pol gene products


Summary: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.

Top Publications

  1. Leblanc P, Desset S, Dastugue B, Vaury C. Invertebrate retroviruses: ZAM a new candidate in D.melanogaster. EMBO J. 1997;16:7521-31 pubmed
    ..This high copy number is associated with a high transcriptional rate of ZAM. The existence of these two categories of strains offers a new genetic system in which the properties of a potential invertebrate retrovirus can be tested. ..
  2. Matthews P, Prendergast A, Leslie A, Crawford H, Payne R, Rousseau C, et al. Central role of reverting mutations in HLA associations with human immunodeficiency virus set point. J Virol. 2008;82:8548-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of these results is in highlighting the rationale for an HIV vaccine that can induce these broad responses. ..
  3. Nassal M. Hepatitis B viruses: reverse transcription a different way. Virus Res. 2008;134:235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These new developments are in the focus of this review...
  4. Flugel R, Pfrepper K. Proteolytic processing of foamy virus Gag and Pol proteins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2003;277:63-88 pubmed
    ..The temporal and spatial control and the factors that regulate FV PRs remain to be elucidated. ..
  5. Heinkelein M, Leurs C, Rammling M, Peters K, Hanenberg H, Rethwilm A. Pregenomic RNA is required for efficient incorporation of pol polyprotein into foamy virus capsids. J Virol. 2002;76:10069-73 pubmed
  6. Peters K, Wiktorowicz T, Heinkelein M, Rethwilm A. RNA and protein requirements for incorporation of the Pol protein into foamy virus particles. J Virol. 2005;79:7005-13 pubmed
    ..However, enzymatic activities of the protease (PR), RT, or IN are not required. Our results strengthen the view that in FVs, (pre)genomic RNA functions as a bridging molecule between Gag and Pol precursor proteins...
  7. Chin R, Locarnini S. Treatment of chronic hepatitis B: current challenges and future directions. Rev Med Virol. 2003;13:255-72 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this paper is to highlight several key factors that should be considered in the context of future clinical research and management of chronic hepatitis B. ..
  8. Heinkelein M, Dressler M, Jarmy G, Rammling M, Imrich H, Thurow J, et al. Improved primate foamy virus vectors and packaging constructs. J Virol. 2002;76:3774-83 pubmed
    ..By this strategy, efficient vector transfer was achieved with constructs that have minimal genetic overlap. ..
  9. Pope V, Fox K, Liu H, Marfin A, Leone P, Sena A, et al. Molecular subtyping of Treponema pallidum from North and South Carolina. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3743-6 pubmed
    ..Subtype 16f was found in 22% of specimens and was concentrated at one clinic. Further data are needed to define the role of this technique in examining the epidemiology of syphilis. ..

More Information


  1. Hossain M, Tomiyama H, Inagawa T, Ida S, Oka S, Takiguchi M. Identification and characterization of HLA-A*3303-restricted, HIV type 1 Pol- and Gag-derived cytotoxic T cell epitopes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003;19:503-10 pubmed
    ..Thus, the former are immunodominant epitopes whereas the latter are not. These epitopes are useful for studies of AIDS immunopathogenesis and vaccine development. ..
  2. Kim H, Hyun B, Takenaka O. Isolation and phylogeny of endogenous retrovirus HERV-F family in Old World monkeys. Brief report. Arch Virol. 2002;147:393-400 pubmed
  3. Li M, Hou W, Wo J, Liu K. Character of HBV (hepatitis B virus) polymerase gene rtM204V/I and rtL180M mutation in patients with lamivudine resistance. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2005;6:664-7 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of the anti-virus therapy by surveillance of the two sites mutations is of importance. ..
  4. Saad M, Al Jaufy A, Grahan R, Nadai Y, Earhart K, Sanchez J, et al. HIV type 1 strains common in Europe, Africa, and Asia cocirculate in Yemen. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005;21:644-8 pubmed
    ..The HIV epidemic in Yemen is extremely complex, with strains of HIV-1 that have originated in East and West Africa, Europe, and India. ..
  5. Pal R, Venzon D, Letvin N, Santra S, Montefiori D, Miller N, et al. ALVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env-based vaccination and macaque major histocompatibility complex class I (A*01) delay simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac-induced immunodeficiency. J Virol. 2002;76:292-302 pubmed
  6. Hermankova M, Ray S, Ruff C, Powell Davis M, Ingersoll R, D Aquila R, et al. HIV-1 drug resistance profiles in children and adults with viral load of <50 copies/ml receiving combination therapy. JAMA. 2001;286:196-207 pubmed
    ..Low-level viremia below 50 copies/mL may represent less of a concern regarding impending drug failure of current HAART regimens. However, the archival drug-resistant virus may be relevant regarding future treatment strategies. ..
  7. Robek M, Garcia M, Boyd B, Chisari F. Role of immunoproteasome catalytic subunits in the immune response to hepatitis B virus. J Virol. 2007;81:483-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, these studies identify a potential key role for IFN in regulating the adaptive immune response to HBV through alterations in viral antigen processing. ..
  8. Vidal N, Niyongabo T, Nduwimana J, Butel C, Ndayiragije A, Wakana J, et al. HIV type 1 diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Burundi. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:175-80 pubmed
  9. Vincenti D, Solmone M, Garbuglia A, Iacomi F, Capobianchi M. A sensitive direct sequencing assay based on nested PCR for the detection of HBV polymerase and surface glycoprotein mutations. J Virol Methods. 2009;159:53-7 pubmed publisher
  10. Yu S, Chen J, Wu M, Chen H, Kato N, Yuan Z. Hepatitis B virus polymerase inhibits RIG-I- and Toll-like receptor 3-mediated beta interferon induction in human hepatocytes through interference with interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and dampening of the interaction between TBK1/IKKepsilon. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2080-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings reveal a novel role of HBV polymerase in HBV counteraction of IFN-beta production in human hepatocytes. ..
  11. Noel R, Chaudhary S, Rodriguez N, Kumar A, Yamamura Y. Phylogenetic relationships between Puerto Rico and continental USA HIV-1 pol sequences: a shared HIV-1 infection. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2003;49:1193-8 pubmed
    ..This work indicates that an efficacious vaccine developed for use in the USA mainland will also be effective in prevention in PR and perhaps the other countries of the Caribbean region. ..
  12. Borderia A, Codoñer F, Sanjuan R. Selection promotes organ compartmentalization in HIV-1: evidence from gag and pol genes. Evolution. 2007;61:272-9 pubmed
    ..In the case of pol gene, differential penetration of antiretroviral drugs might account for the observed pattern, whereas for gag gene, local selective pressures remain unexplored. ..
  13. Kretzschmar B, Nowrouzi A, Hartl M, Gärtner K, Wiktorowicz T, Herchenröder O, et al. AZT-resistant foamy virus. Virology. 2008;370:151-7 pubmed
    ..The introduction of the mutations into the RT of the closely related prototypic FV (PFV) did not yield an AZT-resistant virus, instead they significantly impaired the viral fitness. ..
  14. Brumme Z, John M, Carlson J, Brumme C, Chan D, Brockman M, et al. HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B Gag, Pol and Nef proteins. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6687 pubmed publisher
    ..These resources should facilitate research in HIV epitope discovery and host-pathogen co-evolution, and are relevant to the continued search for an effective CTL-based AIDS vaccine. ..
  15. Belec L, Piketty C, Si Mohamed A, Goujon C, Hallouin M, Cotigny S, et al. High levels of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus variants in patients exhibiting increasing CD4+ T cell counts despite virologic failure of protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral combination therapy. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:1808-12 pubmed
    ..The clinical course of this group of patients calls into question the relevance of genotypic resistance and plasma human immunodeficiency virus RNA level as surrogate markers in patients receiving HAART. ..
  16. Rinaldo C, Huang X, Fan Z, Margolick J, Borowski L, Hoji A, et al. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD8(+) T-lymphocyte reactivity during combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency. J Virol. 2000;74:4127-38 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that new strategies will be needed to target residual, immunocompetent HIV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells to enhance the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in patients with advanced immunodeficiency. ..
  17. Santra S, Schmitz J, Kuroda M, Lifton M, Nickerson C, Lord C, et al. Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in rhesus monkeys. J Immunol. 2002;168:1847-53 pubmed
    ..The later emerging CTL response specific for the subdominant epitope may contribute to the control of viral replication in the setting of chronic infection...
  18. Wei M, Yang Y, Niu M, Desfosse L, Kennedy R, Musier Forsyth K, et al. Inability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 produced in murine cells to selectively incorporate primer formula. J Virol. 2008;82:12049-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the murine cell is able to support the select incorporation of tRNA(3Lys) into another retrovirus that uses tRNA(3Lys) as a primer, the mouse mammary tumor virus. ..
  19. Purohit P, Dupont S, Stevenson M, Green M. Sequence-specific interaction between HIV-1 matrix protein and viral genomic RNA revealed by in vitro genetic selection. RNA. 2001;7:576-84 pubmed
    ..Mutations that disrupt the interaction between MA and its RNA binding site within the HIV-1 genome resulted in a measurable decrease in viral replication. ..
  20. Sriwanthana B, Hodge T, Mastro T, Dezzutti C, Bond K, Stephens H, et al. HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, HLA-A11, and chemokine-related factors may act synergistically to determine HIV resistance in CCR5 delta32-negative female sex workers in Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2001;17:719-34 pubmed
    ..As most HEPS women had one or more of these factors, they may prevent HIV infection synergistically by blocking HIV cell entry, delaying its dissemination, or killing HIV-infected cells. ..
  21. Muller J, Eis Hubinger A, Daumer M, Kaiser R, Rox J, Gurtler L, et al. A novel internally controlled real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay for HIV-1 RNA targeting the pol integrase genomic region. J Virol Methods. 2007;142:127-35 pubmed
    ..The rate of inhibition was 0.37%. The described HIV-1 real-time RT-PCR was validated according to regulatory guidelines and is applicable to the screening of blood donors as well as the determination of HIV-1 viral load. ..
  22. Sotgiu S, Arru G, Soderstrom M, Mameli G, Serra C, Dolei A. Multiple sclerosis-associated retrovirus and optic neuritis. Mult Scler. 2006;12:357-9 pubmed
    ..3%). This intriguing finding is discussed in the light of the abundant discrepancies observed in the MSRV literature. Multiple Sclerosis 2006; 12: 357-359. www.multiplesclerosisjournal.com ..
  23. Tramuto F, Bonura F, Perna A, Mancuso S, Firenze A, Romano N, et al. Genetic diversity of HIV-1 non-B strains in Sicily: evidence of intersubtype recombinants by sequence analysis of gag, pol, and env genes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:1131-8 pubmed
    ..The current study emphasizes the genetic analysis of gag, pol, and env genes as a powerful tool to trace the spread of complex HIV-1 recombinant forms, and highlight the genetic diversity of HIV-1 non-B strains in Italy. ..
  24. Belliot G, Sosnovtsev S, Chang K, McPhie P, Green K. Nucleotidylylation of the VPg protein of a human norovirus by its proteinase-polymerase precursor protein. Virology. 2008;374:33-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, evidence was found for the presence of an RNA element near the 3'-end of the polyadenylated genome that enhanced the efficiency of nucleotidylylation in the presence of Mg2+. ..
  25. Naitow H, Canady M, Lin T, Wickner R, Johnson J. Purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray analysis of L-A: a dsRNA yeast virus. J Struct Biol. 2001;135:1-7 pubmed
    ..7 A, b = 403.3 A, c = 572.5 A, beta = 90.3 degrees with two virus particles in the unit cell. The particle orientation was determined with the rotation function and the particle center was estimated on the basis of packing considerations...
  26. Park S, Lim S, Jung G. Binding site analysis of human HBV pol for molecular chaperonin, hsp60. Virology. 2002;298:116-23 pubmed
    ..Overall, this article infers that Hsp60 activates human HBV Pol through binding at the TP and RH domains of the Pol and the Pol binding to Hsp60 does not require pregenomic RNA. ..
  27. Yadav V, Chu C. Molecular mechanisms of adefovir sensitivity and resistance in HBV polymerase mutants: a molecular dynamics study. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:4313-7 pubmed
  28. Jennes W, Kestens L, Nixon D, Shacklett B. Enhanced ELISPOT detection of antigen-specific T cell responses from cryopreserved specimens with addition of both IL-7 and IL-15--the Amplispot assay. J Immunol Methods. 2002;270:99-108 pubmed
    ..This method will be particularly useful for the assessment of antigen-stimulated cytokine production by T cells in cryopreserved biological specimens. ..
  29. Azizi A, Ghorbani M, Kryworuchko M, Aucoin S, Diaz Mitoma F. Potency of cell-mediated immune responses to different combined HIV-1 immunogens in a humanized murine model. Hum Vaccin. 2005;1:170-6 pubmed
    ..The present study reveals an optimal combination of immunogens to enhance immune responses against HIV-1. ..
  30. Lee Y, Chung Y, Kim J, Kim S, Shin J, Kim K, et al. Hepatitis B virus with the rtL80V/I mutation is associated with a poor response to adefovir dipivoxil therapy. Liver Int. 2009;29:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence that rtL80V/I variants of HBV may be associated with a poor antiviral response to ADV in CHB patients with YMDD mutants. ..
  31. Avidan O, Hizi A. Expression and characterization of the integrase of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 2008;371:309-21 pubmed publisher
  32. Nowak D, Glinka R, Pietras T, Cieslinski M, Mazerant P, Idowski P, et al. The newly synthetized pyridobenzoxazocynone inhibits HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity. Farmaco. 1997;52:751-3 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that pyridobenzoxazocynones may represent a new class of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors. ..
  33. Sayan M, Akhan S, Meric M. Naturally occurring amino-acid substitutions to nucleos(t)ide analogues in treatment naive Turkish patients with chronic hepatitis B. J Viral Hepat. 2010;17:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, every patient who is diagnosed with CHB should be monitored before the start of treatment for more effective management of patient treatment options. ..
  34. Ericsson T, Oldmixon B, Blomberg J, Rosa M, Patience C, Andersson G. Identification of novel porcine endogenous betaretrovirus sequences in miniature swine. J Virol. 2001;75:2765-70 pubmed
    ..It appears unlikely that functional loci encoding these novel PERV sequences exist, but this remains to be established. The betaretrovirus sequences described in this report will allow such investigations to be actively pursued. ..
  35. Whitney J, Luedemann C, Hraber P, Rao S, Mascola J, Nabel G, et al. T-cell vaccination reduces simian immunodeficiency virus levels in semen. J Virol. 2009;83:10840-3 pubmed publisher
    ..A vaccine that decreases the quantity of HIV-1 in the semen of males during primary infection might decrease HIV-1 transmission in human populations and therefore affect the spread of AIDS. ..
  36. Descamps D, Collin G, Letourneur F, Apetrei C, Damond F, Loussert Ajaka I, et al. Susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O isolates to antiretroviral agents: in vitro phenotypic and genotypic analyses. J Virol. 1997;71:8893-8 pubmed
    ..The study of HIV-1 group O susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs revealed that the viruses tested had specific phenotypic characteristics contrasting with the group M phenotypic expression. ..
  37. Zawahir Z, Neamati N. Inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity by synthetic peptides derived from the HIV-1 HXB2 Pol region of the viral genome. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:5199-202 pubmed
    ..These peptides, and their analogs, may potentially be used in the elucidation of structural and functional epitopes of IN involved in protein-protein and protein-small molecule interactions. ..
  38. Zhang H, Zhang W, Chen Y, Xiang G, Lei Y. [Study the mutations in polymerase gene of hepatitis B virus by three methods]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2003;11:442-3 pubmed
  39. Chong Y, Stuyver L, Otto M, Schinazi R, Chu C. Mechanism of antiviral activities of 3'-substituted L-nucleosides against 3TC-resistant HBV polymerase: a molecular modelling approach. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2003;14:309-19 pubmed
  40. Maki N, Miyazawa T, Fukasawa M, Hasegawa A, Hayami M, Miki K, et al. Molecular characterization and heterogeneity of feline immunodeficiency virus isolates. Arch Virol. 1992;123:29-45 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, tat- and rev-like short open reading frames contained inframe stop codons in the FIV Petaluma but not in the FIV TM2. ..
  41. Sluis Cremer N, Arion D, Abram M, Parniak M. Proteolytic processing of an HIV-1 pol polyprotein precursor: insights into the mechanism of reverse transcriptase p66/p51 heterodimer formation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:1836-47 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first experimental data defining the pathway for the HIV-1 PR catalyzed formation of the p66/p51 HIV-1 RT heterodimer. ..
  42. Greenwood A, Stengel A, Erfle V, Seifarth W, Leib Mösch C. The distribution of pol containing human endogenous retroviruses in non-human primates. Virology. 2005;334:203-13 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that a major invasion and expansion of pol containing HERVs occurred after the platyrrhine (NWM) lineage separated from the catarrhines (Old World Monkeys and apes). ..
  43. Chiu H, Yao S, Wang C. Coding sequences upstream of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase domain in Gag-Pol are not essential for incorporation of the Pr160(gag-pol) into virus particles. J Virol. 2002;76:3221-31 pubmed
  44. Malik T, Wolbert C, Nerret L, Sauder C, Rubin S. Single amino acid changes in the mumps virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase and polymerase proteins are associated with neuroattenuation. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1741-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides additional supporting evidence for the role of the HN protein as a virulence factor and, as far as is known, is the first report to associate an amino acid change in the L protein with mumps virus neuroattenuation. ..
  45. Yan J, Hokey D, Morrow M, Corbitt N, Harris K, Harris D, et al. Novel SIVmac DNA vaccines encoding Env, Pol and Gag consensus proteins elicit strong cellular immune responses in cynomolgus macaques. Vaccine. 2009;27:3260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that such DNA immunogens deserve further examination for their potential to control viral replication. ..
  46. Yu P, Liu J, Zhang L, Li S, Bu H, Li Y, et al. [Intergration and epression of porcine endogenous retrovinus in the immortal cell line of Banna Minipig Inberd Line-Mesenhymal Stem Cells]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;36:770-2 pubmed
    ..PERV has integrated into the genome of its natural host, and virus mRNA can effectively express. So it is very essential to evaluate the possibility of xenozoonoses in pig-to-human xenotransplantation. ..
  47. Muller B, Krausslich H. Characterization of human T-cell leukemia virus type I integrase expressed in Escherichia coli. Eur J Biochem. 1999;259:79-87 pubmed
  48. Tee K, Saw T, Pon C, Kamarulzaman A, Ng K. The evolving molecular epidemiology of HIV type 1 among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Malaysia. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005;21:1046-50 pubmed
    ..The results showed evidence of changing HIV-1 molecular epidemiology toward the predominance of CRF01_AE/B intersubtype recombinants among IDUs in Kuala Lumpur. ..
  49. Weber J, Weberova J, Carobene M, Mirza M, Martinez Picado J, Kazanjian P, et al. Use of a novel assay based on intact recombinant viruses expressing green (EGFP) or red (DsRed2) fluorescent proteins to examine the contribution of pol and env genes to overall HIV-1 replicative fitness. J Virol Methods. 2006;136:102-17 pubmed
  50. Cuestas M, Mathet V, Ruiz V, Minassian M, Rivero C, Sala A, et al. Unusual naturally occurring humoral and cellular mutated epitopes of hepatitis B virus in a chronically infected argentine patient with anti-HBs antibodies. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2191-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, some of the recorded HBsAg variants may influence the accuracy of the results obtained with currently used diagnostic tests. ..
  51. van Bömmel F, Zollner B, Sarrazin C, Spengler U, Hüppe D, Moller B, et al. Tenofovir for patients with lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and high HBV DNA level during adefovir therapy. Hepatology. 2006;44:318-25 pubmed
    ..No side effects were reported. In conclusion, these preliminary observations strongly suggest that TDF might be a highly effective rescue drug for HBV-infected patients with altered responsiveness to treatment with lamivudine and ADV. ..
  52. Klymiuk N, Muller M, Brem G, Aigner B. Phylogeny, recombination and expression of porcine endogenous retrovirus gamma2 nucleotide sequences. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:977-86 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the two published gamma2 env gene sequences observed the partial lack of the receptor-binding domain. Overall, this study indicated the low infectious potential for PERV gamma2. ..
  53. Masciotra S, Yang C, Pieniazek D, Thomas C, Owen S, McClure H, et al. Detection of simian immunodeficiency virus in diverse species and of human immunodeficiency virus Type 2 by using consensus primers within the pol region. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3167-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, the primers described here provide a method to detect primate lentiviruses from diverse species of nonhuman primates, as well as from persons infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2...