fetal mortality


Summary: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.

Top Publications

  1. Eixarch E, Hernandez Andrade E, Crispi F, Illa M, Torre I, Figueras F, et al. Impact on fetal mortality and cardiovascular Doppler of selective ligature of uteroplacental vessels compared with undernutrition in a rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction. Placenta. 2011;32:304-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Ananth C, Liu S, Joseph K, Kramer M. A comparison of foetal and infant mortality in the United States and Canada. Int J Epidemiol. 2009;38:480-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Woods R. Long-term trends in fetal mortality: implications for developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:460-6 pubmed
    This paper discusses the problems of defining and measuring late-fetal mortality (stillbirths). It uses evidence from 11 developed countries to trace long-term trends in fetal mortality...
  4. MacDorman M, Kirmeyer S. The challenge of fetal mortality. NCHS Data Brief. 2009;:1-8 pubmed
    ..The magnitude of fetal mortality is considerable: About 1 million fetal deaths occur at any gestational age in the United States each year, ..
  5. Rasheeda C, Navaneethan U, Jayanthi V. Liver disease in pregnancy and its influence on maternal and fetal mortality: a prospective study from Chennai, Southern India. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;20:362-4 pubmed publisher
  6. Anthony S, Jacobusse G, van der Pal de Bruin K, Buitendijk S, Zeitlin J. Do differences in maternal age, parity and multiple births explain variations in fetal and neonatal mortality rates in Europe?--Results from the EURO-PERISTAT project. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009;23:292-300 pubmed publisher
    ..The association between maternal age and fetal mortality declined as the prevalence of older mothers in the population increased...
  7. Williams D, Castleman J, Lee C, Mote B, Smith M. Risk of fetal mortality after exposure to Listeria monocytogenes based on dose-response data from pregnant guinea pigs and primates. Risk Anal. 2009;29:1495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..9 x 10(-1) compared to the FDA/USDA/CDC (fig. IV-12) predicted rate of 1.3 x 10(-7). Based on the guinea pig and primate models, the mortality rate calculated by the FDA/USDA/CDC is underestimated for this susceptible population. ..
  8. Oliveira E, Gama S, Silva C. [Teenage pregnancy and other risk factors for fetal and infant mortality in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Cad Saude Publica. 2010;26:567-78 pubmed
    ..Teenage pregnancy itself was an independent factor for post-neonatal death. The findings reaffirm the relevance of social and health policies targeting adolescents, as well as improvements in prenatal care. ..
  9. MacDorman M. Race and ethnic disparities in fetal mortality, preterm birth, and infant mortality in the United States: an overview. Semin Perinatol. 2011;35:200-8 pubmed publisher
    Infant mortality, fetal mortality, and preterm birth all represent important health challenges that have shown little recent improvement...

More Information


  1. Mohangoo A, Buitendijk S, Szamotulska K, Chalmers J, Irgens L, Bolumar F, et al. Gestational age patterns of fetal and neonatal mortality in Europe: results from the Euro-Peristat project. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24727 pubmed publisher
    ..likely to be affected by registration differences (22-23 weeks for neonatal mortality and 22-27 weeks for fetal mortality)...
  2. Smith L, Draper E, Manktelow B, Pritchard C, Field D. Comparing regional infant death rates: the influence of preterm births <24 weeks of gestation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2013;98:F103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It is vital that this variation is minimised before infant mortality is used as indicator for monitoring health and performance and targeting interventions. ..
  3. Joseph K, Liu S, Rouleau J, Lisonkova S, Hutcheon J, Sauve R, et al. Influence of definition based versus pragmatic birth registration on international comparisons of perinatal and infant mortality: population based retrospective study. BMJ. 2012;344:e746 pubmed publisher
  4. Tyler C, Grady S, Grigorescu V, Luke B, Todem D, Paneth N. Impact of fetal death reporting requirements on early neonatal and fetal mortality rates and racial disparities. Public Health Rep. 2012;127:507-15 pubmed
    ..We examined whether such reporting requirements may explain national variation in neonatal and fetal mortality rates and racial disparities.
  5. Mohangoo A, Blondel B, Gissler M, Velebil P, Macfarlane A, Zeitlin J. International comparisons of fetal and neonatal mortality rates in high-income countries: should exclusion thresholds be based on birth weight or gestational age?. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64869 pubmed publisher
    ..For fetal mortality, rates based on gestational age were significantly higher than those based on birth weight (p<0...
  6. Yuan H, Platt R, Morin L, Joseph K, Kramer M. Fetal deaths in the United States, 1997 vs 1991. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:489-95 pubmed
  7. Woods R. The measurement of historical trends in fetal mortality in England and Wales. Popul Stud (Camb). 2005;59:147-62 pubmed
    ..It assesses the available historical evidence for the level of late-fetal mortality, drawing especially on examples from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark...
  8. Fonseca S, Coutinho E. [Risk factors for fetal mortality in a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a case-control study]. Cad Saude Publica. 2010;26:240-52 pubmed
    ..Quality of prenatal care showed a large protective effect, thus becoming a key strategy for reducing fetal mortality in populations with low socioeconomic status.
  9. Ahmed R, Karsany M, Adam I. Brief report: acute viral hepatitis and poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant Sudanese women. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1747-8 pubmed publisher
    ..5%). There were four (25%) maternal deaths and three (18.7%) intrauterine fetal deaths. Three of these maternal deaths were due to hepatitis E virus and the fourth was due to hepatitis B virus. ..
  10. Wilkinson J, Ladinig A, Bao H, Kommadath A, Stothard P, Lunney J, et al. Differences in Whole Blood Gene Expression Associated with Infection Time-Course and Extent of Fetal Mortality in a Reproductive Model of Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) Infection. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153615 pubmed publisher
    ..and attempted to identify gene expression signatures associated with a low or high level of fetal mortality rates (LFM and HFM; n = 8/group) at necropsy, 21 days post-inoculation...
  11. Wool C, COTE ARSENAULT D, Perry Black B, Denney Koelsch E, Kim S, Kavanaugh K. Provision of Services in Perinatal Palliative Care: A Multicenter Survey in the United States. J Palliat Med. 2016;19:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..It is clear that there are a variety of types of programs and that the field is still developing. More work is needed to determine which quality measures are needed to address perinatal care needs in this population. ..
  12. Ravelli A, Eskes M, Tromp M, van Huis A, Steegers E, Tamminga P, et al. [Perinatal mortality in The Netherlands 2000-2006; risk factors and risk selection]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008;152:2728-33 pubmed
    ..At a population level, low or high maternal age and high parity are less important risk factors than expected. More detailed research is indicated into the mortality ofvery preterm births but also offull-term born children. ..
  13. Barrea C, Debauche C, Williams O, Jasienski S, Steenhaut P, Sluysmans T, et al. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: perinatal outcome and recipient heart disease according to treatment strategy. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013;49:E28-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved outcome after laser treatment compared with AR might be related to its impact on recipient heart disease. ..
  14. Chongsuvivatwong V, Bachtiar H, Chowdhury M, Fernando S, Suwanrath C, Kor anantakul O, et al. Maternal and fetal mortality and complications associated with cesarean section deliveries in teaching hospitals in Asia. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010;36:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..2) (P < 0.001). Vaginal delivery also had higher rates of severe asphyxia and palsy than elective cesarean section. Maternal complications were increased by cesarean delivery but elective section may reduce neonatal complication. ..
  15. Sappenfield W, PECK M, Gilbert C, Haynatzka V, Bryant T. Perinatal periods of risk: analytic preparation and phase 1 analytic methods for investigating feto-infant mortality. Matern Child Health J. 2010;14:838-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This excess mortality is described as the opportunity gap because it indicates where communities have the potential to make improvement. ..
  16. Onyiriuka A. Twin delivery: comparison of incidence and foetal outcome in two health institutions in Benin City, Nigeria. Nig Q J Hosp Med. 2009;19:1-5 pubmed
    ..001). Although the incidence of twin delivery remains high in Benin City, it appears to have dropped. Twin pregnancy is associated with increased risk of adverse foetal outcome. ..
  17. Gill J, Zalunardo N, Rose C, Tonelli M. The pregnancy rate and live birth rate in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:1541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The live birth rate was substantially lower than reported in voluntary registries of transplant recipients, and the proportion of pregnancies resulting in unexpected fetal loss increased over time. ..
  18. Wroblewska Seniuk K, Nowicki S, Le Bouguenec C, Nowicki B, Yallampalli C. Maternal/fetal mortality and fetal growth restriction: role of nitric oxide and virulence factors in intrauterine infection in rats. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011;205:83.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal/fetal mortality rates, fetoplacental weight, and infection rates were evaluated...
  19. Rosendo A, Druet T, Gogue J, Bidanel J. Direct responses to six generations of selection for ovulation rate or prenatal survival in Large White pigs. J Anim Sci. 2007;85:356-64 pubmed
    ..No significant difference was found for PS or CPS in any of the lines. The TNB did not change in the OR line but significantly improved in the PS line (0.24 +/- 0.11 piglets/generation). ..
  20. Price S. Prevalence and correlates of pregnancy loss history in a national sample of children and families. Matern Child Health J. 2006;10:489-500 pubmed
    Public health prevalence data has consistently illustrated disparities in fetal mortality prevalence on a yearly basis, yet few studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of pregnancy loss history during the reproductive life ..
  21. Kong C, Leung T, Leung T, Chan L, Sahota D, Fung T, et al. Risk factors for procedure-related fetal losses after mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis. Prenat Diagn. 2006;26:925-30 pubmed
    ..48), and a female fetus (OR = 2.39); but not to the number of punctures (p = 0.66) nor transplacental amniocentesis (p = 0.104). Mid-trimester amniocentesis is associated with a small but significant risk of fetal loss of 0.86%. ..
  22. Salihu H, Garces I, Sharma P, Kristensen S, Ananth C, Kirby R. Stillbirth and infant mortality among Hispanic singletons, twins, and triplets in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:789-96 pubmed
    ..The elevated risk for stillbirth among Hispanic triplets is particularly noteworthy and underscores the need for caution in making generalizations of favorable birth outcomes in Hispanics. ..
  23. Neto M. Perinatal care in Portugal: effects of 15 years of a regionalized system. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95:1349-52 pubmed
    ..1 to 2.7/1000 live births, and the infant mortality rate from 12.2/1000 live births to 4/1000. Regionalization of perinatal care and neonatal transport are key factors for a successful perinatal health system. ..
  24. Ward Platt M, Glinianaia S, Rankin J, Wright C, Renwick M. The North of England Multiple Pregnancy Register: five-year results of data collection. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2006;9:913-8 pubmed
    ..The register is an important resource of data on multiple pregnancies, which allows monitoring of trends in multiple birth rates and pregnancy losses and provides a unique opportunity for etiological and long-term follow-up studies. ..
  25. MacDorman M, Hoyert D, Martin J, Munson M, Hamilton B. Fetal and perinatal mortality, United States, 2003. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2007;55:1-17 pubmed
    ..Descriptive tabulations of data are presented and interpreted. The U.S. fetal mortality rate in 2003 was 6.23 fetal deaths of 20 weeks of gestation or more per 1,000 live births and fetal deaths...
  26. Walsh C, McMenamin M, Foley M, Daly S, Robson M, Geary M. Trends in intrapartum fetal death, 1979-2003. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:47.e1-7 pubmed
    ..Infants of multiple gestations still retain a significantly higher chance of intrapartum death. The fall in uptake rates of perinatal autopsy in recent years is concerning. ..
  27. Nagy G, Papp Z. [Quantity and quality of obstetrical care in Baross Street Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between 1990 and 2006]. Orv Hetil. 2007;148:2355-64 pubmed
  28. Ohmi H, Hirooka K, Mochizuki Y, Hata A. The male/female ratio of spontaneous fetal deaths and low birthweight in Japan. Pediatr Int. 2008;50:262-3 pubmed publisher
  29. Ord T. The scourge: moral implications of natural embryo loss. Am J Bioeth. 2008;8:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..I examine the responses available to those who hold that embryos have full moral status and conclude that they cannot avoid the force of this argument without giving up this key claim...
  30. de Almeida M, Alencar G, Novaes M, França I, Siqueira A, Schoeps D, et al. [Accidental home deliveries in southern São Paulo, Brazil]. Rev Saude Publica. 2005;39:366-75 pubmed
    ..Though rare events in urban areas, accidental home deliveries should be of special concern to health services because they seem to be avoidable and imply in increased risk of death. ..
  31. Newman L, Kamb M, Hawkes S, Gomez G, Say L, Séuc A, et al. Global estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes: analysis of multinational antenatal surveillance data. PLoS Med. 2013;10:e1001396 pubmed publisher
    ..We calculated global and regional estimates of syphilis in pregnancy and associated adverse outcomes for 2008, as well as antenatal care (ANC) coverage for women with syphilis...
  32. Duarte G, Coltro P, Bedone R, Nogueira A, Gelonezzi G, Franco L. Trends in the modes of delivery and their impact on perinatal mortality rates. Rev Saude Publica. 2004;38:379-84 pubmed
    ..steady (around 60, 30, and 10%, respectively) while, at the same time, there was a marked reduction in fetal mortality (from 33.3 to 13.0 per thousand), early neonatal mortality (from 30.6 to 9...
  33. Ronda E, Regidor E, Garcia A, Domínguez V. Association between congenital anomalies and paternal exposure to agricultural pesticides depending on mother's employment status. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47:826-8 pubmed
  34. Kieltyka L, Craig M, Goodman D, Wise R. Louisiana implementation of the National Fetal and Infant Mortality Review (NFIMR) program model: successes and opportunities. Matern Child Health J. 2012;16 Suppl 2:353-9 pubmed publisher
  35. Hutchins E, Grason H, Handler A. FIMR and other mortality reviews as public health tools for strengthening maternal and child health systems in communities: where do we need to go next?. Matern Child Health J. 2004;8:259-68 pubmed
    ..Implementing widely the recommendations generated by these reviews may increase the likelihood of improvements in services and systems on behalf of women and children. ..
  36. Gurven M. Infant and fetal mortality among a high fertility and mortality population in the Bolivian Amazon. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75:2493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..g. hypertension, atherosclerosis and diabetes) in adulthood due to the relatively traditional Tsimane lifestyle. ..
  37. Sepehripour A, Lo T, Shipolini A, McCormack D. Can pregnant women be safely placed on cardiopulmonary bypass?. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;15:1063-70 pubmed publisher
  38. Lydon Rochelle M, Cardenas V, Nelson J, Tomashek K, Mueller B, Easterling T. Validity of maternal and perinatal risk factors reported on fetal death certificates. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:1948-51 pubmed
    ..Additional population-based studies are needed to identify strategies to improve fetal death certificate data. ..
  39. Aboutanos M, Aboutanos S, Dompkowski D, Duane T, Malhotra A, Ivatury R. Significance of motor vehicle crashes and pelvic injury on fetal mortality: a five-year institutional review. J Trauma. 2008;65:616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite fetal gestational age, aggressive radiographic pursuit of pelvic fractures may be warranted. ..
  40. Klemm K, Magann E, Morrison J, Chauhan S. Life satisfaction and obstetric outcomes in the United States. South Med J. 2012;105:279-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the states with the most life satisfaction had higher fertility rates, they also had worse mortality outcomes. Birth outcomes may be more greatly affected by factors other than life satisfaction. ..
  41. Yang Z, Wang J, Huang P, Shi L, Li R, Ye R, et al. [Study on different onset patterns and perinatal outcomes in severe preeclampsia]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2006;41:302-6 pubmed
    ..The clinical delimitation of early onset of severe preeclampsia set at 32-week gestation is significantly associated with poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. ..
  42. Brailovschi Y, Sheiner E, Wiznitzer A, Shahaf P, Levy A. Risk factors for intrapartum fetal death and trends over the years. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;285:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Weekends do not pose additional risk for the occurrence of IPFD. ..
  43. Ohana O, Holcberg G, Sergienko R, Sheiner E. Risk factors for intrauterine fetal death (1988-2009). J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011;24:1079-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Other pathologic conditions that facilitate tighter pregnancy surveillance and active management were found protective, pointing the benefit of such management approaches in high-risk pregnancies. ..
  44. Troszyński M. [Can implementation of intensified perinatal survey be effective in improving the quality of perinatal care?]. Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2010;14:138-49 pubmed
    ..3. Implementation of medical audit, carried out periodically at all three levels of perinatal care. ..
  45. Chen X, Wen S, Smith G, Yang Q, Walker M. New-onset hypertension in late pregnancy is associated with lower fetal and infant mortality in preterm twins. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2006;25:205-15 pubmed
    ..NOH is associated with lower risk of fetal death and infant death in preterm twins. ..
  46. Mizuno R. Increase in male fetal deaths in Japan and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;30:405-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Togal T, Yucel N, Gedik E, Gulhas N, Toprak H, Ersoy M. Obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit in a tertiary referral hospital. J Crit Care. 2010;25:628-33 pubmed publisher
  48. Kothari C, Wendt A, Liggins O, Overton J, Sweezy L. Assessing maternal risk for fetal-infant mortality: a population-based study to prioritize risk reduction in a healthy start community. Matern Child Health J. 2011;15:68-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Inadequate prenatal weight gain, obesity and anemia contribute as much to feto-infant mortality as substance abuse. Public health efforts to improve maternal nutrition and healthy weight should be redoubled. ..
  49. Imaizumi Y, Nonaka K. Trends in triplet stillbirth rates in Japan, 1975-1998. Twin Res. 2004;7:233-8 pubmed
    ..It is recommended that the optimum period to give birth for triplet pregnancies is 34-35 weeks of gestation for Japanese women. ..
  50. Arruda T, Amorim M, Souza A. [Mortality caused by congenital anomalies in Pernambuco, Brazil from 1993 to 2003]. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2008;54:122-6 pubmed
    ..0007) and infant (p = 0.02) mortality were studied but no statistical significance was detected for the fetal mortality coefficient (p= 0.55)...
  51. Bech B, Nohr E, Vaeth M, Henriksen T, Olsen J. Coffee and fetal death: a cohort study with prospective data. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;162:983-90 pubmed
    ..Consumption of coffee during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal death, especially losses occurring after 20 completed weeks of gestation...
  52. Berko P, Joubert K. [The effect of intrauterine development and nutritional status on intrauterine and neonatal mortality]. Orv Hetil. 2006;147:1369-75 pubmed
    ..The authors believe that the MDN system including the MDN table is a suitable method to differentiate the most endangered groups of neonates on the basis of their development and nutritional status. ..
  53. Higgins M, Galvin D, McAuliffe F, Coffey M, Firth R, Daly S, et al. Pregnancy in women with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in Dublin. Ir J Med Sci. 2011;180:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) were macrosomic (vs. 5.7%). There was one intrauterine death (0.1 vs. 0.6%) and no maternal deaths (vs. five). These results serve to underline the continued importance of multidisciplinary care for pregnant women with diabetes. ..