker L, Gallentine W, Jozwiak S, Tombini M, Sills G. Prospective clinical trials to investigate clinical and molecular biomarkers. Epilepsia. 2017;58 Suppl 3:20-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, it is crucial that those involved in the design and support of relevant clinical studies recognize this gap and act accordingly, and in the interests of improving the diagnosis and prognosis for epilepsy. ..
  7. Dale C, Fatemifar G, Palmer T, White J, Prieto Merino D, Zabaneh D, et al. Causal Associations of Adiposity and Body Fat Distribution With Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke Subtypes, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis. Circulation. 2017;135:2373-2388 pubmed publisher
    ..Central adiposity may have a stronger effect on stroke risk. Future estimates of the burden of adiposity on health should include measures of central and general adiposity. ..
  8. Ang K, Maddocks M, Xu H, Higginson I. The Effectiveness of Singing or Playing a Wind Instrument in Improving Respiratory Function in Patients with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review. J Music Ther. 2017;54:108-131 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive trend in respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions following singing or wind instrument therapy is of interest, and warrants further investigation. ..
  9. Sedgwick P. Bias in observational study designs: cross sectional studies. BMJ. 2015;350:h1286 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Couch S, Glanz K, Zhou C, Sallis J, Saelens B. Home food environment in relation to children's diet quality and weight status. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014;114:1569-1579.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Various HFE factors associated with parenting around eating and food availability are related to child diet quality and weight status. These factors should be considered when designing interventions for improving child health. ..
  2. Lackland D, Roccella E, Deutsch A, Fornage M, George M, Howard G, et al. Factors influencing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45:315-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The continued application of aggressive evidence-based public health programs and clinical interventions is expected to result in further declines in stroke mortality. ..
  3. VanderWeele T, Ding P. Sensitivity Analysis in Observational Research: Introducing the E-Value. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:268-274 pubmed publisher
    ..If this were to become standard practice, the ability of the scientific community to assess evidence from observational studies would improve considerably, and ultimately, science would be strengthened. ..
  4. Huang Y, Feng M, He Q, Yin J, Xu P, Jiang Q, et al. Prognostic value of pretreatment 18F-FDG PET-CT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6721 pubmed publisher
    ..5) of primary tumors before treatment initiation may be independent prognostic factors for NPC patients; however, SUVmax, MTV, and TLG of metastatic lymph nodes are not. ..
  5. Saulle R, Vecchi S, Gowing L. Supervised dosing with a long-acting opioid medication in the management of opioid dependence. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;4:CD011983 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, there is a need for studies assessing in more detail the risk of diversion and safety outcomes of using supervised OST to manage opioid dependence. ..
  6. Tsivgoulis G, Lioutas V, Varelas P, Katsanos A, Goyal N, Mikulik R, et al. Direct oral anticoagulant- vs vitamin K antagonist-related nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology. 2017;89:1142-1151 pubmed publisher
    ..44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91, p = 0.030). DOAC-related ICH is associated with smaller baseline hematoma volume and lesser neurologic deficit at hospital admission compared to VKA-related ICH. ..
  7. Anand S, Tong H, Besag F, Chan E, Cortese S, Wong I. Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Drugs for Treating Behavioural Insomnia in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review with Methodological Quality Assessment. Paediatr Drugs. 2017;19:235-250 pubmed publisher
    ..There is generally poor evidence for prescribing drugs for behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD. Further controlled studies are warranted. ..
  8. Fuller B, Mohr N, Drewry A, Carpenter C. Lower tidal volume at initiation of mechanical ventilation may reduce progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review. Crit Care. 2013;17:R11 pubmed publisher
    ..Further randomized controlled trials examining the role of lower tidal volumes in patients without ARDS, controlling for ARDS risk, are needed. ..
  9. Dominici F, Greenstone M, Sunstein C. Science and regulation. Particulate matter matters. Science. 2014;344:257-9 pubmed publisher
  10. Garabedian L, Chu P, Toh S, Zaslavsky A, Soumerai S. Potential bias of instrumental variable analyses for observational comparative effectiveness research. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Many effect estimates may be biased by the failure to adjust for instrument-outcome confounding. The authors caution against overreliance on instrumental variable studies for CER. ..
  11. Menche J, Sharma A, Cho M, Mayer R, Rennard S, Celli B, et al. A diVIsive Shuffling Approach (VIStA) for gene expression analysis to identify subtypes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. BMC Syst Biol. 2014;8 Suppl 2:S8 pubmed publisher
    ..The introduced methodology allowed us to identify combinations of clinical characteristics that correspond to clear gene expression differences. The resulting subtypes for COPD contribute to a better understanding of its heterogeneity. ..
  12. Kennedy C, Yeh P, Pandey S, Betrán A, Narasimhan M. Elective cesarean section for women living with HIV: a systematic review of risks and benefits. AIDS. 2017;31:1579-1591 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding individual client risks and benefits and respecting women's autonomy remain important. ..
  13. Paulus F, Binnekade J, Vroom M, Schultz M. Benefits and risks of manual hyperinflation in intubated and mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients: a systematic review. Crit Care. 2012;16:R145 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies have failed to show that MH benefits critically ill intubated and mechanically ventilated patients. MH is infrequently associated with short-term side effects. ..
  14. Rodríguez Zúñiga M, Garcia Perdomo H. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017;77:657-666.e8 pubmed publisher
    ..40; 95% CI, 1.25-1.55). Few adjusted studies existed, and there was inconsistency between publications. Because of the increased risk for MS, clinicians should consider screening patients with psoriasis for metabolic risk factors. ..
  15. Marigorta U, Denson L, Hyams J, Mondal K, Prince J, Walters T, et al. Transcriptional risk scores link GWAS to eQTLs and predict complications in Crohn's disease. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1517-1521 pubmed publisher
    ..The TRS approach constitutes a potential strategy for personalized medicine that enhances inference from static genotypic risk assessment. ..
  16. The Lancet Neurology -. A rally for traumatic brain injury research. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12:1127 pubmed publisher
  17. Hart H, Stefanik J, Wyndow N, Machotka Z, Crossley K. The prevalence of radiographic and MRI-defined patellofemoral osteoarthritis and structural pathology: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:1195-1208 pubmed publisher
    ..These pooled data and the variability found can provide evidence for future research addressing risk factors and treatments for PF OA. PROSPERO systematic review protocol (CRD42016035649). ..
  18. Kyrgiou M, Kalliala I, Markozannes G, Gunter M, Paraskevaidis E, Gabra H, et al. Adiposity and cancer at major anatomical sites: umbrella review of the literature. BMJ. 2017;356:j477 pubmed publisher
  19. Paige N, Miake Lye I, Booth M, Beroes J, Mardian A, Dougherty P, et al. Association of Spinal Manipulative Therapy With Clinical Benefit and Harm for Acute Low Back Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017;317:1451-1460 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute low back pain is common and spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a treatment option. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses have reported different conclusions about the effectiveness of SMT...
  20. Schoenaker D, Soedamah Muthu S, Mishra G. The association between dietary factors and gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMC Med. 2014;12:157 pubmed publisher
    ..Further prospective studies are required to provide an evidence base for development of preventive health strategies, particularly focusing on dietary factors during pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy. ..
  21. Takagi H, Umemoto T. Similar Survival After Repair vs Replacement for Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;28:748-756 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no evidence of significant publication bias. For patients with IMR, MV repair appears to be unassociated with a significant decrease in both early and late all-cause mortality compared with MV replacement. ..
  22. LeBourgeois M, Hale L, Chang A, Akacem L, Montgomery Downs H, Buxton O. Digital Media and Sleep in Childhood and Adolescence. Pediatrics. 2017;140:S92-S96 pubmed publisher
  23. Wirth D, Dass R, Hettle R. Cost-effectiveness of adding novel or group 5 interventions to a background regimen for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Germany. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:182 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this analysis, bedaquiline is likely to be the most cost-effective intervention for the treatment of MDR-TB, when added to a BR regimen at thresholds greater than €22,000 per QALY. ..
  24. McClave S, Taylor B, Martindale R, Warren M, Johnson D, Braunschweig C, et al. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.). JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2016;40:159-211 pubmed publisher
  25. Mannu G, Dodwell D. Making progress in early breast cancer: Taking time or accepting risk?. Eur J Cancer. 2017;78:24-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight the pitfalls in these approaches and suggest some simplifications in the conduct of RCTs. ..
  26. Sheng S, Chen Y, Shen Z. Correlation between polymorphism of vitamin D receptor TaqI and susceptibility to colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7242 pubmed publisher
    ..03; 95% CI, 0.93-1.13; P?=?.62), and tt vs TT (OR?=?1.00; 95% CI, 0.85-1.17; P?=?.98) with respect to increasing CRC frequency.No evidence showed that TaqI polymorphisms were significantly associated with susceptibility to CRC. ..
  27. Song J, Yang Y, Mauvais Jarvis F, Wang Y, Niu T. KCNJ11, ABCC8 and TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the response to sulfonylurea treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes: a bioinformatics assessment. BMC Med Genet. 2017;18:64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that a personalized medicine approach by tailoring sulfonylurea therapy of T2D patients according to their genotypes of KCNJ11, ABCC8, and TCF7L2 could attain an optimal treatment efficacy. ..
  28. Cao L, Peng X, Xie J, Yang F, Wen H, Li S. The relationship between iodine intake and the risk of thyroid cancer: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6734 pubmed publisher
    ..72, 95% CI 0.55, 0.95; OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52, 0.96; respectively). A higher intake of dietary iodine was as a protective factor for TC. However, the available data are very limited and more studies are required. ..
  29. Bao L, Chen M, Lei Y, Zhou Z, Shen H, Le F. Association between vitamin D receptor BsmI polymorphism and bone mineral density in pediatric patients: A meta-analysis and systematic review of observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6718 pubmed publisher
    ..No significant difference was identified in the pediatric FN BMD levels. ..
  30. Giani E, Laffel L. Opportunities and Challenges of Telemedicine: Observations from the Wild West in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2016;18:1-3 pubmed publisher
  31. Melamed A, Rauh Hain J, Schorge J. Clinical outcomes research in gynecologic oncology. Gynecol Oncol. 2017;146:653-660 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the goals, methodologies, data sources, and limitations of clinical outcomes research, with a focus on gynecologic oncology. ..
  32. Guo Z, Xu J, Lai R, Wang S. Vasectomy and cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7852 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, large-volume, well-designed observational studies, with different ethnic populations, low risk of bias, and adjusted confounding factors, are awaited to confirm and update the findings of this analysis. ..
  33. Yi C, Song Z, Wan M, Chen Y, Cheng X. Statins intake and risk of liver cancer: A dose-response meta analysis of prospective cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7435 pubmed publisher
    ..61, P?<.001). Subgroup meta-analyses in study design, study quality, number of participants, and number of cases showed consistency with the primary findings.Additional statins intake is associated with liver cancer risk reduction. ..
  34. Wang Y, Tao L, He H, Han J. [Quality analysis of observational studies on pelvic organ prolapse in China]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2017;52:379-385 pubmed publisher
    ..05????????????1b??????????2??????????6a?????????????7???????8??????????9?????11??????????12a???????????17???????18???????19??????21???????22??????? ??? pop??????????????????50.0%?????????????2006—2015?????????1996—2005???????. ..
  35. Lin H, Chen Y. Adjustment for missing confounders in studies based on observational databases: 2-stage calibration combining propensity scores from primary and validation data. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..91 (95% confidence interval: 1.62, 2.26) after adjustment for cumulative smoking and alcohol consumption. ..
  36. Sherman R, Anderson S, Dal Pan G, Gray G, Gross T, Hunter N, et al. Real-World Evidence - What Is It and What Can It Tell Us?. N Engl J Med. 2016;375:2293-2297 pubmed
  37. Wang L, Zhang Z. [Mendelian randomization approach, used for causal inferences]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2017;38:547-552 pubmed publisher
  38. Ma P, Yao Y, Sun W, Dai S, Zhou C. Daily sedentary time and its association with risk for colorectal cancer in adults: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7049 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged television viewing, occupational sitting time, and total sitting time are associated with increased risks of colorectal cancer. ..
  39. Hao G, Zhang B, Gu M, Chen C, Zhang Q, Zhang G, et al. Vitamin K intake and the risk of fractures: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6725 pubmed publisher
    ..76 (95% CI: 0.58-0.93) in studies with more than 10 years of follow-up. Our study suggests that higher dietary vitamin K intake may moderately decrease the risk of fractures. ..
  40. Hoshijima H, Takeuchi R, Mihara T, Kuratani N, Mizuta K, Wajima Z, et al. Weekend versus weekday admission and short-term mortality: A meta-analysis of 88 cohort studies including 56,934,649 participants. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6685 pubmed publisher
    ..Weekend effect remains highly heterogeneous and limited, suggesting that further well-conducted cohort studies might be informative. ..
  41. Zeng C, Fang C, Weng H, Xu X, Wu T, Li W. B-cell lymphocyte kinase polymorphisms rs13277113, rs2736340, and rs4840568 and risk of autoimmune diseases: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7855 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, it is meaningful to conduct a comprehensive analysis...
  42. Almiron Roig E, Aitken A, Galloway C, Ellahi B. Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups: a systematic review of instruments for portion-size estimation in the United Kingdom. Nutr Rev. 2017;75:188-213 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining multiple PSEEs may increase accuracy, but such methods require validation. ..
  43. Freemantle N, Marston L, Walters K, Wood J, Reynolds M, Petersen I. Making inferences on treatment effects from real world data: propensity scores, confounding by indication, and other perils for the unwary in observational research. BMJ. 2013;347:f6409 pubmed publisher
  44. Jansen J, Lord J, Thickett D, Midwinter M, McAuley D, Gao F. Clinical review: Statins and trauma--a systematic review. Crit Care. 2013;17:227 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these studies are at high risk of confounding and bias, and should be regarded as 'hypothesisgenerating'. A well-designed RCT is required to determine the therapeutic efficacy in improving outcomes in this patient population. ..
  45. Ananth C, Schisterman E. Confounding, causality, and confusion: the role of intermediate variables in interpreting observational studies in obstetrics. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2017;217:167-175 pubmed publisher
    ..This commentary provides an exposition of confounding bias, collider stratification, and selection biases, with applications in obstetrics and perinatal epidemiology. ..
  46. Godin R, Marcoux V, Tagalakis V. Abnormal uterine bleeding in women receiving direct oral anticoagulants for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. Vascul Pharmacol. 2017;93-95:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This article aims to review the existing literature regarding the association between AUB and the direct oral anticoagulants and make practical recommendations. ..
  47. de Wilde M, Lamain de Ruiter M, Veltman Verhulst S, Kwee A, Laven J, Lambalk C, et al. Increased rates of complications in singleton pregnancies of women previously diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome predominantly in the hyperandrogenic phenotype. Fertil Steril. 2017;108:333-340 pubmed publisher
    ..Women with PCOS have an increased risk of maternal and neonatal pregnancy complications, especially women with the hyperandrogenic phenotype. NCT00821379. ..
  48. Lekoubou A, Philippeau F, Derex L, Olaru A, Gouttard M, Vieillart A, et al. Audit report and systematic review of orolingual angioedema in post-acute stroke thrombolysis. Neurol Res. 2014;36:687-94 pubmed publisher
    ..PIROLA occurrence should be actively monitored, particularly within the first few hours as some may require urgent lifesaving procedures. ..
  49. Vaezi M, Yang Y, Howden C. Complications of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:35-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with a proven indication for a PPI should continue to receive it in the lowest effective dose. PPI dose escalation and continued chronic therapy in those unresponsive to initial empiric therapy is discouraged. ..
  50. Sehgal I, Dhooria S, Aggarwal A, Behera D, Agarwal R. Asynchrony index in pressure support ventilation (PSV) versus neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NAVA) during non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for respiratory failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42:1813-1815 pubmed
  51. Mabikwa O, Greenwood D, Baxter P, Fleming S. Assessing the reporting of categorised quantitative variables in observational epidemiological studies. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17:201 pubmed publisher
    ..The existing STROBE guidelines could provide stronger recommendations on reporting quantitative risk factors in epidemiology. ..
  52. Wang Y, Chen X, Wang K, Li S, Zhang X. Myeloperoxidase polymorphism and coronary artery disease risk: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7280 pubmed publisher
    ..906 (95% CI?=?0.74-1.10).This meta-analysis suggested an association between the MPO 463G/A polymorphism and the risk of CAD, but there is no significant association between the MPO 129G/A gene polymorphism and CAD risk. ..
  53. Richardson H, Eyal N, Campbell J, Haberer J. When Ancillary Care Clashes with Study Aims. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1213-1215 pubmed publisher